European Election Study 1994 (EES 1994)

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Schmitt, H., Eijk, C. van der, Scholz, E., Klein, M.
Publication Date
  • Castillo, Pilar del (CIS, Madrid) (Researcher)
  • Eijk, Cees van der (University of Amsterdam) (Researcher)
  • Franklin, Mark (University of Houston) (Researcher)
  • Katz, Richard (Johns Hopkins University) (Researcher)
  • Mannheimer, Renato (University of Milan) (Researcher)
  • Marsh, Michael (Trinity College Dublin) (Researcher)
  • Norris, Pippa (Harvard University) (Researcher)
  • Oppenhuis, Erik (University of Amsterdam) (Researcher)
  • Schmitt, Hermann (University of Mannheim) (Researcher)
  • Thomassen, Jacques (University of Twente) (Researcher)
  • Wessels, Bernard (Free University of Berlin) (Researcher)
  • Ysmal, Colette (CEVIPOF, Paris) (Researcher)
  • Marketing Unit, Bruessel (Data Collector)
  • GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen (Data Collector)
  • SAMPLE INSTITUT, Moelln (Data Collector)
  • KEME, Athen (Data Collector)
  • CIMEI, Madrid (Data Collector)
  • TMO Consultants, Paris (Data Collector)
  • Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin (Data Collector)
  • PRAGMA, Rom (Data Collector)
  • ILRES, Luxemburg (Data Collector)
  • NIPO, Amsterdam (Data Collector)
  • NORMA, Lissabon (Data Collector)
  • NOP Corporate & Financial, London (Data Collector)
  • Ulster Marketing Surveys, Nordirland (Data Collector)
  • INRA EUROPE, Bruessel (Internationale Koordination) (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Cultural and national identity
    • International politics and organisation
    • Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
    • Government, political systems and organisation
    • Elections
  • Abstract

    Questions on European politics and especially the European Election. The data set contains in a cumulated form parts of the Eurobarometers 40, 41.0, 41.1 and 42 concentrating on the European Election. Topics: At all survey times the following questions were posed: behavior at the polls in the last election; party preference; party identification; religiousness; self-assessment on a left-right continuum; satisfaction with democracy; attitude to membership of one´s country in the EU; advantageousness of membership of the country in the EU; furnishing of one´s household with durable economic goods; subjective class assessment. In at least one study the following questions were also posed: country of origin of respondent; behavior at the polls; voting intent in the European Election 1994; reasons for election participation or non-participation in the election; party preference; type of personal advertising contact in the campaign for the European Election; issue relevance and issue ability of the parties; party identification of father; union membership; postmaterialism scale; political interest; interest in European politics; frequency of political discussions; personal opinion leadership; media usage; knowledge about the European Union and its institutions; knowledge about the result of the referenda in Austria, Finland, Sweden and Norway; desired division of responsibility in selected political areas among national government or EU; national pride; self-perception as European; attitude to European unification; knowledge test about membership of selected countries in the European Union; trust in decisions of the European Union, the European Commission, the national government, the European Court of Justice, the council of ministers, the national parliament and the European Parliament; political areas to which the European Parliament and the national parliament should pay particular attention; most important problems of the EU; decision behavior with a referendum about the Treaty of Maastricht; trust in the decisions of the EU; perceived representation of interests by the European Parliament; attitude to the idea of the United States of Europe; judgement on current and future role of the European Parliament and desire for increased power for this parliament; judgement on the control function of the European Parliament over the European Commission, the council of ministers as well as over European institutions; attitude to a common European currency (ECU); trust in Italians, Germans, British, Irish, Belgians, Luxembourgers, the Dutch, Danes, French, Spanish, Greeks, Portugese, Americans, Japanese and Russians (image); judgement on the proportion of foreigners in one´s country; perceived irritation from persons of other nationality, race and religion; attitude to change of rights of foreigners; the problem of asylum; problems caused by foreigners; attitude to selected environmental protection movements and personal membership in initiatives; general contentment with life; judgement on the economic, financial and employment situation. Also encoded at every point in time were: date of interview; time of start of interview; length of interview; number of persons present during interview; willingness of respondent to cooperate; entry of respondent in the election register.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1993-10 / 1994-12
Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
Sampled Universe
Persons 15 years old and older.
Sampling Procedure Comment: Multi-stage stratified random sample
Collection Mode
  • Oral survey with standardized questionnaire
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 52634
    Number of Variables: 969
The data set presents a cumulation of parts from four Eurobarometers whose blocks of questions dealing with the European Election have been summarized in this data set. The cumulation was conducted by the European Election Study Group. The original data sets are: Eurobarometer 40, ZA Study Nos. 2459 or 2866, October bis November 1993 Eurobarometer 41, ZA Study Nos. 2490 or 2867, April bis May 1994 Eurobarometer 41.1, ZA Study Nos. 2491 or 2868, June bis July 1994 Eurobarometer 42, ZA Study Nos. 2563 or 2869, November to December 1994 The totals of respondents are distributed among the individual countries as follows: Belgium 4136 cases, Denmark 4006 cases, Federal Republic of Germany (West) 3271 cases, Federal Republic of Germany (East) 4266 cases, Greece 4016 cases, Spain 4009 cases, France 4065 cases, Ireland 4070 cases, Italy 4192 cases, Luxembourg 2129 cases, Netherlands 4067 cases, Portugal 3999 cases, Great Britain 4251 cases, Northern Ireland 1217 cases. Earlier Eurobarometers (2-42) are archived under ZA Study Nos. 0986-0995, 1036-1039, 1206-1209, 1318-1321, 1541-1544, 1712-1715, 1750-1753, 1960-1962, 2031-2033, 2081, 2141, 2241-2243, 2294-2295, 2346, 2347 as well as 2459, 2490, 2491, 2563. A cumulated data set of the Eurobarometers (1970-1992) with selected trend questions is archived under ZA Study No. 2533. A comparable summary of questions on the European Election from 1989 is archived under ZA Study No. 2320.
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA2865 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Internationale Umfrageprogramme (Type: FDZ)

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 214 | Registration Date: 2010-07-22