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Beliefs About Social Stratification, 1980: [United States]

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Kluegel, James R.
  • Smith, Eliot R.
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
Free Keywords
discrimination; poverty; social classes; social inequality; social stratification
  • Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to describe and test hypotheses about Americans' beliefs regarding inequality. The survey investigated beliefs about causes of wealth and poverty, opportunity, and inequality, plus perceptions of fairness and the necessity of income inequality. Included in the survey were questions on self-perceived social class (poor, working, middle, upper-middle, upper), beliefs about differences between social classes, attitudes toward different social classes, and beliefs about discrimination against Blacks, other minorities, and women. The survey also collected information on political preferences, employment, marital status, educational attainment, religion, religiosity, age, sex, income, and satisfaction with life in general.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1980
  • Collection date: 1980
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Adults in the United States ages 18 and over.
Three samples were selected: a representative sample (1,507 cases), a Black oversample (402 cases), and an affluent oversample (303 cases).
Collection Mode
  • Users should note that the documentation for this study is incomplete.

    The variable SPIND (a numeric variable) contains embedded blanks.

Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (NSF: SES 8016995,). United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH: MH32083).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8702 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • McGuire, Gail M., Reskin, Barbara F.. Authority hierarchies at work: The impacts of race and sex. Gender and Society.7, (4), 487-506.1993.
    • ID: 10.1177/089124393007004002 (DOI)
  • Kluegel, James R.. Economic problems, beliefs about the poor and attitudes toward welfare spending. Social Problems.34, (1), 82-99.1987.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.1987.34.1.03a00060 (DOI)
  • Kluegel, James R., Smith, Eliot R.. Beliefs About Inequality: Americans' Views of What is and What Ought To Be. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 1986.
  • Kluegel, James R.. 'If there isn't a problem, you don't need a solution': The bases of contemporary affirmative action attitudes. American Behavioral Scientist.28, (6), 761-784.1985.
    • ID: 10.1177/000276485028006004 (DOI)
  • Smith, Eliot R., Kluegel, James R.. Beliefs and attitudes about women's opportunity: Comparisons with beliefs about blacks and a general perspective. Social Psychology Quarterly.47, (1), 81-95.1984.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Kluegel, James R., Smith, Eliot R.. Affirmative action attitudes: Effects of self-interest, racial affect, and stratification on whites' views. Social Forces.61, (3), 797-824.1983.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Kluegel, James R., Smith, Eliot R.. Whites' beliefs about blacks' opportunity. American Sociological Review.47, (4), 518-532.1982.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Smith, Eliot R., Kluegel, James R.. Cognitive and social bases of emotional experience: Outcome, attribution, and effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.43, (6), 1129-1141.1982.
    • ID: 10.1037/0022-3514.43.6.1129 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Kluegel, James R.; Smith, Eliot R. (2001): Beliefs About Social Stratification, 1980: [United States]. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.