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American National Election Study: Pooled Senate Election Study, 1988, 1990, 1992

Version
v3
Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data, survey data
Creator
  • Miller, Warren E. (National Election Studies)
  • Kinder, Donald R. (National Election Studies)
  • Rosenstone, Steven J. (National Election Studies)
  • University of Michigan. Center for Political Studies
Other Title
  • Version 3 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • American National Election Study (ANES) Series
Publication Date
1991-10-23
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
campaign issues; candidates; congressional elections; domestic policy; economic conditions; foreign policy; government performance; legislators; media coverage; national elections; political affiliation; political attitudes; political campaigns; political efficacy; political issues; political participation; presidential elections; public approval; public opinion; public policy; senatorial elections; social networks; social values; trust in government; United States Senate; voter expectations; voter history; voting behavior
Description
  • Abstract

    This data collection, focusing on Senate elections, combines data from a three-part series (1988, 1990, 1992) of Senate studies. Over the course of these three elections voters in each of the 50 states were interviewed, and data were gathered on citizen evaluations of all senators at three stages of their six-year election cycles. Both survey data and contextual data for all 50 states are included. The survey data facilitate the comparison of House of Representatives and Senate races through the use of questions that generally parallel those questions used in election studies since 1978 concerning respondents' interaction with and evaluation of candidates for the House of Representatives. However, because of redistricting in the early 1990s, the congressional districts for the 1992 respondents could not be pre-identified. The survey instrument was, therefore, redesigned to some degree, cutting some of the House-related content for the 1992 survey. The 50-state survey design also allows for the comparison of respondents' perceptions and evaluation of senators who were up for re-election with those in the second or fourth years of their terms. Topics covered include respondent's recall and like/dislike of House and Senate candidates, issues discussed in the campaigns, contact with House and Senate candidates/incumbents, respondent's opinion of the proper roles for senators and representatives, a limited set of issue questions, liberal/conservative self-placement, party identification, media exposure, and demographic information. Contextual data presented include election returns for the Senate primary and general elections, voting indices for the years 1983-1992, information about the Senate campaign such as election outcome predictions, campaign pollster used, and spending patterns, and demographic, geographic, and economic data for the state. Also included are derived measures that reorganize the House of Representatives and Senate variables by the party and incumbency/challenger status of the candidate and, for Senate variables only, by proximity to next election. Additionally, a number of analytic variables intended to make analyses more convenient (e.g., Senate class number and whether the respondent voted for the incumbent) are presented.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1988
  • Time period: 1990
  • Time period: 1992
  • 1988-11-14 / 1988-12-20
    Collection date: 1988-11-14--1988-12-20
  • 1990-11-07 / 1990-12-22
    Collection date: 1990-11-07--1990-12-22
  • 1992-11-04 / 1992-12-08
    Collection date: 1992-11-04--1992-12-08
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 8, 1988, November 6, 1990, or November 3, 1992, residing in households with telephones in the 50 states.
Sampling
Two-stage random sample, stratified by state (1988), dual-frame (list and two-stage random-digit dialing) within each state (1990), and one-stage, list-assisted random-digit dialing with no clustering (1992).
Collection Mode
  • telephone interview

    The contextual data originally were collected for the Board of Overseers of the National Election Studies by the Contextual Data Committee, chaired by Gary Jacobson and Raymond Wolfinger. Many variables have been updated for the 1990 and 1992 contextual data sections (e.g., election returns, age of candidates, campaign spending, and some state political, demographic, geographic, and economic variables), while certain variables, for which information could not be found or was not available at the time of release, have been padded with missing data (e.g., some mass-mailing variables, campaign manager, and voting indices).

