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Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) [1988 Panel]

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Series
Publication Date
Free Keywords
census data; child care; child health; child support; demographic characteristics; economic conditions; energy assistance; families; financial assets; financial support; government programs; health insurance; health services utilization; households; income; income distribution; investments; labor force; participation; poverty programs; public assistance programs; school attendance; unearned income; wages and salaries; wealth; welfare services; working hours
  • Abstract

    This data collection is part of a longitudinal survey designed to provide detailed information on the economic situation of households and persons in the United States. These data examine the distribution of income, wealth, and poverty in American society and gauge the effects of federal and state programs on the well-being of families and individuals. There are three basic elements contained in the survey. The first is a control card that records basic social and demographic characteristics for each person in a household, as well as changes in such characteristics over the course of the interviewing period. The second element is the core portion of the questionnaire, with questions repeated at each interview on labor force activity, types and amounts of income, participation in various cash and noncash benefit programs, attendance in postsecondary schools, private health insurance coverage, public or subsidized rental housing, low-income energy assistance, and school breakfast and lunch participation. The third element consists of topical modules, which are a series of supplemental questions asked during selected household visits. A topical module was not created for the first wave of the 1988 panel. The Wave II Topical Module (Part 3) concerns fertility history. Women were asked the number of children they had and the number they expected to have in the future. They were also asked about their employment status prior to and after their first pregnancies. The Wave III (Part 5) and Wave VI Topical Modules (Part 11) include data on work schedules, child care, child support agreements, support for nonhousehold members, long-term care, disability status of children, and health status and utilization of health care services. The Topical Module for Wave IV (Part 7) contains questions on assets and liabilities, such as savings accounts, stocks, IRA accounts, loans, and credit cards. The Wave V Topical Module (Part 9) covers educational financing and enrollment for persons over the age of 15. Part 15, the Full Panel Research Data File, has not been edited nor imputed although it has been topcoded or bottomcoded and recoded if necessary by the Census Bureau, to avoid disclosure of individual respondents.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Wave I Rectangular Data
    • DS2: Data Dictionary for Wave I Rectangular File
    • DS3: Wave II Rectangular Core and Topical Module Data
    • DS4: Data Dictionary for Wave II Rectangular Core and Topical Module File
    • DS5: Wave III Rectangular Core and Topical Module Data
    • DS6: Data Dictionary for Wave III Rectangular Core and Topical Module File
    • DS7: Wave IV Rectangular Core and Topical Module Data
    • DS8: Data Dictionary for Wave IV Rectangular Core and Topical Module File
    • DS9: Wave V Rectangular Core and Topical Module Data
    • DS10: Data Dictionary for Wave V Rectangular Core and Topical Module File
    • DS11: Wave VI Rectangular Core and Topical Module Data
    • DS12: Data Dictionary for Wave VI Rectangular Core and Topical Module File
    • DS13: User Notes
    • DS14: User Guide
    • DS15: Full Panel Research Data File
Temporal Coverage
  • 1987-10 / 1989-12
    Time period: 1987-10--1989-12
  • 1988-02 / 1990-01
    Collection date: 1988-02--1990-01
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Resident population of the United States, excluding persons living in institutions and military barracks.
A multistage stratified sampling design was used. The 1988 Panel consisted of approximately 17,500 households. One-fourth of these households were interviewed each month, and households were reinterviewed at four-month intervals. All persons at least 15 years old who were present as household members at the time of the first interview were included for the entire study, except those who joined the military, were institutionalized for the entire study period, or moved from the United States. Original household members who moved during the study period were followed to their new residences and interviewed there. New persons moving into households of members of the original sample also were included in the survey, but were not followed if they left the household of an original sample person.
Collection Mode
  • The codebooks are provided by ICPSR as Portable Document Format (PDF) files and the data dictionaries are provided as ASCII text files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

2002-11-08 Part 15, Full Panel Research Data File, has been added to the collection along with a corresponding PDF codebook. The research file has not been edited nor imputed although it has been topcoded or bottomcoded and recoded if necessary by the Census Bureau, to avoid disclosure of individual respondents. Codebooks for other data files in the collection have been converted to PDF as well.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9568 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09568.v1
  • Washington, Ebonya. The impact of banking and fringe banking regulation on the number of unbanked Americans. Journal of Human Resources.41, (1), 106-137.2006.
  • Almond, Douglas, Mazumder, Bhashkar. 1918 influenza pandemic and subsequent health outcomes: An analysis of SIPP data. American Economic Review.95 , (2), 258-262.2005.
