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Police Services Study, Phase II, 1977: Rochester, St. Louis, and St. Petersburg

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data, and observational data
Creator
  • Ostrom, Elinor
  • Parks, Roger B.
  • Whitaker, Gordon
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1987-01-12
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
crime; police activity; police protection; United States; Missouri; Missouri-St. Louis; victimization
Description
  • Abstract

    The data for this study were collected in order to examine the delivery of police services in selected neighborhoods. Performances of police agencies organized in different ways were compared as they delivered services to different sets of comparable neighborhoods. For Part 1, Citizen Debriefing Data, data were drawn from telephone interviews conducted with citizens who were involved in police-citizen encounters or who requested police services during the observed shifts. The file contains data on the citizens involved in observed encounters, their satisfaction with the delivered services, and neighborhood characteristics. This file includes variables such as the type of incident, estimated property loss, police response time, type of action taken by police, citizen satisfaction with the handling of the problem by police, reasons for dissatisfaction, the emotional state of the citizen during the encounter, whom the officers referred the citizen to for help, the citizen's prior contacts with police, and the citizen's education, age, sex, and total family income. Part 2, General Shift Information, contains data describing the shift (i.e., the eight-hour tour of duty to which the officers were assigned), the officers, and the events occurring during an observed shift. This file includes such variables as the total number of encounters, a breakdown of dispatched runs by type, the number of contacts with other officers, the number of contacts with non-police support units, officer discretion in taking legal action, and officer attitudes on patrol styles and activities. Part 3, Police Encounters Data, describes police encounters observed by the research team during selected shifts. It consists of information describing the officers' role in encounters with citizens observed during a shift and their demeanor toward the citizens involved. The file includes variables such as the type of encounter, how the encounter began, whether the citizens involved possessed a weapon, the encounter location, what other agencies were present during the encounter and when they arrived, police actions during the encounter, the role of citizens involved in the encounter, the demeanor of the officer toward the citizens during the encounter, actions taken by the citizens, which services were requested by the citizens, and how the observer affected the encounter. Part 4, Victimization Survey Data, examined citizen attitudes about the police and crime in their neighborhoods. The data were obtained through telephone interviews conducted by trained interviewers. These interviews followed a standard questionnaire designed by the project leaders. Variables include perceived risk of victimization, evaluations of the delivery of police services, household victimization occurring in the previous year, actions taken by citizens in response to crime, and demographic characteristics of the neighborhood.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Citizen Debriefing Data
    • DS2: General Shift Information
    • DS3: Police Encounters Data
    • DS4: Victimization Survey Data
Temporal Coverage
  • 1977-05 / 1977-08
    Time period: 1977-05--1977-08
  • 1977-05 / 1977-08
    Collection date: 1977-05--1977-08
Sampling
Parts 1-3: The sample for this research was based on results from Phase I of the Police Services Study, which indicated that most Americans received police services from large agencies. Rochester, New York, St. Louis, Missouri, and Tampa-St. Petersburg, Florida, were selected as research sites because the police agencies in these cities ranged from small to large in size. Non-probability sampling methods were then used to obtain a sample of neighborhoods thought to be consistent with Phase I results. Part 4: The sample consisted of randomly selected households in three standard metropolitan statistical areas (Rochester, New York, St. Louis, Missouri, and Tampa-St.Petersburg, Florida), which included 24 cities and small towns. Households were identified through listings in the telephone directory. A single respondent was chosen from each household to provide information on the entire household.
