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Census of State Adult Correctional Facilities, 1984

Resource Type
Dataset : census enumeration data
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
correctional facilities; correctional facilities (adults); corrections; corrections management; inmate deaths; inmate populations; inmate programs; inmates; jails; personnel; prison administration; prison conditions; prison construction; prison overcrowding; prison security; prison violence
  • Abstract

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of confinement facilities and state-operated community-based correctional facilities nationwide. Decision-makers, practitioners, and researchers may use the census to analyze the current conditions and needs of state correctional facilities for adults. Variables of interest include physical security, age of facilities, functions of facilities, programs, inmate work assignments, staff employment, facilities under court order/consent decree for conditions of confinement, capital and operating expenditures, custody level of residents/inmates, one-day and average daily population counts, race/ethnicity of inmates, inmate work assignments, inmate deaths, special inmate counts, and assaults and incidents by inmates. The institution is the unit of analysis.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1984
  • 1984-07 / 1985-01
    Collection date: 1984-07--1985-01
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All United States correctional facilities staffed and administered by state employees, primarily for state prisoners, operational on June 30, 1984, and functionally distinct in a separate physical location under the administration of their own warden, superintendent, director, or other administrator.
Collection Mode
  • Limitations on capital expenditures, race, ethnicity, and population movement exist in the data and are documented thoroughly.

2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.1997-04-22 SAS data definition statements are now available for this collection, and the SPSS data definition statements were updated. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8444 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Schlanger, Margo. How prisoners' rights lawyers are preserving the role of the courts. University of Miami Law Review.2015.
  • Schlanger, Margo. Trends in prisoner litigation, as the PLRA enters adulthood. UC Irvine Law Review.2015.
  • Phelps, Michelle S.. The place of punishment: Variation in the provision of inmate services staff across the punitive turn. Journal of Criminal Justice.40, (5), 348-357.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.06.012 (DOI)
  • Phelps, Michelle S.. Rehabilitation in the punitive era: The gap between rhetoric and reality in U.S. prison programs. Law and Society Review.45, (1), 33-68.2011.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-5893.2011.00427.x (DOI)
  • Patterson, Evelyn J.. Measurement issues in corrections: Quality and compatibility of state correctional data in the United States, 1984-2000. Corrections Compendium.35, (3), 1-13.2010.
  • Patterson, Evelyn J.D.. A Demography of Incarceration: An Analysis of Measurement and Mortality in United States' State Correctional Facilities, 1985-1998. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 2007.
  • Richards, Nicole. Detailing Changes in State Prisons, 1974-2000, and Explaining Social Unrest as a Function of Social Structure, Institutional Characteristics, and Political Context. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. 2007.
  • Noble, Rosevelt L.. Black Rage in the American Prison System. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing. 2006.
  • Useem, Bert, Piehl, Anne M.. Prison buildup and disorder. Punishment and Society.8, (1), 87-115.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/1462474506059141 (DOI)
  • Culp, Richard F.. Frequency and characteristics of prison escapes in the United States: An analysis of national data. Prison Journal.85, (3), 270-291.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/0032885505279412 (DOI)
  • Reisig, Michael D.. Administrative control and inmate homicide. Homicide Studies.6, (1), 84-103.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767902006001005 (DOI)
  • Schlanger, Margo. Beyond the hero judge: institutional reform litigation as litigation. Michigan Law Review.97, (6), 1994-2036.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Useem, Bert, Reisig, Michael D.. Collective action in prisons: Protests, disturbances, and riots. Criminology.37, (4), 735-759.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00503.x (DOI)
  • McCorkle, Richard C., Miethe, Terance D., Drass, Kriss A.. The roots of prison violence: A test of the deprivation, management, and 'not-so-total' institutional models. Crime and Delinquency.41, (3), 317-331.1995.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128795041003003 (DOI)
  • Morash, Merry, Haarr, Robin N., Rucker, Lila. A comparison of programming for women and men in U.S. prisons in the 1980s. Crime and Delinquency.40, (2), 197 -1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128794040002004 (DOI)
  • Ruback, R. Barry, Innes, Christopher A.. The relevance and irrelevance of psychological research: The example of prison crowding. American Psychologist.43, (9), 683-693.1988.
  • Stephan, James J.. 1984 Census of State Adult Correctional Facilities. NCJ 105585, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1987.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1987): Census of State Adult Correctional Facilities, 1984. Version 1. Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.