    • ID: 10.1257/000282805774669943 (DOI)
  • Gottschalk, Peter. Downward nominal-wage flexibility: Real or measurement error?. Review of Economics and Statistics.87, (3), 556-568.2005.
    • ID: 10.1162/0034653054638328 (DOI)
  • Ham, John C., Shore-Sheppard, Lara. The effect of Medicaid expansions for low-income children on Medicaid participation and private insurance coverage: Evidence from the SIPP. Journal of Public Economics.89, (1), 57-83.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.011 (DOI)
  • McKernan, Signe-Mary, Ratcliffe, Caroline. Events that trigger poverty entries and exits. Social Science Quarterly.86, (Supp.), 1146-1169.2005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00340.x (DOI)
  • Grogger, Jeffrey. Welfare transitions in the 1990s: The economy, Welfare policy, and the EITC. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.23, (4), 671-695.2004.
    • ID: 10.1002/pam.20042 (DOI)
  • DeLeire, Thomas. Changes in wage discrimination against people with disabilities: 1984-93. Journal of Human Resources.36, (1), 144-158.2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Gruber, Jonathan. The wealth of the unemployed. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.55, (1), 79-94.2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Anonymous. Pricis: Unemployment and wealth. Monthly Labor Review.123, (2), 47 -2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bartfeld, Judi. Child support and the postdivorce economic well-being of mothers, fathers, and children. Demography.37, (2), 203-213.2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Cullen, Julie Berry, Gruber, Jonathan. Does unemployment insurance crowd out spousal labor supply?. Journal of Labor Economics.18, (3), 546 -2000.
    • ID: 10.1086/209969 (DOI)
  • (author unknown). Working Poor Families with Children: A Statistical Portrait. Child Trends Research Brief.Washington, DC: Child Trends. 1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Barrow, Lisa. An analysis of women's return-to-work decisions following first birth. Economic Inquiry.37, (3), 432-451.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.1999.tb01441.x (DOI)
  • Bianchi, Suzanne M., Subaiya, Lekha, Kahn, Joan R.. The gender gap in the economic well-being of nonresident fathers and custodial mothers. Demography.36, (2), 195-203.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Biblarz, Timothy J., Raftery, Adrian E.. Family structure, educational attainment, and socioeconomic success: Rethinking the 'pathology of matriarchy'. American Journal of Sociology.105, (2), 321-365.1999.
    • ID: 10.1086/210314 (DOI)
  • Freedman, Vicki A., Martin, Linda G.. The role of education in explaining and forecasting trends in functional limitations among older Americans. Demography.36, (4), 461-473.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Wertheimer, Richard F.. Working Poor Families with Children, Summary Report [and] Children in Working Poor Families. Final Report to the Foundation for Child Development.Washington, DC: Foundation for Child Development. 1999.
  • Bansak, Cynthia, Raphael, Steven. Have Employment Relationships in the United States Become Less Stable? Working Paper. 98/15, San Diego, CA: University of California, San Diego, Department of Economics. 1998.
  • Berger, Mark C., Black, Dan A., Scott, Frank A.. How well do we measure employer-provided health insurance coverage. Contemporary Economic Policy.16, (3), 356-367.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7287.1998.tb00525.x (DOI)
  • Casper, Lynne M., O'Connell, Martin. Work, income, the economy, and married fathers as childcare providers. Demography.35, (2), 243-250.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hauser, Robert M.. Intergenerational Economic Mobility in the United States: Measures, Differentials, and Trends. CDE Working Paper 98-12.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hauser, Robert M., Kuo, Hsiang-Hui Daphne. Does the gender composition of sibships affect women's educational attainment?. Journal of Human Resources.33, (3), 644-657.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Warren, John Robert, Sheridan, Jennifer T., Hauser, Robert M.. Choosing a measure of occupational standing: How useful are composite measures in analysis of gender inequality in occupational attainment?. Sociological Methods and Research.27, (1), 3-76.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0049124198027001001 (DOI)
  • Brandon, P.D.. Social policy and the redistribution of preschool-aged children. Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.Washington, DC. 1997.
  • DeBell, Megan, Yi, Hsiao-Ye, Hartmann, Heidi. Single Mothers, Jobs and Welfare: What the Data Tell Us. Research in Brief.Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research. 1997.
  • Ettner, Susan L.. Medicaid participation among the eligible elderly. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.16, (2), 237-255.1997.
