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Census of Population, 1940 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data
Creator
  • United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1984-11-12
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
census data; census divisions; census regions; children; demographic characteristics; ethnicity; families; household composition; housing; income; marriage; metropolitan statistical areas; military service; occupations; population; states (USA); vital statistics; work
Description
  • Abstract

    The 1940 Census Public Use Microdata Sample Project was assembled through a collaborative effort between the United States Bureau of the Census and the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin. The collection contains a stratified 1-percent sample of households, with separate records for each household, for each "sample line" respondent, and for each person in the household. These records were encoded from microfilm copies of original handwritten enumeration schedules from the 1940 Census of Population. Geographic identification of the location of the sampled households includes Census regions and divisions, states (except Alaska and Hawaii), standard metropolitan areas (SMAs), and state economic areas (SEAs). Accompanying the data collection is a codebook that includes an abstract, descriptions of sample design, processing procedures and file structure, a data dictionary (record layout), category code lists, and a glossary. Also included is a procedural history of the 1940 Census. Each of the 20 subsamples contains three record types: household, sample line, and person. Household variables describe the location and condition of the household. The sample line records contain variables describing demographic characteristics such as nativity, marital status, number of children, veteran status, wage deductions for Social Security, and occupation. Person records also contain variables describing demographic characteristics including nativity, marital status, family membership, education, employment status, income, and occupation.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Subsample 1
    • DS2: Subsample 2
    • DS3: Subsample 3
    • DS4: Subsample 4
    • DS5: Subsample 5
    • DS6: Subsample 6
    • DS7: Subsample 7
    • DS8: Subsample 8
    • DS9: Subsample 9
    • DS10: Subsample 10
    • DS11: Subsample 11
    • DS12: Subsample 12
    • DS13: Subsample 13
    • DS14: Subsample 14
    • DS15: Subsample 15
    • DS16: Subsample 16
    • DS17: Subsample 17
    • DS18: Subsample 18
    • DS19: Subsample 19
    • DS20: Subsample 20
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1940
  • 1978 / 1983
    Collection date: 1978--1983
Geographic Coverage
  • Alabama
  • Alaska
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • Montana
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York (state)
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • United States
  • Utah
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • Washington
  • West Virginia
  • Wisconsin
  • Wyoming
Sampled Universe
All people and households within the United States recorded on the 1940 Census.
Sampling
The 1940 Census had both a complete count and a sample component. Individuals selected for the sample component were asked an additional set of questions. Only households with persons who answered the additional questions were included in the public use microdata sample. The collection also contains records of group quarters members who were also on the Census sample line. The 20 subsamples were selected randomly.
Collection Mode
  • The data files are arranged by subsample, with each subsample stored as a separate physical file of information. Within each of the 20 subsamples, records are sequenced by state. Extracting all of the records for one state entails reading through all of the 20 physical files and selecting that state's records from each of the 20 subsamples.

    The collection consists of a total of 2,133,800 hierarchical records: 391,034 household records, 391,034 sample line records, and 1,351,732 person records.

Note
2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 21 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 21 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-7704135).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8236 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Publications
  • Alba, Richard, Lutz, Amy, Vesselinov, Elena. How Enduring Were the Inequalities Amont European Immigrant Groups in the United States?. Demography.38, (3), 349-356.2001.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2001.0022 (DOI)
  • Borjas, George J.. Long-Run Convergence of Ethnic Skill Differentials, Revisited. Demography.38, (3), 357-361.2001.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2001.0024 (DOI)
  • Boyd, Robert L.. Black enterprise in the retail trade during the early twentieth century. Sociological Focus.34, (3), 241-250.2001.
  • Chandra, Amitabh. Labor-market dropouts and hte racial wage gap: 1940-1990. American Economic Review.90, (2), 333-338.2000.
    • ID: 10.1257/aer.90.2.333 (DOI)
  • Durand, Jorge, Massey, Douglas S., Charvet, Fernando. The Changing Geography of Mexican Immigration to the United States: 1910-1996. Social Science Quarterly.81, (1), 1-15.2000.
  • Fairlie, Robert W., Meyer, Bruce D.. Trends in self-employment among white and black men during the twentieth century. Journal of Human Resources.35, (4), 643-669.2000.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146366 (URL)
  • Savolainen, Jukka. Relative cohort size and age-specific arrest rates: A conditional interpretation of the Easterlin effect. Criminology.38, (1), 117-136.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00885.x (DOI)
  • Fairlie, Robert W., Sundstrom, William A.. The emergence, persistence, and recent widening of the racial unemployment gap. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.52, (2), 252-270.1999.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525165 (URL)
  • Goldin, Claudia, Katz, Lawrence F.. Education and Income in the Early 20th Century: Evidence From the Prairies. NBER Working Paper Series.7217, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1999.
