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American National Election Study, 1990: Senate Election Study

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data, survey data
  • Miller, Warren E.
  • Kinder, Donald R.
  • Rosenstone, Steven J.
  • National Election Studies
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • American National Election Study (ANES) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Free Keywords
campaign issues; candidates; congressional elections; congressional elections (US Senate); domestic policy; economic conditions; foreign policy; government performance; national elections; political affiliation; political attitudes; political campaigns; political efficacy; political issues; political participation; presidential elections; public approval; public opinion; trust in government; voter expectations; voter history; voting behavior
  • Abstract

    This data collection, focusing on the 1990 Senate elections, is part of a planned three-part series (1988, 1990, 1992) of Senate studies. Over the course of the three elections, voters in each of the 50 states will be interviewed, and data will be gathered on citizen evaluations of all senators at each stage of their six-year election cycles. In this collection, as in the 1988 Senate Study, contextual data for all 50 states have been merged with the survey data. The survey data facilitate the comparison of House of Representatives and Senate races through the use of questions that generally parallel those questions used in election studies since 1978 concerning respondents' interaction with and evaluation of candidates for the House of Representatives. The 50-state survey design also allows for the comparison of respondents' perceptions and evaluations of senators who are up for re-election with those in the second or fourth years of their terms. Topics covered include respondent's recall and like/dislike of House and Senate candidates, issues discussed in the campaigns, contact with House and Senate candidates/incumbents, respondent's opinion of the proper roles for senators and representatives, a limited set of issue questions, liberal/conservative self-placement, party identification, media exposure, and demographic information. Contextual data presented include election returns for the Senate primary and general elections, voting indices for the years 1983-1990, information about the Senate campaign such as election outcome predictions, campaign pollster used, spending patterns, and demographic, geographic, and economic data for the state. Derived measures also are included that reorganize the House of Representatives and Senate variables by party of candidate and incumbency/challenger status of candidate, and, for Senate variables only, by proximity to next election, along with a number of analytic variables intended to make analyses more convenient (e.g., Senate class number and whether the respondent voted for the incumbent).
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Merged Survey and Contextual Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1990
  • 1990-11-07 / 1990-12-20
    Collection date: 1990-11-07--1990-12-20
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 6, 1990, residing in households with telephones in the 50 states.
Dual-frame design telephone sample with approximately half of the sample selected from a frame of listed telephone numbers and half generated using a two-stage random digit dialing procedure.
Collection Mode
  • telephone interview

    The 1990 contextual data were taken in large part from the 1988 contextual data, which were originally collected for the Board of Overseers by the Contextual Data Committee, chaired by Gary Jacobson and Raymond Wolfinger. Many variables have been updated for the 1990 study (e.g., election returns, age of candidates, campaign spending, and economic variables), and certain variables for which information could not be found or was not available at the time of release (e.g., 1990 AFL-CIO ratings and campaign manager) have been padded with missing data. Data from the 1988 study have been revised and made available as part of the AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: POOLED SENATE ELECTION STUDY, 1988-1990 (ICPSR 9580).

Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-9009379).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9549 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09549.v1
  • Gronke, Paul. The Electorate, the Campaign, and the Office: A Unified Approach to Senate and House Elections. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 2000.
  • Cannon, Carl M.. A Pox on Both Our Parties. National Journal.1999.
  • Carsey, Thomas M., Wright, Gerald C.. State and national factors in gubernatorial and senatorial elections. American Journal of Political Science.42, (3), 994-1002.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Carsey, Thomas M., Wright, Gerald C.. State and national factors in gubernatorial and senatorial elections: A rejoinder. American Journal of Political Science.42, (3), 1008-1011.1998.
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  • Strand, Douglas Alan. Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, and Stigma: Voter Attitudes and Behavior in the Politics of Homosexuality. Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice against Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals.Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. 1997.
  • Atkeson, Lonna Rae, Partin, Randall W.. Economic referendum voting: A comparison of gubernatorial and senatorial elections. American Political Science Review.89, (1), 99-107.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Lau, Richard R., Pomper, Gerald M., Mazeika, Erlinda. The Effects of Negative Campaigning. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1995.
  • O'Connor, Robert E., Berkman, Michael P.. Religious Determinants of State Abortion Policy. Social Science Quarterly.76, (2), 447-459.1995.
  • Partin, Randall W.. Economic Conditions and Gubernatorial Elections: Is the State Executive Held Accountable?. American Politics Quarterly.23, (1), 81-95.1995.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X9502300104 (DOI)
  • Ragsdale, Lyn, Rusk, Jerrold G.. Candidates, issues, and participation in Senate Elections. Legislative Studies Quarterly.20, (3), 305-327.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Soss, Joe, Canon, David T.. Partisan Discussions and Voting Decisions: U.S. Senators, Governors and the Rise of Divided Federal Government. Political Research Quarterly.48, 253-274.1995.
  • Soss, Joe, Canon, David T.. Partisan Divisions and Voting Decisions: U.S. Senators, Governors, and the Rise of a Divided Federal Government. Political Research Quarterly.48, (2), 253-274.1995.
  • Ahuja, Sunil. Electoral Status and Representation in the United States Senate: Does Temporal Proximity to Election Matter?. American Politics Quarterly.22, (1), 104-118.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X9402200107 (DOI)
  • Norrander, Barbara. Public Opinion and Public Policy: The Case of Capital Punishment. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1994.
  • Radcliff, Benjamin Franklin. Reward Without Punishment: Economic Conditions and the Vote. Political Research Quarterly.47, (3), 721-731.1994.
  • Squire, Peverill, Fastnow, Christina. Comparing Gubernatorial and Senatorial Elections. Political Research Quarterly.47, (3), 705-720.1994.
  • Yonish, Steven J.. The Search for State Stimulus in Midterm Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1994.
  • Jacobson, Gary C.. Deficit-cutting politics and congressional elections. Political Science Quarterly.108, (3), 375-402.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Ragsdale, Lyn, Rush, Jerome G.. Who Are Nonvoters? Profiles from the 1990 Senate Elections. American Journal of Political Science.37, (3), 721-746.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Wetstein, Matthew E.. Abortion Rates in the American States: The Impacts of Opinion and Policy on Abortion Utilization. Dissertation, Northern Illinois University. 1993.
  • Franklin, Charles H.. Candidate Strategy and Voter Response in the 1990 Senate Elections. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 1991.
  • Zaller, John. Information and Incumbency Advantage in Senate Elections. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 1991.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Miller, Warren E.; Kinder, Donald R.; Rosenstone, Steven J.; National Election Studies (1992): American National Election Study, 1990: Senate Election Study. Archival Version. American National Election Study (ANES) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.