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Southern Agricultural Households in the United States, 1880

Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data
  • Sutch, Richard
  • Ransom, Roger
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
  • University of California-Berkeley. Institute of Business and Economic Research
  • University of California-Berkeley. Center for Research in Management Science
Free Keywords
agriculture; American Civil War; census data; crops; farming; household composition; households; livestock; national economy; nineteenth century; race; Southern United States; wages and salaries
  • Abstract

    This data collection describes the organization of agriculture and the operation of the Southern economy following the Civil War, with emphasis on the relationship between race and tenure status of farm operators. Economic and agricultural data were compiled from the 1880 Census of Agriculture. Information provided includes the location of the farm (region, state, county, and enumeration district), tenure of the farm operator, number of acres in tillage, meadows, woodland, and other uses, type of crops being farmed and production figures, and the number of various livestock (horses, mules, oxen, cows, sheep, and swine). Additionally, data are presented on the value of the farm, farm implements, livestock, and farm products, and costs associated with fences, fertilizer, and wages. Demographic information drawn from the 1880 Census of Population includes the race, literacy, age, and birthplace of the farm operator, number of people living in the house, and number of people working on the farm.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1879 / 1880
    Time period: 1879--1880
  • Collection date: 1969
Geographic Coverage
  • Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • United States
  • Virginia
Sampled Universe
All farms reported by the 1880 Agriculture Census in the 11 Confederate states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. The western area of Texas and southern area of Florida were excluded due to lack of settlement in 1880.
The South was divided into economic regions that were relatively homogeneous, and one or more representative counties were selected from each region. This group of farms was then sampled at a minimum rate of 10 percent, blocks of five farms each being selected with a skip interval of 45 farms.
2007-09-19 SAS, SPSS, and Stata setup files have been added to this data collection. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (NSF 2668). University of California-Berkeley. Institute of Business and Economic Research. University of California-Berkeley. Center for Research in Management Science.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9430 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09430.v1
  • Moen, Jon R.. Changes in the productivity in Southern agriculture between 1860 and 1880. Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery -- Technical Papers: Markets and Production.New York: W.W. Norton. 1992.
  • Ransom, Roger, Sutch, Richard. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1977.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Sutch, Richard; Ransom, Roger (1991): Southern Agricultural Households in the United States, 1880. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.