Note
2005-03-07 The codebook has been updated by adding master codes previously missing from the codebook appendix.2003-07-30 The data are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Version and dataset variables were also added to the data file. The codebook has been revised accordingly, and is now available in machine-readable ASCII format. In addition, SAS and SPSS data definition statements are now available for this collection. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-8341310, SES-9009379, and SES-9209410).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9580 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09580.v2
Publications
  • Bengtson, Teri J.. Judicial policy making: The environmental protection agency's enforcement of the resource, conservation, and recovery act. Politics and Policy.37, (3), 545-578.2009.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1747-1346.2009.00185.x (DOI)
  • Pacheco, Julianna Sandell. Measuring State Public Opinion across Time: A Comparison of Three Approaches. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Aldrich, John, Merolla, Jennifer, Kramer, Claire. The Political Consequences of Economic Globalization: Public Opinion and Senate Roll Call Voting on Trade and Social Welfare Liberalization. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Gershtenson, Joseph, Plane, Dennis. Assessing Alternative Conceptions of Ideological Responsiveness and Representation in the U.S. Congress. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Levendusky, Matthew, Pope, Jeremy. Unifying Micro- and Macro-Perspectives on State Partisanship and Ideology. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Jackson, Robert A., Sides, John M.. Revisiting the Influence of Campaign Tone on Turnout in Senate Elections. Political Analysis.14, (2), 206-218.2006.
    • ID: 10.1093/pan/mpj003 (DOI)
  • Nicholson, Stephen P.. Voting the Agenda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2005.
  • Adams, James, Bishin, Benjamin G., Dow, Jay K.. Representation in Congressional Campaigns: Evidence for Discounting/Directional Voting in U.S. Senate Elections. Journal of Politics.66, (2), 3482004.
  • Adams, James, Merrill, Samuel, III. Candidate Equilibrium and the Behavioral Model of Voter Choice and Turnout: Theoretical Results and Empirical Tests. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Aldrich, John, Kramer, Claire, Merolla, Jennifer. Tough Choices: The Influence of Electoral Context and Constituencies on Senators' Trade Votes. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Ansolabehere, Stephen D., Snowberg, Erik, Snyder, James. Television and the Incumbency Advantage in US Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Fridkin, Kim Leslie, Kenney, Patrick J.. Do Negative Messages Work? The Impact of Negativity on Citizens' Evaluations of Candidates . American Politics Research.35, (5), 570-605.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X03260834 (DOI)
  • Gershtenson, Joseph. Ideological Centrism and the Electoral Fortunes of U.S. Senate Candidates. Social Science Quarterly.85, (2), 497-508.2004.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0038-4941.2004.08502016.x (DOI)
  • Gershtenson, Joseph, Plane, Dennis. Ideology and Representation in the U.S. Senate: Roll Calls v. Constituent Assessments. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Herrera, Richard, Shafer, Karen. The Influence of Party in the U.S. Senate. annual meeting of the American Political Science Assocation.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Hug, Simon. Occurrence and Policy Consequences of Referendums: A Theoretical Model and Empirical Evidence. Journal of Theoretical Politics.16, (3), 321-356.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/0951629804043205 (DOI)
  • Moon, Woojin. Party Activists, Campaign Resources and Candidate Position Taking: Theory, Tests and Applications. British Journal of Political Science.34, (4), 611-633.2004.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0007123404000213 (DOI)
  • Hurley, Patricia A., Hill, Kim Quaile. Beyond the Demand-Input Model: A Theory of Representational Linkages. Journal of Politics.65, (2), 304-326.2003.
  • Jones, David R.. Position Taking and Position Avoidance in the U.S. Senate. Journal of Politics.65, (3), 851-863.2003.
  • Kropf, Martha E., Boiney, John A.. The Electoral Glass Ceiling? Gender, Viability, and the News in U.S. Senate Campaigns. Women and Congress: Running, Winning, and Ruling.New York, NY: Haworth Press. 2003.
  • Barrilleaux, Charles J., Holbrook, Thomas M., Langer, Laura. Electoral Competition, Legislative Balance, and American State Welfare Policy. American Journal of Political Science.46, (2), 415-427.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088385 (URL)
  • Kaufmann, Karen M.. Culture wars, secular realignment, and the gender gap in party identification. Political Behavior.24, (3), 283-307.2002.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1021824624892 (DOI)
  • Lau, Richard R., Pomper, Gerald M.. Effectiveness of negative campaigning in U.S. Senate elections. American Journal of Political Science.46, (1), 47-66.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088414 (URL)
  • Berinsky, Adam J., Burns, Nancy, Traugott, Michael W.. Who votes by mail?. Public Opinion Quarterly.65, (2), 178-197.2001.