Collection Mode
  • (1) Column locations and widths of variables noted in the data collection coding guides within the original codebook do not describe the data in its present format. Some of the variables noted in these coding guides have also been deleted from the data. Users should refer to the ICPSR codebook or SAS or SPSS data definition statements for the current variable list and column locations. (2) The General Shift Information (Part 2) file contains a variable named TIMERUN. The values for this variable are incorrect. Analysis utilizing the variable will probably be misleading. Users of this file will note that 49 shifts are represented twice in the data. This occurred because a single observer was unable to observe a shift in its entirety, thus requiring that the shift be split between two members of the research team. The split shift was then coded as two cases in the data. (3) Value labels are not provided in the data dictionary files for the variables identifying the observed neighborhoods because these labels are unique in each jurisdiction. The variables identifying the neighborhoods contain some values that are not identified on the list of jurisdictions and neighborhoods. These values refer to combinations of neighborhoods. (4) The variable identifying the observed shift contains values that are not included in the original format of the variable. It is not known which shifts these values refer to. (5) The codebook and data collection instruments are provided by ICPSR as Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

Note
2006-03-30 File QU8605.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2006-03-30 File CB8605.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.2001-07-26 The data were reformatted to logical record length format. SAS data definition statements were added and SPSS data definition statements were updated for Parts 1-3. SAS and SPSS data definition statements were created for Part 4. ICPSR created a PDF codebook for the LRECL data and converted the original codebook and data collection instruments to PDF. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (APR74-14059 A03 and 78-NI-AX-0020). United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice.
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8605 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08605.v1
Publications
  • Worden, Robert E., McLean, Sarah J., Bonner, Heidi S.. You can observe a lot by watching: Contributions of systematic social observation to our understanding of the police. Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings, Seventh Edition.Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.. 2015.
  • Lundman, Richard J.. Are police-reported driving while Black data a valid indicator of the race and ethnicity of the traffic law violators police stop? A negative answer with minor qualifications.. Journal of Criminal Justice.38, (1), 77-87.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2009.11.010 (DOI)
  • Johnson, Richard R.. Using expectancy theory to explain officer security check activity. International Journal of Police Science and Management.11, (3), 274-284.2009.
    • ID: 10.1350/ijps.2009.11.3.129 (DOI)
  • Engel, Robin Shepard. Explaining suspects' resistance and disrespect toward police. Journal of Criminal Justice.31, (5), 475-492.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(03)00052-7 (DOI)
  • Velez, Maria B.. The role of public social control in urban neighborhoods: A multilevel analysis of victim risk. Criminology.39, (4), 837-864.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00942.x (DOI)
  • Engel, Robin Shepard, Sobol, James J., Worden, Robert E.. Further exploration of the demeanor hypothesis: The interaction effects of suspects' characteristics and demeanor on police behavior. Justice Quarterly.17, (2), 235-258.2000.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418820000096311 (DOI)
  • Holmes, Malcolm D.. Minority threat and police brutality: Determinants of civil rights criminal complaints in U.S. municipalities. Criminology.38, (2), 343-367.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00893.x (DOI)
  • Rountree, Pamela Wilcox. The generalizability of multilevel models of burglary victimization: A cross-city comparison. Social Science Research.29, 284-305.2000.
    • ID: 10.1006/ssre.2000.0670 (DOI)
  • Sung, Hung-En. The Fragmentation of Policing in America: Toward an Ecological Theory of Police-Citizen Relations. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 2000.
  • Walker, Samuel, Graham, Nanette. Citizen complaints in response to police misconduct: The results of a victimization survey. Police Quarterly.1, (1), 65-89.1998.
  • Bellair, Paul E.. Social interaction and community crime: Examining the importance of neighbor networks. Criminology.35, (4), 677-703.1997.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1997.tb01235.x (DOI)
  • DeJong, Christina. Differential indicators of defensive weapon ownership: a comparison by gender. Journal of Criminal Justice.25, (6), 517-526.1997.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(97)00036-6 (DOI)
  • Klinger, David A., Bridges, George S.. Measurement error in calls-for-service as an indicator of crime. Criminology.35, (4), 705-726.1997.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1997.tb01236.x (DOI)
  • Klinger, David A.. More on demeanor and arrest in Dade County. Criminology.34, (1), 61-79.1996.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01195.x (DOI)
  • Weitzer, Ronald. Racial discrimination in the criminal justice system: Findings and problems in the literature. Journal of Criminal Justice.24, (4), 309-322.1996.
