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Census of Population and Housing, 1980 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample (A Sample): 5-Percent Sample

Version
v2
Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data
Creator
  • United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Census of Population and Housing, 1980 [United States] Series
Publication Date
1984-06-28
Language
English
Free Keywords
census data; demographic characteristics; household composition; housing; housing conditions; housing units; population; states (USA)
Description
  • Abstract

    The Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) contain person- and household-level information from the "long-form" questionnaires distributed to a sample of the population enumerated in the 1980 Census. This data collection, containing 5-percent data, identifies every state, county groups, and most individual counties with 100,000 or more inhabitants (350 in all). In many cases, individual cities or groups of places with 100,000 or more inhabitants are also identified. Household-level variables include housing tenure, year structure was built, number and types of rooms in dwelling, plumbing facilities, heating equipment, taxes and mortgage costs, number of children, and household and family income. The person record contains demographic items such as sex, age, marital status, race, Spanish origin, income, occupation, transportation to work, and education.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Alabama
    • DS2: Alaska
    • DS4: Arizona
    • DS5: Arkansas
    • DS6: California
    • DS8: Colorado
    • DS9: Connecticut
    • DS10: Delaware
    • DS11: District of Columbia
    • DS12: Florida
    • DS13: Georgia
    • DS15: Hawaii
    • DS16: Idaho
    • DS17: Illinois
    • DS18: Indiana
    • DS19: Iowa
    • DS20: Kansas
    • DS21: Kentucky
    • DS22: Louisiana
    • DS23: Maine
    • DS24: Maryland
    • DS25: Massachusetts
    • DS26: Michigan
    • DS27: Minnesota
    • DS28: Mississippi
    • DS29: Missouri
    • DS30: Montana
    • DS31: Nebraska
    • DS32: Nevada
    • DS33: New Hampshire
    • DS34: New Jersey
    • DS35: New Mexico
    • DS36: New York
    • DS37: North Carolina
    • DS38: North Dakota
    • DS39: Ohio
    • DS40: Oklahoma
    • DS41: Oregon
    • DS42: Pennsylvania
    • DS44: Rhode Island
    • DS45: South Carolina
    • DS46: South Dakota
    • DS47: Tennessee
    • DS48: Texas
    • DS49: Utah
    • DS50: Vermont
    • DS51: Virginia
    • DS53: Washington
    • DS54: West Virginia
    • DS55: Wisconsin
    • DS56: Wyoming
    • DS72: Puerto Rico
    • DS77: County Group Equivalency File--Geographic Area Identification for Samples A and B
    • DS78: County Group Equivalency File--Print File, "A" Sample County Groups
    • DS79: County Group Equivalency File--Print File, "B" Sample County Groups
    • DS80: Data Dictionary for Parts 1-56
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1980
  • Collection date: 1980-04-01
Geographic Coverage
  • Alabama
  • Alaska
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • Montana
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York (state)
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Puerto Rico
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • United States
  • Utah
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • Washington
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin
  • Wyoming
Sampled Universe
All persons and housing units in the United States and Puerto Rico.
Sampling
For this data collection, the full 1980 Census sample that received the "long-form" questionnaire (19.4 percent of all households) was sampled again through a stratified systematic selection procedure with probability proportional to a measure of size. This 5-percent sample, i.e., 5 households for every 100 households in the nation, includes over one-fourth of the households that received the long-form questionnaire.
Collection Mode
  • The household and person records in each hierarchical data file have logical record lengths of 193 characters, but the number of records varies with each file.

    The record layout for Part 72, Puerto Rico, is different from the state datasets. Refer to the supplemental documentation for this part.

    The codebook is available in hardcopy form only, while the Puerto Rico supplemental documentation is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file.

Note
2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 81 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 80 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 81 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 80 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.1997-08-25 Part 72, Puerto Rico data, has been added to the collection, as well as supplemental documentation for Puerto Rico in the form of a separate PDF file.
