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Polity II: Political Structures and Regime Change, 1800-1986

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • Gurr, Ted Robert
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Free Keywords
military regimes; political change; political systems
  • Abstract

    Carried out under the auspices of the Data Development for International Research (DDIR) project, POLITY II was designed to develop longitudinal indicators of political structures and regime change. This file encompasses most member states of the international system from 1800 to 1986, and consists of annual codings of regimes' structural characteristics, institutional changes, and the directionality of changes on underlying dimensions of democracy, autocracy, and power concentration.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Card Image File
    • DS2: SPSSX EXPORT File
Temporal Coverage
  • 1800 / 1986
    Time period: 1800--1986
  • 1986 / 1989
    Collection date: 1986--1989
Geographic Coverage
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Annual observations from 1800 to 1986 of 20 historical countries and 132 contemporary countries encompassing virtually all independent countries with populations of one million or more in the 1980s.
Collection Mode
  • This collection succeeds an earlier study by the principal investigator and Erica Gurr titled POLITY DATA: PERSISTENCE AND CHANGE IN POLITICAL SYSTEMS, 1800-1971 (ICPSR 5010). Each case represents a country-year observation. The data contain blanks and other nonnumeric codes.

2006-01-18 File CB9263.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-8610567).
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9263 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Fujiwara, Ikuro. Challenge of Oral Democracy in Global Governance: From the Critical View on Democratization Indices. Dissertation, Ritsumeikan University. 2004.
  • Long, Stephen B.. Time present and time past: Rivalry and the duration of interstate wars, 1846-1985. International Interactions.29, (3), 215-236.2003.
    • ID: 10.1080/03050620304594 (DOI)
  • Keith, Linda Camp. Constitutional Provisions for Individual Human Rights (1977-1996): Are They More than Mere Window Dressing?. Political Research Quarterly.55, (1), 111-143.2002.
  • Mansfield, Edward D., Milner, Helen V., Rosendorff, B. Peter. Why Democracies Cooperate More: Electoral Control and International Trade Agreements. International Organization.56, (3), 477-513.2002.
    • ID: 10.1162/002081802760199863 (DOI)
  • Mansfield, Edward D., Snyder, Jack. Incomplete Democratization and the Outbreak of Military Disputes. International Studies Quarterly.46, (4), 529-549.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/1468-2478.00244 (DOI)
  • Weitsman, Patricia A., Shambaugh, George E.. International Systems, Domestic Structures, and Risk. Journal of Peace Research.39, (3), 289-312.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343302039003003 (DOI)
  • Adamson, Fiona B.. Democratization and the Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy: Turkey in the 1974 Cyprus Crisis. Political Science Quarterly.116, (2), 277-303.2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hermann, Margaret G., Kegley, Charles W., Jr.. Democracies and Intervention: Is There a Danger Zone in the Democratic Peace?. Journal of Peace Research.38, (2), 237-245.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343301038002007 (DOI)
  • Aron, Janine. Growth and institutions: A review of the evidence. World Bank Research Observer.15, (1), 99-135.2000.
    • ID: 10.1093/wbro/15.1.99 (DOI)
  • Boyle, Elizabeth Heger. Is Law the Rule? Using Political Frames to Explain Cross-National Variation in Legal Activity. Social Forces.78, (4), 1195-1226.2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Goemans, H.E.. Fighting for survival: The fate of leaders and the duration of war. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (5), 555-579.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044005001 (DOI)
  • Kubik, T. R. W.. How German Is It? Military Professionalism and the Democratic Peace. International Studies Association 41st Annual Convention.. 2000.
