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Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 1987

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Version 3 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
administration; budgets; law enforcement; law enforcement agencies; management; personnel; police departments; statistical data; wages and salaries; workers
  • Abstract

    This survey, the first in the Bureau of Justice Statistics' program on Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), presents information on three types of general purpose law enforcement agencies: state police, local police, and sheriffs' departments. Data from the primary state police agency in each of 49 states (Hawaii does not have a state police agency) are also presented. Variables include size of the populations served by the typical police or sheriffs' department, levels of employment and spending, various functions of the department, average salary levels for uniformed officers, and other matters relating to management and personnel.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1987-06 / 1988-06
    Time period: 1987-06--1988-06
  • 1988-07 / 1989-03
    Collection date: 1988-07--1989-03
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All United States state law enforcement agencies and city and township law enforcement agencies.
State law enforcement agencies and city and township law enforcement agencies with 135 or more sworn employees were selected. County police, as distinguished from sheriffs' departments, were combined with municipal and township law enforcement agencies in the category of local police agencies. The remaining agencies were selected in a two-stage process. The first-stage units were counties, the same as those selected for the SURVEY OF INMATES OF LOCAL JAILS, 1983 [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 8274). For that survey, all counties in the United States were divided into five strata based on the average daily inmate population of the jails in the county. The first stratum included all counties containing jails with average daily populations of 100 inmates or more. These counties were included with certainty. The other four strata, with decreasing average jail populations, were sampled at varying intervals. A sixth stratum was added for the LEMAS survey to represent those states with combined jail/prison systems that were not included in the 1983 Survey of Local Jails. All counties in these states were included with certainty. All county-level law enforcement agencies in the counties selected for the sample were included in the survey. The second-stage units were municipal and township law enforcement agencies. A sample of these agencies was selected from within the six strata based on the number of sworn employees in the agency. In all, 3,054 law enforcement agencies were included in the sample. The final weight assigned to each case was the inverse of its probability of selection.
Collection Mode
  • The number of sheriffs' agencies in this report may not correspond exactly to the totals found in other publications. Also, the total number of agencies is the result of the weighted sample and not an exact count of all agencies nationwide.

    During the course of data collection, the sampling frame was found to be deficient in Texas because a number of constable offices had not been included. A systematic sample of one-fourth of these offices was added to the survey.

2012-08-01 Short and long form surveys have been added to the codebook.2008-12-04 The dataset was updated with the full Hermes generated product suite and the codebook has been updated.1997-05-30 Minor corrections have been made to the codebook. In addition, SAS data definition statements are now available for this collection, and the SPSS data definition statements were updated. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9222 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09222.v2
  • Anzia, Sarah F., Moe, Terry M.. Public sector unions and the costs of government. Journal of Politics.2014.
  • Matusiak, Matthew C., Campbell, Bradley A., King, William R.. The legacy of LEMAS: Effects on police scholarship of a federally administered, multi-wave establishment survey. Policing.37, (3), 630-648.2014.
  • Chalfin, Aaron, McCrary, Justin. Are U.S. cities underpoliced?: Theory and evidence. . 2013.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Chalfin, Aaron, McCrary, Justin. The Effect of Police on Crime: New Evidence from U.S. Cities, 1960-2010. NBER Working Paper Series.18815, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2013.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Garicano, Luis, Heaton, Paul. Information technology, organization, and productivity in the public sector: Evidence from police departments. Journal of Labor Economics.28, (1), 167-201.2010.
    • ID: 10.1086/649844 (DOI)
  • Langton, Lynn. Women in Law Enforcement, 1987-2008. Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief.NCJ 230521, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2010.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Nowotny, Jordan J., Jordan, Emma K., Schuck, Amie M., Rabe-Hemp, Cara E.. The Impact of Women on Police Organizations. San Francisco, CA. 2010.
  • Kaminski, Robert J., Stucky, Thomas D.. Reassessing political explanations for murders of police. Homicide Studies.13, (1), 3-20.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767908326678 (DOI)
  • Maguire, Edward R.. Police organizational structure and child sexual abuse case attrition. Policing.32, (1), 157-179.2009.
    • ID: 10.1108/13639510910937175 (DOI)
  • Watkins, Charles E., Jr.. The Information Technology Productivity Paradox in Law Enforcement: An Exploratory Study. Dissertation, George Washington University. 2005.
  • Catalano, Shannan M.. An Examination of the Convergence between Police Recording and Victim Reporting of Serious Violent Crime, 1973-2002. Dissertation, University of Missouri St. Louis. 2004.
  • Maguire, Edward R.. Multiwave establishment surveys of police organizations. Justice Research and Policy.4, 39-60.2002.
    • ID: 10.3818/JRP.4.1.2002.39 (DOI)
  • Lott, John R., Jr.. Does a helping hand put others at risk? Affirmative action, police departments, and crime. Economic Inquiry.38, (2), 239-277.2000.
    • ID: 10.1093/ei/38.2.239 (DOI)
  • Sass, Tim R., Troyer, Jennifer L.. Affirmative action, political representation, unions, and female police employment. Journal of Labor Research.20, (4), 571-587.1999.
    • ID: 10.1007/s12122-999-0022-1 (DOI)
  • Maguire, Edward R.. Structural change in large municipal police organizations during the community policing era. Justice Quarterly.14, (3), 547-576.1997.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829700093471 (DOI)
  • Kim, Pan Suk, Mengistu, Berhanu. Women and minorities in the work force of law-enforcement agencies. American Review of Public Administration.24, (2), 161 -1994.
  • (author unknown). Profile of State and Local Lw Enforcement Agencies, 1987. Bulletin.Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1989.
  • Reaves, Brian. Profile of State And Local Law Enforcement Agencies, 1987. BJS Bulletin.NCJ 113949, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1989.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Reaves, Brian A.. Police Departments in Large Cities, 1987, Special Report. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1989.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1989): Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 1987. Version 3. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) Series. Version: v3. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.