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8101 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08101.v1
Publications
  • Glaeser, Edward L., Resseger, Matt, Tobio, Kristina. Inequality in cities. Journal of Regional Science.49, (4), 617-646.2009.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1467-9787.2009.00627.x (DOI)
  • Angrist, Joshua, Chin, Aimee, Godoy, Ricardo. Is Spanish-only schooling responsible for the Puerto Rican language gap?. Journal of Development Economics.85, 105-128.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2006.06.004 (DOI)
  • Cohen, Yinon, Haberfeld, Yitchak. Self-selection and earnings assimilation: Immigrants from the former soviet union in israel and the United States. Demography.44, (3), 649-668.2007.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2007.0023 (DOI)
  • Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Meghea, Cristian. The Effect of Social Security on Divorce and Remarriage Behavior. CRR WP 2004-09, Chestnut Hill, MA: Center for Retirement Research at Boston College/U. S. Social Security Administration. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.bc.edu/centers/crr/papers/wp_2004-09.pdf (URL)
  • Crocker, Keith J., Moran, John R.. Contracting with limited commitment: Evidence from employmnet-based health insurance contracts. RAND Journal of Economics.34, (4), 694-718.2003.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1593784 (URL)
  • Gould, Eric D., Weinberg, Bruce A., Mustard, David B.. Crime Rates and Local Labor Market Opportunities in the United States: 1979-1997. Review of Economics and Statistics.84, (1), 45-61.2002.
    • ID: 10.1162/003465302317331919 (DOI)
  • Rosenfeld, Michael J.. Measures of assimilation in the marriage market: Mexican Americans 1970-1990. Journal of Marriage and Family.64, (1), 152 -2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00152.x (DOI)
  • Rosenfeld, Michael J.. The Salience of Pan-National Hispanic and Asian Indentities in U.S. Marriage Markets. Demography.38, (2), 161-175.2001.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2001.0020 (DOI)
  • Funkhouser, Edward. Changes in the geographic concentration and location of residence of immigrants. International Migration Review.34, (2), 489-510.2000.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2675911 (URL)
  • Jacobsen, Joyce P., Pearce, James Wishart, III, Rosenbloom, Joshua L.. The effects of childbearing on married women's labor supply and earnings: Using twin births as a natural experiment. Journal of Human Resources.34, (3), 449-474.1999.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146376 (URL)
  • Murdock, Steve H., Shai, Nanbin, Saenz, Rogelio. The Effect of Immigration on Poverty in the Southwestern United States, 1980-1990. Social Science Quarterly.80, (2), 310-324.1999.
  • Angrist, Joshua D., Evans, William N.. Children and their parents' labor supply: Evidence from exogenous variation in family size. American Economic Review.88, (3), 450-477.1998.
  • Butcher, Kristin F., Piehl, Anne Morrison. Recent immigrants: Unexpected implications for crime and incarceration. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.51, (4), 654-679.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525013 (URL)
  • Card, David. Deregulation and labor earnings in the airline industry. Regulatory Reform and Labor Markets.Norwell: Kluwer. 1998.
  • Chay, Kenneth Y., Greenstone, Michael. Does Air Quality Matter? Evidence from the Housing Market. NBER Working Paper Series.6826, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1998.
    • ID: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w6826.pdf (URL)
  • Hu, Wei-Yin. Elderly immigrants on welfare. Journal of Human Resources.33, (3), 711-741.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146339 (URL)
  • Qian, Zhenchao. Changes in assortative mating: The impact of age and education, 1970-1990. Demography.35, (3), 279-292.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3004036 (URL)
  • Hwang, Sean-Shong, Saenz, Rogelio, Aguirre, Benigno E.. Structural and assimilationist explanations of Asian American intermarriage. Journal of Marriage and Family.59, (3), 758-772.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353959 (URL)
  • Kasarda, John D., Appold, Stephen J., Sweeny, Stuart H., Sieff, Elaine. Central-city and suburban migration patterns: Is a turnaround on the horizon?. Housing Policy Debate.8, (2), 307-358.1997.
    • ID: 10.1080/10511482.1997.9521257 (DOI)
  • Klerman, Jacob A.ex, Leibowitz, Arleen. Labor supply effects of state maternity leave legislation. Gender and Family Issues in the Workplace.New York: Russell Sage. 1997.