    • ID: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7217.pdf (URL)
  • Goldin, Claudia, Katz, Lawrence F.. The Returns to Skill in the United States Across the Twentieth Century. NBER Working Paper Series.7126, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1999.
    • ID: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w7126.pdf (URL)
  • Dublin, Thomas. Working-class families respond to industrial decline: Migration from the Pennsylvania anthracite region since 1920. International Labor and Working-Class History.54, 40-56.1998.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0147547900006207 (DOI)
  • Goldin, Claudia. America's graduation from high school: The evolution and spread of secondary schooling in the twentieth century. Journal of Economic History.58, (2), 345-374.1998.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0022050700020544 (DOI)
  • Goldin, Claudia, Katz, Lawrence F.. The origins of technology-skill complementarity. Quarterly Journal of Economics.113, (3), 693 -1998.
    • ID: 10.1162/003355398555720 (DOI)
  • Pencavel, John. Assortative mating by schooling and the work behavior of wives and husbands. American Economic Review.88, (2), 326-329.1998.
  • Ito, Rodney M., II, Gratton, Brian, Wycoff, Joseph. Using the 1940 and 1950 public use microdata samples: a cautionary tale. Historical Methods.30, (3), 137 -1997.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615449709601181 (DOI)
  • Sundstrom, William A.. Explaining the racial unemployment gap: Race, region, and the employment status of men, 1940. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.50, (3), 460-477.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525185 (URL)
  • Goldin, Claudia, Katz, Lawrence F.. Technology, Skill, and the Wage Structure: Insights from the Past (Hundredth and Eighth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association, January 5-7, 1996, San Francisco, CA). American Economic Review.86, (2), 252-257.1996.
  • Goldin, Claudia, Katz, Lawrence F.. The Origins of Technology-Skill Complementarity. NBER Working Paper Series.5657, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1996.
    • ID: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w5657.pdf (URL)
  • Tolnay, Stewart E.. Structural Change and Fertility Change in the South, 1910 to 1940. Social Science Quarterly.77, (3), 559-576.1996.
  • King, Mary C.. Human capital and black women's occupational mobility. Industrial Relations.34, (2), 282-298.1995.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1468-232X.1995.tb00373.x (DOI)
  • Magnuson, Diana L.. Who and What Determined the Content of the U.S. Population Schedule Over Time. Historical Methods.28, (1), 11-26.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955309 (DOI)
  • Magnuson, Diana L., King, Miriam L.. Comparability of the Public Use Microdata Samples: Enumeration Procedures. Historical Methods.28, (1), 27-32.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955310 (DOI)
  • Maloney, Thomas N.. Degrees of Inequality: The Advance of Black Male Workers in the Northern Meat Packing and Steel Industries Before World War II. Social Science History.19, (1), 31-62.1995.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1171229 (URL)
  • Ruggles, Steven. Family Interrelationships. Historical Methods.28, (1), 52-58.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955314 (DOI)
  • Ruggles, Steven. Sample Designs and Sampling Errors. Historical Methods.28, (1), 40-46.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955312 (DOI)
  • Ruggles, Steven, Hacker, J. David, Sobek, Matthew. General Design of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Historical Methods.28, (1), 33-39.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955311 (DOI)
  • Ruggles, Steven, Menard, Russell R.. The Minnesota Historical Census Project. Historical Methods.28, (1), 6-10.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955308 (DOI)
  • Sobek, Matthew. The Comparability of Occupations and the Generation of Income Scores. Historical Methods.28, (1), 47-51.1995.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1995.9955313 (DOI)
  • Borjas, George J.. Long-run convergence of ethnic skill differentials: The children and grandchildren of the Great Migration. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.47, (4), 553 -1994.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524658 (URL)
  • Borjas, George J.. The Economics of Immigration. Journal of Economic Literature.32(4)1667-1717, (4), 1667-1717.1994.
  • Juhn, Chinhui. Wage Inequality and Industrial Change: Evidence from Five Decades. NBER Working Paper Series.4684, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1994.
  • Card, David, Krueger, Alan B.. Trends in relative black-white earnings revisited. American Economic Review.83, (2), 85-91.1993.
  • Coleman, Mary T., Pencavel, John. Changes in Work Hours of Male Employees, 1940-1988. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.46, (2), 262-283.1993.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524872 (URL)
  • Murphy, Kevin M., Welch, Finis. Occupational Change and the Demand for Skill, 1940-1990. American Economic Review.83, (2), 122-126.1993.