    • ID: 10.1016/0047-2352(96)00015-3 (DOI)
  • Worden, Robert E., Shepard, Robin L.. Demeanor, crime, and police behavior: A reexamination of the Police Services Study data. Criminology.34, (1), 83-105.1996.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01196.x (DOI)
  • Worden, Alissa Pollitz. The Attitudes of Women and Men in Policing: Testing Conventional and Contemporary Wisdom. Criminology.31, (2), 203-241.1993.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01128.x (DOI)
  • Worden, Robert E.. A badge and a baccalaureate: Policies, hypotheses and further evidence. Justice Quarterly.7, (3), 565-592.1990.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829000090731 (DOI)
  • Smith, Douglas A., Jarjoura, G. Roger. Household characteristics, neighborhood composition and victimization risk. Social Forces.68, (2), 621-640.1989.
  • Smith, Douglas A., Jarjoura, G. Roger. Social structure and criminal victimization. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.25, (1), 27-52.1988.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427888025001003 (DOI)
  • McIver, John Paul. The Control of Bureaucrats in Representative Democracies: A Study of Urban Policing. Dissertation, Indiana University. 1986.
  • Smith, Douglas A.. The neighborhood context of police behavior. Communities and Crime. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1986.
  • Smith, Douglas A., Patterson, E. Britt. Latent-variable models in criminological research: Applications and a generalization of Joreskog's LISREL model. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.1, (2), 127-158.1985.
  • Smith, D.A.. The Organizational Context of Legal Control. Criminology.21, 468-481.1984.
  • Smith, D.A., Visher, C.A., Davidson, L.A.. Equity and Discretionary Justice: The Influence of Race on Police Arrest Decisions. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.75, 234-249.1984.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1143211 (URL)
  • Smith, Douglas A., Klein, Jody R.. Police Control of Interpersonal Disputes. Social Problems.31, (4), 468-481.1984.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.1984.31.4.03a00080 (DOI)
  • Ostrom, E.. A Public Choice Approach to Metropolitan Institutions: Structure, Incentives and Performance. Social Science Journal.20, (3), 79-96.1983.
  • Ostrom, E.. A Public Service Industry Approach to the Study of Local Government Structure and Performance. Policy and Politics.11, (3), 313-341.1983.
  • Visher, Christy A.. Gender, Police Arrest Decisions, and Notions of Chivalry. Criminology.21, (1), 5-28.1983.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1983.tb00248.x (DOI)
  • Oppenlander, N.. Coping or copping out: Police service delivery in domestic disputes. Criminology.20, 449-465.1982.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1982.tb00471.x (DOI)
  • Smith, Douglas A.. Invoking the Law: Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions. Dissertation, Indiana University. 1982.
  • Antunes, George, Scott, Eric J.. Calling the cops: Police telephone operators and citizen calls for service. Journal of Criminal Justice.9, (2), 165-180.1981.
    • ID: 10.1016/0047-2352(81)90020-9 (DOI)
  • Scott, Eric J.. Calls for Service: Citizen Demand and Initial Police Response. NCJ 78362, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/78362NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Scott, Eric J.. Police Referral in Metropolitan Areas, Summary Report. NCJ 77317, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/77317NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Scott, Eric J., Moore, Analee. Patterns of Police-Referral Agency Interaction. NCJ 78341, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/78341NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, D.A., Visher, C.A.. Street-Level Justice Situational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions. Social Problems.29, 167-178.1981.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.1981.29.2.03a00070 (DOI)
  • Mastrofski, S.. Policing the Beat: The Relationship Between Scale of Patrol Organization and Service-Style Policing in Urban Residential Neighborhoods. NCJ 72627, National Science Foundation. 1980.
  • McIver, J.P.. External Effects and the Organization of Policing in Metropolitan Area. Meeting of the American Society of Criminology.San Francisco, CA. 1980.
  • Scott, Eric. Determinants of municipal police expenditures: A review essay. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-14, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1980.
  • McIver, John P.. The effects of state laws on municipal police departments: Mutual assistance in metropolitan areas. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-20, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1978.
  • Ostrom, E., Parks, R., Whitaker, G.. The Police Services Study. Bloomington, IN: Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. 1977.
  • Whitaker, G.P.. Coproduction: Citizen Participation in Service Delivery. NCJ 62004, National Science Foundation. 1977.
  • Ostrom, Elinor. Police consolidation and economies-of-scale: Do they go together?. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-16, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1976.