  • Schoeni, Robert F.. New evidence on the economic progress of foreign-born men in the 1970s and 1980s. Journal of Human Resources.32, (4), 683-740.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146426 (URL)
  • Wright, Richard A., Ellis, Mark, Reibel, Michael. The linkage between immigration and internal migration in large metropolitan areas in the United States. Economic Geography.73, (2), 234-254.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/144449 (URL)
  • Portes, Alejandro, Zhou, Min. Self-employment and the earnings of immigrants. American Sociological Review.61, (2), 219-230.1996.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096332 (URL)
  • Beggs, John J.. The institutional environment: Implications for race and gender inequality in the U.S. labor market. American Sociological Review.60, (4), 612 -1995.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2096297 (URL)
  • D'Amico, Ronald, Maxwell, Nan L.. The Continuing Significance of Race in Minority Male Joblessness. Social Forces.73, (3), 969-991.1995.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580554 (URL)
  • Light, Ivan, Rosenstein, Carolyn. Race, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship in Urban America. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 1995.
  • Waidmann, Timothy, Bound, John, Schoenbaum, Michael. The illusion of failure: Trends in self-reported health in the U.S. elderly. Milbank Quarterly.73, (2), 253-287.1995.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3350259 (URL)
  • Alba, Richard D., Logan, John R., Bellair, Paul E.. Living with Crime: The Implications of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Suburban Location. Social Forces.73, (2), 395-434.1994.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579815 (URL)
  • Butcher, Kristin F.. Black immigrants in the United States: A comparison with native blacks and other immigrants. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.47, (2), 265-284.1994.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524420 (URL)
  • Kahn, Joan R.. Immigrant and native fertility during the 1980s: Adaptation and expectations for the future. International Migration Review.28, (3), 501-519.1994.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2546818 (URL)
  • Logan, John R., Alba, Richard D., McNulty, Thomas L.. Ethnic Economies in Metropolitan Regions: Miami and Beyond. Social Forces.72, (3), 691-724.1994.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579777 (URL)
  • Trent, Katherine, Harlan, Sharon L.. Teenage Mothers in Nuclear and Extended Households: Differences by Marital Status and Race/Ethnicity. Journal of Family Issues.15, (2), 309-337.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0192513X94015002009 (DOI)
  • Anderson, Kathryn H., Burkhauser, Richard V., Raymond, Jennie E.. The effect of creaming on placement rates under the Job Training Partnership Act. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.46, (4), 613-624.1993.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524307 (URL)
  • Barry Figueroa, Janis, Melendez, Edwin. The Importance of Family Members in Determining the Labor Supply of Puerto Rican, Black, and White Single Mothers. Social Science Quarterly.74, (4), 867-883.1993.
  • Burr, Jeffrey A., Mutchler, Jan E.. Ethnic Living Arrangements: Cultural Convergence or Cultural Minifestation?. Social Forces.72, (1), 169-179.1993.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580164 (URL)
  • Burr, Jeffrey A., Mutchler, Jan E.. Nativity, acculturation, and economic status: Explanations of Asian American living arrangements in later life. Journal of Gerontology.48, (2), S55-S63.1993.
  • Duleep, Harriet Orcutt, Sanders, Seth. The decision to work by married immigrant women. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.46, (4), 677-690.1993.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524311 (URL)
  • Ellis, Mark, Barff, Richard, Renard, Beverly. Migration regions and interstate labor flows by occupation in the United States. Growth and Change.24, (2), 166 -1993.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1468-2257.1993.tb00959.x (DOI)
  • Angrist, Joshua D., Krueger, Alan B.. The effect of age at school entry on educational attainment: An application of instrumental variables with moments from two samples. Journal of the American Statistical Association.87, (418), 328-336.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2290263 (URL)
  • Card, David, Krueger, Alan B.. Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Public Schools in the United States. Journal of Political Economy.100, (1), 1-40.1992.