  • Mansfield, Edward D., Milner, Helen V., Rosendorff, B. Peter. Free to Trade: Democracies, Autocracies, and International Trade. American Political Science Review.94, (2), 305 -2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Savolainen, Jukka. Inequality, welfare state, and homicide: Further support for the institutional anomie theory. Criminology.38, (4), 1021-1042.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb01413.x (DOI)
  • Dassel, Kurt, Reinhart, Erik. Domestic Strife and the Initiation of Violence at Home and Abroad. American Journal of Political Science.43, (1), 56-85.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Frank, David John, McEneaney, Elizabeth H.. The individualization of society and the liberalization of state policies on same-sex sexual relations, 1984-1995. Social Forces.77, (3), 911-943.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Leeds, Brett Ashley. Domestic Political Institutions, Credible Commitments, and International Cooperation. American Journal of Political Science.43, (4), 979-1002.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de, Morrow, James D., Siverson, Randolph M., Smith, Alastair. Policy failure and political survival: The contribution of political institutions. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (2), 147-161.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043002002 (DOI)
  • Rodrik, Dani. Democracies pay higher wages. Quarterly Journal of Economics.114, (3), 707 -1999.
    • ID: 10.1162/003355399556115 (DOI)
  • Senese, Paul D.. Democracy and Maturity: Deciphering Conditional Effects on Levels of Dispute Intensity. International Studies Quarterly.43, (3), 483-502.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00131 (DOI)
  • Bollen, Kenneth A., Paxton, Pamela. Detection and determinants of bias in subjective measures. American Sociological Review.63, (3), 465-478.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Levy, Jack S.. The Causes of War and The Conditions of Peace. Annual Review of Political Science.106, 139-165.1998.
    • ID: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.1.1.139 (DOI)
  • McLaughlin, Sara, Gates, Scott, Hegre, Havard, Gissinger, Ranveig, Gleditsch, Nils Petter. Timing the Changes in Political Structures: A New Polity Database. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (2), 231-242.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042002006 (DOI)
  • Remmer, Karen L.. Does Democracy Promote Interstate Cooperation? Lessons from the Mercosur Region. International Studies Quarterly.42, (1), 25-52.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00068 (DOI)
  • Timmer, Ashley S., Williamson, Jeffrey G.. Immigration policy prior to the 1930s: labor markets, policy interactions, and globalization backlash. Population and Development Review.24, (4), 739 -1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Davis, David R., Moore, Will H.. Ethnicity Matters: Transnational Ethnic Alliances and Foreign Policy Behavior. International Studies Quarterly.41, (1), 171-184.1997.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00037 (DOI)
  • Farber, Henry S., Gowa, Joanne. Common interests or common politics? Reinerpreting the democratic peace. Journal of Politics.59, (2), 393-417.1997.
  • Gelpi, Christopher. Democratic diversions: governmental structure and the externalization of domestic conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution.41, (2), 255-282.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002797041002003 (DOI)
  • Gleditsch, Kristian S., Ward, Michael D.. Double take: a reexamination of democracy and autocracy in modern polities. Journal of Conflict Resolution.41, (3), 361-383.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002797041003002 (DOI)
  • Gurr, Ted Robert, Moore, Will H.. Ethnopolitical rebellion: A cross-sectional analysis of the 1980s with risk assessments for the 1990s. American Journal of Political Science.41, (4), 1079-1103.1997.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Knack, Stephen, Keefer, Philip. Does inequality harm growth only in democracies? A replication and extension. American Journal of Political Science.41, (1), 323-332.1997.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Knack, Stephen, Keefer, Philip. Does social capital have an economic payoff? A cross-country investigation. Quarterly Journal of Economics.112, (4), 1251-1288.1997.
    • ID: 10.1162/003355300555475 (DOI)
  • Leblang, David A.. Political Democracy and Economic Growth: Pooled Cross-Sectional and Time-Series Evidence. British Journal of Political Science.27, (3), 453-472.1997.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0007123497210215 (DOI)
  • Maoz, Zeev. The controversy over the democratic peace: Rearguard action or cracks in the wall?. International Security.22, (1), 162-198.1997.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Masfield, Edward D., Snyder, Jack. Reply to Thompson and Tucker. Journal of Conflict Resolution.41, (3), 457 -1997.
  • Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de, Siverson, Randolph M.. Nasty or Nice? Political Systems, Endogenous Norms, and the Treatment of Adversaries. Journal of Conflict Resolution.41, (1), 175-199.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002797041001008 (DOI)
  • Messner, Steven F., Rosenfeld, Richard. Political restraint of the market and levels of criminal homicide: A cross-national application of institutional-anomie theory. Social Forces.75, (4), 1393-1416.1997.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Partell, Peter J.. Executive constraints and success in international crises. Political Research Quarterly.50, (3), 503-528.1997.
  • Ramirez, Francisco O., McEneaney, Elizabeth H.. From women's suffrage to reproduction rights? Cross-national considerations. International Journal of Comparative Sociology.38, (1-2), 6 -1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/002071529703800102 (DOI)
  • Senese, Paul D.. Between dispute and war: The effect of joint democracy on interstate conflict escalation. Journal of Politics.59, (1), 1-27.1997.
  • Thompson, William R., Tucker, Richard. A tale of two democratic peace critiques. Journal of Conflict Resolution.41, (3), 428-454.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002797041003005 (DOI)
  • Werner, Suzanne, Lemke, Douglas. Opposites Do Not Attract: The Impact of Domestic Institutions, Power, and Prior Commitments on Alignment Choices. International Studies Quarterly.41, (3), 529-546.1997.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00055 (DOI)
  • Barbieri, Katherine. Economic Interdependence: A Path to Peace or a Source of International Conflict?. Journal of Peace Research.33, (1), 29-49.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343396033001003 (DOI)
  • Bennett, D. Scott, Stam, Allan C., III. The duration of interstate wars, 1816-1985. American Political Science Review.90, (2), 239 -1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Benoit, Kenneth. Democracies Really Are More Pacific (in General): Reexamining Regime Type and War Involvement. Journal of Conflict Resolution.40, (4), 636-657.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002796040004006 (DOI)
  • Bowman, Kirk S.. Taming the Tiger: Militarization and Democracy in Latin America. Journal of Peace Research.33, (3), 289-308.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343396033003004 (DOI)
  • Davenport, Christian. The Weight of the Past: Exploring Lagged Determinants of Political Repression. Political Research Quarterly.49, (2), 377-403.1996.
  • Feng, Yi. Democracy and growth: The sub-Saharan African case, 1960-1992. Review of Black Political Economy.25, (1), 95-126.1996.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02690054 (DOI)
  • Haxton, Michael Lee. Domestic institutions, peace and war: Investigating the causes and contents of the democratic peace. Dissertation, University of Maryland College Park. 1996.
  • Kegley, Charles W., Hermann, Margaret R.. How Democracies Use Intervention: A Neglected Dimension in Studies of the Democratic Peace. Journal of Peace Research.33, (3), 309-322.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343396033003005 (DOI)
  • Londreagan, John Benedict, Poole, Keith T.. Does high income promote democracy?. World Politics.49, (1), 1-30.1996.
    • ID: 10.1353/wp.1996.0024 (DOI)
  • Meernik, James. United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy. Journal of Peace Research.33, (4), 391-402.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343396033004002 (DOI)
  • Oneal, John R., Oneal, Frances H., Maoz, Zeev, Russett, Bruce M.. The Liberal Peace: Interdependence, Democracy, and International Conflict, 1950-1985. Journal of Peace Research.33, (1), 11-28.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343396033001002 (DOI)
  • Timmer, Ashley S., Williamson, Jeffrey G.. Racism, Xenophobia, or Markets? The Political Economy of Immigration Policy Prior to the Thirties. NBER Working Paper Series.5867, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Craddock, Alden Wendell. The Heavy Hand of Hegemony: Hegemonic Governance Through the Use of Force. Dissertation, Ohio State University. 1995.
