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Pretrial Release Practices in the United States, 1976-1978

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data and event/transaction data
Creator
  • Toborg, Mary A.
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1984-03-18
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
courts; criminal histories; defendants; judicial process; pretrial hearings; pretrial procedures; pretrial release
Description
  • Abstract

    Funded by the National Institute of Justice, this data collection represents Phase II of a larger project to evaluate pretrial release practices. The study focuses on four major topics: (1) release--rates and types of releases, defendant or case characteristics and their impact on the release decision, (2) court appearance --extent to which released defendants appear in court, factors associated with defendants' failure to appear in court, (3) pretrial criminality--number of rearrests during the pretrial period and the factors predicting rearrest, charges and rates of conviction for crimes committed during the pretrial period, and (4) impact of pretrial release programs--effect of programs on release decisions and on the behavior of defendants. The study is limited to adult defendants processed through state and local trial courts, and to pretrial release rather than pretrial intervention or diversion programs. Part 1 is an analysis of release practices and outcomes in eight jurisdictions (Baltimore City and Baltimore County, Maryland, Washington, DC, Dade County, Florida, Jefferson County, Kentucky, Pima County, Arizona, Santa Cruz County, California, and Santa Clara County, California). The pretrial release "delivery systems," that is, the major steps and individuals and organizations in the pretrial release process, were analyzed in each jurisdiction. Additionally, a sample of defendants from each site was studied from point of arrest to final case disposition and sentencing. Part 2 of this study examines the impact of the existence of pretrial release programs on release, court appearance, and pretrial release outcomes. An experimental design was used to compare a group of defendants who participated in a pretrial release program with a control group who did not. Experiments were conducted in Pima County (Tucson), Arizona, Baltimore City, Maryland, Lincoln, Nebraska, and Jefferson County (Beaumont-Port Arthur), Texas. In Tucson, separate experiments were conducted for felony and misdemeanor cases.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Retrospective Cities
    • DS2: Experimental Cities
Temporal Coverage
  • 1976 / 1978
    Time period: 1976--1978
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampling
Sites were chosen to reflect geographic dispersion, a wide range of release types, and broad eligibility for program participation.
Note
2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.1997-02-25 SAS and SPSS data definition statements are now available for this collection. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (79-NI-AX-0038).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7972 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR07972.v1
Publications
  • Lazar Institute. Pretrial Release: A National Evaluation of Practices and Outcomes: Introduction. NCJ 81061, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/81061NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Lazar Institute. Pretrial Release: A National Evaluation of Practices and Outcomes: Summary and Policy Analysis. NCJ 81065, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/81065NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Lazar Institute. Pretrial Release: A National Evaluation of Practices and Outcomes: Volume 1: Release Practices and Outcomes: An Analysis of Eight Sites. NCJ 81062, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/81062NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Lazar Institute. Pretrial Release: A National Evaluation of Practices and Outcomes: Volume 2: The Impact of Pretrial Release Programs: A Study of Four Jurisdictions. NCJ 81063, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/81063NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Lazar Institute. Pretrial Release: A National Evaluation of Practices and Outcomes: Volume 3: Pretrial Release Without Formal Programs. NCJ 81064, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/81064NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • O'Reilly, J.M.. Race, Crime, and Residential Mobility: A Demographic Analysis of White 'Flight' and Avoidance of Integrated Neighborhoods in Metropolitan America 1973-1977. Dissertation, Duke University. 1981.
  • Toborg, Mary A.. Pretrial Release: A National Evaluation of Practices and Outcomes. National Evaluation Program Phase II Report.NCJ 80794, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/80794NCJRS.pdf (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Toborg, Mary A. (1984): Pretrial Release Practices in the United States, 1976-1978. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07972