    • ID: 10.1086/261805 (DOI)
  • Card, David, Krueger, Alan B.. School quality and black-white relative earnings: A direct assessment. Quarterly Journal of Economics.107, (1), 151-200.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2118326 (URL)
  • Cowper, Diane C., Longino, Charles F., Jr.. Veteran Interstate Migration and VA Health Service Use. Gerontologist.32, (1), 44-50.1992.
    • ID: 10.1093/geront/32.1.44 (DOI)
  • Filer, Randall. The effect of immigrant arrivals on migratory patterns of native workers. Immigration and the Work Force: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas.Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1992.
  • Holzer, Harry J., Vroman, Wayne. Mismatches and the urban labor market. Urban Labor Markets and Job Opportunity.Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. 1992.
  • Longino, Charles F., Jr., Serow, William J.. Regional differences in the characteristics of elderly return migrants. Journal of Gerontology.47, (1), S38-S43.1992.
  • South, Scott J., Lloyd, Kim M.. Marriage Opportunities and Family Formation: Futher Implications of Imbalanced Sex Ratios. Journal of Marriage and Family.54, (2), 440-451.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/353075 (URL)
  • Tienda, Marta, Wilson, Franklin D.. Migration and the earnings of Hispanic men. American Sociological Review.57, (5), 661-678.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095919 (URL)
  • Angrist, Joshua D., Krueger, Alan B.. Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?. Quarterly Journal of Economics.106, (4), 979-1014.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2937954 (URL)
  • Borjas, George J., Trejo, Stephen J.. Immigrant Participation in the Welfare System. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.44, (2), 195-211.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524803 (URL)
  • Cooney, Teresa M., Uhlenberg, Peter. Changes in Work-Family Connections Among Highly Educated Men and Women: 1970 to 1980. Journal of Family Issues.12, (1), 69-90.1991.
    • ID: 10.1177/019251391012001006 (DOI)
  • Gross, Andrew B., Massey, Douglas S.. Spatial Assimilation Models: A Micro-Macro Comparison. Social Science Quarterly.72, (2), 347-360.1991.
  • Longino, Charles F., Smith, Kenneth J.. Black retirement migration in the United States. Journal of Gerontology.46, (3), S125-S132.1991.
  • Model, Suzanne. Caribbean immigrants: A black success story?. International Migration Review.25, (2), 248-276.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2546288 (URL)
  • Ong, Paul M.. Race and post-displacement earnings among high-tech workers. Industrial Relations.30, (3), 456-468.1991.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1468-232X.1991.tb00798.x (DOI)
  • Zhou, Min, Logan, John R.. In and Out of Chinatown: Residential Mobility and Segregation of New York City's Chinese. Social Forces.70, (2), 387-407.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2580245 (URL)
  • Barringer, Herbert R., Takeuchi, David T., Xenos, Peter. Education, occupational prestige, and income of Asian Americans. Sociology of Education.63, (1), 27-43.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2112895 (URL)
  • Biafora, Frank A., Longino, Charles F., Jr.. Elderly Hispanic migration in the United States. Journal of Gerontology.45, (5), S212-S219.1990.
  • Longino, Charles F., Jr.. Geographical mobility and family caregiving in nonmetropolitain America: Three-decade evidence from the U.S. Census. Family Relations.39, (1), 38-43.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/584946 (URL)
  • Trent, Katherine, Harlan, Sharon L.. Household Structure among Teenage Mothers in the United States. Social Science Quarterly.71, (3), 439-457.1990.
  • Tucker, M. Belinda, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia. New Trends in Black American Interracial Marriage: The Social Structural Context. Journal of Marriage and Family.52, (1), 209-218.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352851 (URL)
  • Cooney, Teresa M., Uhlenberg, Peter. Family-Building Patterns of Professional Women: A Comparison of Lawyers, Physicians, and Postsecondary Teachers. Journal of Marriage and Family.51, (3), 749-758.1989.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352173 (URL)
  • Denton, Nancy A., Massey, Douglas S.. Racial identity among Caribbean Hispanics: The effect of double minority status on residential segregation. American Sociological Review.54, (5), 790-808.1989.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2117754 (URL)
  • Heckman, James J., Payner, Brook S.. Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina. American Economic Review.79, (1), 138-177.1989.