  • Parks, Roger B.. Police patrol in metropolitan areas: Implications for restructuring the police. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-12, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1976.
  • Parks, Roger B.. Victims' satisfaction with police: The response factor. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-13, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University; Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1976.
  • Scott, E.J.. College and University Police Agencies. Technical Report 10.NCJ 34998, National Science Foundation. 1976.
  • Scott, E.J.. Determinants of Municipal Police Expenditures A Review Essay. Technical Report 14.NCJ 35166, National Science Foundation. 1976.
  • Scott, Eric. College and university police agencies. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-10, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Department of Political Science. 1976.
  • Scott, Eric. The intra-county major case investigation unit of Dane County. Police Services Study Fact Sheet.F-8, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1976.
  • Whitaker, Gordon P.. Size and effectiveness in the delivery of human services. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-17, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1976.
  • Whitaker, Gordon P., Mastrofski, Stephen D.. Equity in the delivery of police services. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-29, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. 1976.
  • Wagner, Larry. Patterns of state laws relating to 'fresh pursuit'. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-1, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Department. of Political Science. 1975.
  • Bish, Frances P.. The limits of organizational reform. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-19, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Hollis, L.E.. Do Citizen Vary in Their Confidence in Police?. NCJ 73487, National Science Foundation. .
  • Kansas City/Missouri Police Dept., Staff Research Unit. Kansas City area metro squad. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-5, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Klinger, David A.. Investigating the Scope of Measurement Error in Calls-for-Service as a Measure of Crime, Final Report. NCJ 171946, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. .
  • Kramer, Thomas, Anechiarico, Frank, Wagner, Larry. State statutory authorization of the law enforcement functions of state, county, and municipal agencies. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-6, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Kramer, Thomas, Wagner, Larry. Statutory provisions regarding entry-level training of peace officers. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-3, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Mastrofski, Stephen D.. The Tuscaloose County homicide unit. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-3, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • McIver, J.P.. Worcester County (MA) Fraudulent Check Association Community Cooperation in Law Enforcement: Police Services Study Fact Sheet. NCJ 39420, National Science Foundation. .
  • McIver, John P.. Measures of metropolitan police industry structures: Service structure matrices for the Albany/Georgia SMSA. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-15, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • McIver, John P.. The Worcester County Fraudulent Check Association: Community cooperation in law enforcement. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-9, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Miller, Gary. The Universal City joint dispatching system. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-7, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Neubert, Nancy M.. A comparison of major case squads in four metropolitan areas. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-4, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Newbert, Nancy M.. The state police of Crawford and Erie Counties. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-6, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Ostrom, E., Parks, R.B., Whitaker, G.P.. Policing Metropolitan America. NCJ 42877, National Science Foundation. .
  • Ostrom, Elinor. A historical review of entry-level training legislation. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-4, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. .
  • Ostrom, Elinor. The Topeka major case squad. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-1, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analaysis. .
  • Ostrom, Elinor, Parks, Roger B., Whitaker, Gordon P.. A public service industry approach to the study of police in metropolitan areas. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-19, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Ostrom, Elinor, Parks, Roger B., Whitaker, Gordon P., Percy, Stephen L.. Evaluating police organization. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-32, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Parks, R.B., Ostrom, E.. Local Government Service Delivery Structures: Some Effects on Public Bureau Supply. NCJ 86236, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. .
  • Scott, Eric J.. Determinants of Patrol Officer Referral Practices in Police-Citizen Encounters. NCJ 82337, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. .
  • Scott, Eric J.. Referral Agency Interview and Narrative Forms. Methods Report.NCJ 82949, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration. .
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/82949NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Wagner, Larry, Kramer, Thomas. A symposium of recruitment systems for police officers. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-2, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .
  • Whitaker, Gordon P., Ostrom, Elinor, Parks, Roger B.. Using citizen surveys to evaluate policing. Police Services Study Technical Reports.T-31, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 10 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Ostrom, Elinor; Parks, Roger B.; Whitaker, Gordon (1987): Police Services Study, Phase II, 1977: Rochester, St. Louis, and St. Petersburg. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08605