  • Cunningham, James S., Zalokar, Nadja. The Economic Progress of Black Women, 1940-1980: Occupational Distribution and Relative Wages. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.45, (3), 540-555.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524277 (URL)
  • Mare, Robert D.. Five decades of educational assortative mating. American Sociological Review.56, (1), 15-32.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095670 (URL)
  • Sobek, Matthew. Class Analysis and the U.S. Census Public Use Samples. Historical Methods.24, (4), 171-181.1991.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1991.9955302 (DOI)
  • Kraly, Ellen P., Hirschman, Charles. Racial and Ethnic Inequality Among Children in the United States: 1940 and 1950. Social Forces.69, (1), 33-51.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2579606 (URL)
  • Tobey, Ronald, Wetherell, Charles, Brigham, Jay. Moving Out and Settling In: Residential Mobility, Home Owning, and the Public Enframing of Citizenship, 1921-1950. American Historical Review.95, (5), 1395-1422.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2162691 (URL)
  • Zalokar, Nadja. The Economic Status of Black Women: An Exploratory Investigation. Washington, DC: United States Commission on Civil Rights. 1990.
  • Eggebeen, David J., Uhlenberg, Peter. Changes in the Age Distribution of Parents, 1940-1980. Journal of Family Issues.10, (2), 169-188.1989.
    • ID: 10.1177/019251389010002002 (DOI)
  • Heckman, James J., Payner, Brook S.. Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina. American Economic Review.79, (1), 138-177.1989.
  • Smith, James P., Ward, Michael. Women in the labor market and in the family. Journal of Economic Perspectives.3, (1), 9-23.1989.
    • ID: 10.1257/jep.3.1.9 (DOI)
  • Steinmetz, George, Wright, Erik Olin. The Fall and Rise of the Petty Bourgeoisie: Changing Patterns of Self-Employment in the Postwar United States. American Journal of Sociology.94, (5), 973-1018.1989.
    • ID: 10.1086/229110 (DOI)
  • Fischer, Claude S., Carroll, Glenn R.. Telephone and Automobile Diffusion in the United States, 1902-1937. American Journal of Sociology.93, (5), 1153-1178.1988.
    • ID: 10.1086/228867 (DOI)
  • Gratton, Brian, Rosales, F. Arturo, DeBano, Hans. A Sample of the Mexican-American Population in 1840. Historical Methods.21, (2), 80-87.1988.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1988.9955282 (DOI)
  • Moen, Jon R.. From Gainful Employment to Labor Force: Definitions and a New Estimate of Work Rates of American Males, 1860 to 1980. Historical Methods.21, (4), 149-159.1988.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440.1988.9955290 (DOI)
  • Wilson, Franklin D.. Aspects of migration in an advanced industrial society. American Sociological Review.53, (1), 113-126.1988.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095737 (URL)
  • Penn, Roger. Where have all the craftsmen gone?: Trends in skilled labor in the United States of America since 1940. British Journal of Sociology.37, (4), 569-580.1986.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/590717 (URL)
  • Espenshade, Thomas J.. Marriage Trends in America: Estimates, Implications, and Underlying Causes. Population and Development Review.11, (2), 193-245.1985.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1973487 (URL)
  • Beckett, Joyce O.. Working Women: A Historical Review of Racial Differences. Black Sociologist.9, (1), 5-27.1982.
  • Thornton, Arland. Religion and Fertility: The Case of Mormonism. Journal of Marriage and Family.41, (1), 131-142.1979.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351738 (URL)
  • Lindert, Peter. Fertility and Scarcity in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1978.
  • Kobrin, Frances E.. The Primary Individual and the Family: Changes in Living Arrangements in the United States since 1940. Journal of Marriage and Family.38, (2), 233-239.1976.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/350383 (URL)
  • Carliner, Geoffrey. Determinants of Household Headship. Journal of Marriage and Family.37, (1), 28-38.1975.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/351028 (URL)
  • Modell, John, Hareven, Tamara K.. Urbanization and the Malleable Household: An Examination of Boarding and Lodging in American Families. Journal of Marriage and Family.35, (3), 467-479.1973.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/350582 (URL)
  • Gwartney, James. Changes in the nonwhite/white income ratio--1939-67. American Economic Review.60, (5), 872-883.1970.
  • Shryrock, Henry S., Jr., Nam, Charles B.. Educational Selectivity of Interregional Migration. Social Forces.43, (3), 299-310.1965.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2574759 (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census (1984): Census of Population, 1940 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08236.v1