  • Rosenwaike, Ira, Bradshaw, Benjamin S.. Morality of the Spanish Surname Population of the Southwest: 1980. Social Science Quarterly.70, (3), 631-641.1989.
  • Sorenson, Ann Marie. Husbands' and wives' characteristics and fertility decisions: A diagonal mobility model. Demography.26, (1), 125-135.1989.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061499 (URL)
  • Verdugo, Richard R., Verdugo, Naomi Turner. The impact of surplus schooling on earnings: Some additional findings. Journal of Human Resources.24, (4), 629-643.1989.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145998 (URL)
  • Wallace, Steven P.. The New Urban Latinos: Central American in a Mexican Immigrant Environment. Urban Affairs Quarterly.25, (2), 239-264.1989.
    • ID: 10.1177/004208168902500204 (DOI)
  • Baydar, Nazli, White, Michael. A method for analyzing backward recurrence time data on residential mobility. Sociological Methodology.18, 105-135.1988.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/271046 (URL)
  • Geschwender, James A., Carroll-Seguin, Rita, Brill, Howard. The Portuguese and Haoles of Hawaii: Implications for the origin of ethnicity. American Sociological Review.53, (4), 515-527.1988.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095846 (URL)
  • Holden, Karen C.. Poverty and living arrangements among older women: Are changes in economic well-being underestimated?. Journal of Gerontology.43, (1), S22-S27.1988.
  • Kahn, Joan R.. Immigrant Selectivity and Fertility Adaptation in the United States. Social Forces.67, (1), 108-128.1988.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579102 (URL)
  • Longino, Charles F., Jr.. Who Are the Oldest Americans?. Gerontologist.28, (4), 515-523.1988.
    • ID: 10.1093/geront/28.4.515 (DOI)
  • Snipp, C. Matthew, Sandefur, Gary D.. Earnings of American Indians and Alaskan Natives: The Effects of Residence and Migration. Social Forces.66, (4), 994-1008.1988.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579432 (URL)
  • Wuthnow, Robert, Nass, Clifford. Government activity and civil privatism: Evidence from voluntary church membership. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.27, (2), 157-174.1988.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1386713 (URL)
  • Bates, Timothy. Self-Employed Minorities: Traits and Trends. Social Science Quarterly.68, (3), 539-551.1987.
  • Borjas, George J.. Immigrants, Minorities, and Labor Market Competition. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.40, (3), 382-392.1987.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2523494 (URL)
  • Kraut, Robert E., Grambsch, Patricia. Home-Based White Collar Employment: Lessons from the 1980 Census. Social Forces.66, (2), 410-426.1987.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2578747 (URL)
  • Roos, Patricia A., Hennessy, Joyce F.. Assimilation or exclusion? Japanese and Mexican Americans in California. Sociological Forum.2, (2), 278-304.1987.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF01124167 (DOI)
  • Tienda, Marta, Lii, Ding-Tzann. Minority concentration and earnings inequality: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians compared. American Journal of Sociology.93, (1), 141-165.1987.
    • ID: 10.1086/228709 (DOI)
  • Alba, Richard D., Trent, Katherine. Population Loss and Change in the North: An Examination of New York's Migration to the Sunbelt. Social Science Quarterly.67, (4), 690-706.1986.
  • Frisbie, W. Parker. Variation in Patterns of Marital Instability among Hispanics. Journal of Marriage and Family.48, (1), 99-106.1986.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/352232 (URL)
  • Tienda, Marta, Ortiz, Vilma. 'Hispanicity' and the 1980 Census. Social Science Quarterly.67, (1), 3-20.1986.
  • Flynn, Cynthia B., Longino, Charles F., Jr., Wiseman, Robert F., Biggar, Jeanne C.. The redistribution of America's older population: Major national migration patterns for three census decades, 1960-1980. Gerontologist.25, (3), 292-296.1985.
    • ID: 10.1093/geront/25.3.292 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census (1984): Census of Population and Housing, 1980 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample (A Sample): 5-Percent Sample. Version 2. Census of Population and Housing, 1980 [United States] Series. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08101.v2