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Nature and Sanctioning of White Collar Crime, 1976-1978: Federal Judicial Districts

Resource Type
Dataset : event/transaction data
  • Wheeler, Stanton
  • Weisburd, David
  • Bode, Nancy
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Free Keywords
convictions (law); criminal histories; federal courts; offenders; offenses; sentencing; white collar crime
  • Abstract

    This data collection, one of only a small number available on federal white collar crimes, focuses on white collar criminals and the nature of their offenses. The data contain information on the source of conviction, offense category, number of counts in the indictment, maximum prison time and maximum fine associated with the offense, the duration and geographic spread of the offense, number of participants, number of persons arrested, number of businesses indicted, and spouse's employment. The data are limited to crimes committed solely by convicted individuals and do not include defendants that are organizations or groups. The defendant's socioeconomic status is measured using the Duncan Index. Further information provided about the defendant includes age, sex, marital status, past criminal history, neighborhood environment, education, and employment history.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1976 / 1978
    Time period: 1976--1978
  • 1979 / 1980
    Collection date: 1979--1980
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Convicted white collar criminals in federal judicial districts representing metropolitan centers, specifically, central California, northern Georgia, northern Illinois, Maryland, southern New York, northern Texas, and western Washington.
The main sampling strategy involved the selection of up to 30 individuals for each of eight offense types (bribery, bank embezzlement, mail and wire fraud, tax fraud, false claims and statements, credit and lending institution fraud, postal theft, and postal forgery) in seven federal judicial districts. Some districts had fewer than 30 individuals convicted for specific offense categories. In addition, the dataset includes all known individual co-defendants of these core sample members, all individuals convicted of securities and antitrust offenses in federal courts nationally, and a "common crime" sample. Since all offenders convicted of securities fraud and antitrust offenses in all of the federal districts during the three fiscal years were examined, the sample contains a higher proportion of these offenders than the other offenses.
Collection Mode
  • (1) The appendices mentioned in the documentation are not presently available. (2) The data in columns 452-467 and 471-483 are undocumented. (3) Users are encouraged to read additional sampling information in the codebook abstract. (4) The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

2000-12-08 These data are now available through the Restricted Access Archive. Sampling information in the codebook was revised as requested by the principal investigator, and the codebook is now available as a PDF file. In addition, the SAS data definition statements were revised and SPSS data definition statements were added to the collection. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (78-NI-AX-0017).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8989 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08989.v1
  • Langton, Lynn, Piquero, Nicole Leeper. Can general strain theory explain white-collar crime? A preliminary investigation of the relationship between strain and select white-collar offenses. Journal of Criminal Justice.35, (1), 1-15.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2006.11.011 (DOI)
  • Albonetti, Celesta A.. Direct and indirect effects of case complexity, guilty pleas and offender characteristics on sentencing for offenders convicted of a white-collar crime prior to sentencing guidelines. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.14, (4), 353-378.1998.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1023077704546 (DOI)
  • Waring, Ellen J.. Encorporating co-offending in sentencing models: An analysis of fines imposed on anti-trust offenders. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.14, (3), 383-688.1998.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1023034413709 (DOI)
  • Weisburd, David, Waring, Elin, Chayet, Ellen. Specific detterence in a sample of offenders convicted of white-collar crimes. Criminology.33, (4), 587-607.1995.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1995.tb01191.x (DOI)
  • Weisburd, David, Wheeler, S., Waring, E., Bode, N.. Crimes of the Middle Classes: White-collar Offenders in the Federal Courts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 1991.
  • Weisburd, David, Waring, Elin J., Wheeler, Stanton. Class, status, and the punishment of white-collar criminals. Law and Social Inquiry.15, (2), 223-243.1990.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1747-4469.1990.tb00587.x (DOI)
  • Wheeler, Stanton, Weisburd, David, Waring, Elin, Bode, Nancy. White collar crimes and criminals. American Criminal Law Review.25, (3), 331-357.1988.
  • Wheeler, Stanton, Weisburd, David, Waring, Elin, Bode, Nancy. White collare crimes and criminals. American Criminal Law Review.25, (3), 331-357.1988.
  • Shapiro, Susan P.. The road not taken: The elusive path to criminal prosecution for white-collar offenders. Law and Society Review.19, 179-217.1985.
  • Goldstein, Abraham S.. Defining the role of the victim in criminal prosecution. Mississippi Law Journal.52, (2), 515-561.1982.
  • Rothman, M.L.. Criminaloid Revisted. Dissertation, Yale University. 1982.
  • Rothman, Mitchell Lewis. The Criminaloid Revisited. Dissertation, Yale University. 1982.
  • Rothman, Mitchell Lewis, Gandossy, Robert P.. Sad tales: The accounts of white-collar defendants and the decision to sanction. Pacific Sociological Review.25, (4), 449-473.1982.
  • Wheeler, Stanton, Roghman, Mitchell Lewis. The organization as weapon in white-collar crime. Michigan Law Review.80, (7), 1403-1426.1982.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Wheeler, Stanton, Weisburd, David, Bode, Nancy. Sentencing the white-collar offender: Rhetoric and reality. American Sociological Review.47, (5), 641-659.1982.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Shapiro, Susan P.. Detecting Illegalities: A Perspective on the Control of Securities Violations. Dissertation, Yale University. 1980.
  • Shapiro, Susan P.. Thinking About White Collar Crime - Matters of Conceptualization and Research. Research on White Collar Crime.NCJ 71090, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1980.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Katz, Jack. Concerted ignorance: The social construction of cover-up. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography.8, (3), 295-316.1979.
    • ID: 10.1177/089124167900800303 (DOI)
  • Katz, Jack. Legality and equality: Plea bargaining in the prosecution of white-collar and common crimes. Law and Society Review.13, (2), 431-459.1979.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Wheeler, Stanton; Weisburd, David; Bode, Nancy (1989): Nature and Sanctioning of White Collar Crime, 1976-1978: Federal Judicial Districts. Version 2. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.