  • Feng, Yi. Regime, polity, and economic growth: The Latin American experience. Growth and Change.26, (1), 77 -1995.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1468-2257.1995.tb00162.x (DOI)
  • Frank, David John, Meyer, John W., Miyahara, David. The individualist polity and the prevalence of professionalized psychology: A cross-national study. American Sociological Review.60, (3), 360 -1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Gasiorowski, Mark J.. Economic crisis and political regime change: An event history analysis. American Political Science Review.89, (4), 882 -1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hermann, Margaret G., Kegley, Charles W., Jr.. Rethinking democracy and international peace: Perspectives from political psychology. International Studies Quarterly.39, (4), 511-533.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Mansfield, Edward D., Snyder, Jack. Democratization and the danger of war. International Security.20, (1), 5-38.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Mesquita, Bruce Bueno de, Siverson, Randolph M.. War and the survival of political leaders: A comparative study of regime types and political accountability. American Political Science Review.89, (4), 841 -1995.
  • Miller, Ross A.. Domestic Structures and the Diversionary Use of Force. American Journal of Political Science.39, (3), 760-785.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Pastor, Manuel, Jr., Sung, Jae Ho. Private investment and democracy in the developing world. Journal of Economic Issues.29, (1), 223 -1995.
  • Rummel, Rudolph J.. Democracy, Power, Genocide, and Mass Murder. Journal of Conflict Resolution.39, (1), 3-26.1995.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002795039001001 (DOI)
  • Oneal, John R.. The Affinity of Foreign Investors for Authoritarian Regimes. Political Research Quarterly.47, (3), 565-588.1994.
  • Raymond, Gregory A.. Democracies, Disputes, and Third-Party Intermediaries. Journal of Conflict Resolution.38, (1), 24-42.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002794038001002 (DOI)
  • Rummel, Rudolph J.. Power, Genocide, and Mass Murder. Journal of Peace Research.31, (1), 1-10.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343394031001001 (DOI)
  • Siverson, Randolph M., Starr, Harvey. Regime Change and the Restructuring of Alliances. American Journal of Political Science.38, (1), 145-161.1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Dixon, William J.. Democracy and the Management of International Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution.37, (1), 42-68.1993.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002793037001002 (DOI)
  • Dixon, William J., Moon, Bruce E.. Political Similarity and American Foreign Trade Matters. Political Research Quarterly.46, (1), 5-25.1993.
  • Francisco, Ronald A.. Theories of Protest and the Revolutions of 1989. American Journal of Political Science.37, (3), 663-680.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Maoz, Zeev, Russett, Bruce M.. Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace, 1946-1986. American Political Science Review.87, (3), 624-638.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Lake, David A.. Powerful pacifists: Democratic states and war. American Political Science Review.86, (1), 24-37.1992.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Maoz, Zeev, Russett, Bruce. Alliance, contiguity, wealth, and political stability: Is the lack of conflict among democracies a statistical artifact?. International Interactions.17, (3), 245-267.1992.
    • ID: 10.1080/03050629208434782 (DOI)
  • Morgan, T. Clifton, Campbell, Sally Howard. Domestic Structure, Decisional Constraints, and War: Why Kant Democracies Fight?. Journal of Conflict Resolution.35, (2), 187-211.1991.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002791035002003 (DOI)
  • Siverson, Randolph M., Emmons, Juliann. Birds of a Feather: Democratic Political Systems and Alliance Choices in the Twentieth Century. Journal of Conflict Resolution.35, (2), 285-306.1991.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002791035002007 (DOI)
  • Gurr, Ted Robert, Jaggers, Keith, Moore, Will H.. The transformation of the Western state: The growth of democracy, autocracy, and state power since 1800. Studies in Comparative International Development.25, (1), 73-108.1990.
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    • ID: 10.1177/0022002789033001001 (DOI)
  • Harmel, Robert. Environment and party decentralization: A cross-national analysis. Comparative Political Studies.14, (1), 75-99.1981.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Gurr, Ted Robert (1990): Polity II: Political Structures and Regime Change, 1800-1986. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.