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War Ledger Data, 1870-1974

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • Organski, A.F.K.
  • Kugler, Jacek
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Free Keywords
arms race; armaments; armed conflict; armed forces; defense expenditures; economic conditions; Gross National Product; international affairs SUBJECT.TERM = international conflict; military affairs; nuclear war; nuclear weapons; war
  • Abstract

    This study examines the relationship between national power and war. In the first dataset, the conditions preceding the outbreak of war are examined. In particular, the links between national growth and the onset of war are addressed. The second dataset contains variables which measure national capabilities and estimate political capacities. The third dataset relates to the consequences of war in terms of national power and growth. The final two datasets concern nuclear deterrence: the fourth dataset contains crisis data to test whether deterrence works, and the last dataset contains information on U.S. and U.S.S.R. defense expenditures in order to establish if the two major nuclear powers are in a nuclear arms race.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created variable labels and/or value labels..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Causes of War
    • DS2: National Capabilities
    • DS3: GNP Index
    • DS4: Crisis Events Data
    • DS5: U.S./U.S.S.R. Arms Race
Temporal Coverage
  • 1870 / 1974
    Time period: 1870--1974
Geographic Coverage
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Part 1: International conflicts in which major powers actively participated. Part 2: All nations involved in international conflict. Part 3: Nations involved in World Wars I and II. Part 4: All crisis events from 1945-1974. Part 5: U.S. and U.S.S.R. defense spending and resources 1945-1978.
Part 1: Conflicts where major powers actively participated, or major powers made all-out effort to win conflict, or where there was a potential loss of territory or population. This includes the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5 and World Wars I and II. Part 2: All nations involved in conflict where data was available for the relevant time frame. Part 3: Nations involved in World Wars I and II. Part 4: All crisis events from 1945-1974 and the nations involved in them. Part 5: U.S. and U.S.S.R. defense spending and resources, 1945-1978.
2011-08-12 Documentation has been updated.2011-07-26 SAS, SPSS, and Stata setups have been added to this data collection.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 6 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9000 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09000.v1
  • Moul, William. Power parity, preponderance, and war between great powers, 1816-1989. Journal of Conflict Resolution.47, (4), 468-489.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002703252980 (DOI)
  • DiCicco, Jonathan M., Levy, Jack S.. Power shifts and problem shifts: The evolution of the power transition research program. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (6), 675-704.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043006001 (DOI)
  • Palmer, Glenn. Corralling the free rider: Deterrence and the Western alliance. International Studies Quarterly.34, (2), 147-164.1990.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Doran, Charles F.. Systemic Disequilibrium, Foreign Policy Role, and the Power Cycle: Challenges for Research Design. Journal of Conflict Resolution.33, (3), 371-401.1989.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002789033003001 (DOI)
  • Kim, Woosang. Power, Alliance, and Major Wars, 1816-1975. Journal of Conflict Resolution.33, (2), 255-273.1989.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002789033002004 (DOI)
  • Kugler, Jacek, Organski, A.F.K.. The power transition: A retrospective and prospective evaluation. Handbook of War Studies.Boston: Unwin Hyman. 1989.
  • Houweling, Henk W., Siccama, Jan G.. Power Transitions as a Cause of War. Journal of Conflict Resolution.32, (1), 87-102.1988.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002788032001004 (DOI)
  • Cohen, Youssef, Brown, Brian R., Organski, A.F.K.. The paradoxical nature of state making: The violent creation of order. American Political Science Review.75, (4), 901-910.1981.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Organski, A.F.K., Kugler, Jacek. The War Ledger. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 1980.
  • Organski, A.F.K., Kugler, Jacek. The costs of major wars: The Phoenix factor. American Political Science Review.71, (4), 1347-1366.1977.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Organski, A.F.K.; Kugler, Jacek (1986): War Ledger Data, 1870-1974. Version 2. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.