    • ID: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6688(199721)16:2<237::AID-PAM3>3.0.CO;2-J (DOI)
  • Hauser, Robert M., Kuo, Hsiang-Hui Daphne. Does the Gender Composition of Sibships Affect Educational Attainment?. CDE Working Paper 95-06.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1997.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Iams, Howard M., Sandell, Steven H.. Projecting Social Security earnings: Past is prologue. Social Security Bulletin.60, (2), 3-16.1997.
  • Jacobsen, Joyce P., Levin, Laurence M.. Marriage and migration: Comparing gains and losses from migration for couples and singles. Social Science Quarterly.78, (3), 688-709.1997.
  • Martini, Alberto. Why SIPP and CPS produce different poverty measures among the elderly. Social Security Bulletin.60, (4), 50-55.1997.
  • Martini, Alberto, Dowhan, Daniel. Documenting and Explaining SIPP-CPS Differences in Poverty Measures Among the Elderly. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. 1997.
  • Mitra, Monika. Employment and Occupational Choice of People with Disabilities in the United States. Dissertation, Boston University. 1997.
  • Brandon, Peter D.. Modeling Living Arrangements and Welfare Participation Choices among Single Mothers. CDE Working Paper 95-27.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Carter, Wendy Y.. The Effects of Changing Family Structures on Higher Education for Black and White American Cohorts: 1908-1969. CDE Working Paper 96-22.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Casper, Lynne M.. Who's Minding Our Preschoolers?. Current Population Reports.Washington, DC: United States Bureau of the Census. 1996.
  • Hauser, Robert M., Warren, John Robert, Huang, Min-Hsing, Carter, Wendy Y.. Occupational Status, Education, and Social Mobility in the Meritocracy. CDE Working Paper 96-18.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Land, Kenneth C., Russell, Stephen T.. Wealth accumulation across the adult life course: Stability and change in sociodemographic covariate structures of net worth data in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1984-1991. Social Science Research.25, (4), 423-462.1996.
    • ID: 10.1006/ssre.1996.0019 (DOI)
  • Marquis, M. Susan, Long, Stephen H.. Reconsidering the effect of Medicaid on health care services use. Health Services Research.30, (6), 791-808.1996.
  • Spain, Daphne, Bianchi, Suzanne M.. Balancing Act: Motherhood, Marriage, and Employment Among American Women. New York: Russell Sage. 1996.
  • Warren, John Robert, Sheridan, Jennifer, Hauser, Robert M.. Choosing a Measure of Occupational Standing: How Useful are Composite Measures in Analyses of Gender Inequality in Occupational Attainment?. CDE Working Paper 96-10.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Brandon, Peter D.. An Empirical Analysis of AFDC Exits, Employment, and State-Level Minimum Wages. CDE Working Paper 95-24.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Ettner, Susan L.. The impact of 'parent care' on female labor supply decisions. Demography.32, (1), 63-80.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Petersen, Carol Dawn. Female-headed families on AFDC: Who leaves welfare quickly and who doesn't. Journal of Economic Issues.29, (2), 619-628.1995.
  • Dortch, Shannon. The gold in Grandma's house. American Demographics.16, (4), 9 -1994.
  • Karoly, Lynn A., Rogowski, Jeannette A.. The effect of access to post-retirement health insurance on the decision to retire early. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.48, (103), 123 -1994.
  • Long, Stephen H., Marquis, M. Susan. The uninsured 'access gap' and the cost of universal coverage. Health Affairs.13, (2), 211 -1994.
    • ID: 10.1377/hlthaff.13.2.211 (DOI)
  • Spalter-Roth, Roberta M., Hartmann, Heidi I.. The Clinton Round: An Analysis of the Impact of Current Proposals to 'Free' Single Mothers from Welfare Dependence. American Sociological Association. 1994.
  • Madrian, Brigitte. Post-Retirement Health Insurance and the Decision to Retire. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Unpublished paper. 1993.
  • (author unknown). Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Fall 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-70.30, Washington, DC: United States Bureau of the Census. 1992.
  • Connelly, Rachel. The future of SIPP for analyzing child care and child support. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement.18, (1-4), 213-230.1992.
  • O'Connell, Martin, Bachu, Amara. Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Fall 1988. Current Population Reports. Series P-70, Household Economic Studies.30, Washington, DC: United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1992.
  • Trippe, Carole, Doyle, Pat, Asher, Andrew. Trends in Food Stamp Program Participation Rates: 1976-1990. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Food, and Nutrition Service. 1992.
  • Fronczek, P.J., Savage, H.A.. Who can afford to buy a house?. Current Housing Reports.H121/91-1, United States Bureau of the Census. 1991.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census (1993): Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) [1988 Panel]. Archival Version. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.