    • ID: 10.1086/322196 (DOI)
  • Carsey, Thomas M., Jackson, Robert A.. Misreport of vote choice in U.S. Senate and Gubernatorial elections. State Politics and Policy Quarterly.1, (2), 196-209.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/153244000100100205 (DOI)
  • Kropf, Martha E., Boiney, John A.. The electoral glass ceiling? Gender, viability, and the news in US Senate campaigns. Women and Politics.23, (1-2), 79-103.2001.
    • ID: 10.1300/J014v23n01_06 (DOI)
  • Norrander, Barbara. Measuring state public opinion with the Senate National Election Study. State Politics and Policy Quarterly.1, (1), 111-125.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/153244000100100107 (DOI)
  • Partin, Randall W.. Campaign intensity and voter information: A look at gubernatorial contests. American Politics Research.29, (2), 115-140.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X01029002001 (DOI)
  • Smith, Eric R.A.N.. The electoral fortunes of women candidates for Congress. Political Research Quarterly.54, (1), 205-221.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0161-7230(01)19003-6 (DOI)
  • Sulkin, Tracy. Explaining campaign intensity. American Politics Research.29, (6), 608-624.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X01029006004 (DOI)
  • Bishin, Benjamin G.. Constituency Influence in Congress: Does Subconstituency Matter?. Legislative Studies Quarterly.25, (3), 389-417.2000.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/440413 (URL)
  • Born, Richard. Policy-balancing models and the split-ticket voter, 1972-1996 . American Politics Quarterly.28, (2), 131-162.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X00028002001 (DOI)
  • Burden, Barry C., Greene, Steven. Party attachments and state election laws. Political Research Quarterly.53, (1), 63-76.2000.
  • Burden, Barry C., Greene, Steven. Party attachments and state election laws . Political Research Quarterly.53, (1), 63-76.2000.
  • Dennis, Christopher, Bishin, Benjamin, Nicolaou, Politimy. Constituent diversity and congress: the case of NAFTA. Journal of Socio-Economics.29, (4), 349 -2000.
    • ID: 10.1016/S1053-5357(00)00078-0 (DOI)
  • Gronke, Paul. The Electorate, the Campaign, and the Office: A Unified Approach to Senate and House Elections. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 2000.
  • Koch, Jeffrey W.. Do citizens apply gender stereotypes to infer candidates' ideological orientations?. Journal of Politics.62, (2), 414-429.2000.
  • Norrander, Barbara. The multi-layered impact of public opinion on capital punishment implementation in the American states. Political Research Quarterly.53, (4), 771-793.2000.
  • Sinclair, Barbara. The spectacle of U.S. Senate campaigns. Political Science Quarterly.115, (1), 135-136.2000.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2658045 (URL)
  • Brehm, John. Alternative Corrections for Sample Truncation: Applications to the 1988, 1990, and 1992 Senate Election Studies. Political Analysis.8, (2), 183-199.1999.
    • ID: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.pan.a029812 (DOI)
  • Grofman, Bernard N., Merrill, Samuel, III, Brunell, Thomas, Koetzle, William. The potential electoral disadvantage of a catch-all party: Ideological variance among Republicans and Democrats in the 50 U.S. states. Party Politics.5, (2), 199-210.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/1354068899005002004 (DOI)
  • Haider-Markel, Donald P.. Morality policy and individual-level political behavior: The case of legislative voting on lesbian and gay issues . Policy Studies Journal.27, (4), 735-749.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.1999.tb02000.x (DOI)
  • Haider-Markel, Donald P.. Redistributing values in Congress: Interest group influence under sub-optimal conditions. Political Research Quarterly.52, (1), 113-144.1999.
  • Jackson, Robert A., Carsey, Thomas M.. Misreport of Vote Choice. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Atlanta, GA. 1999.
  • Kahn, Kim Fridkin, Kenney, Patrick J.. Do negative campaigns mobilize or suppress turnout? Clarifying the relationship between negativity and participation . American Political Science Review.93, (4), 877-889.1999.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586118 (URL)
  • Kahn, Kim Fridkin, Kenney, Patrick J.. The Spectacle or U.S. Senate Campaigns. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1999.
  • Koch, Jeffrey W.. Candidate Gender and Assessments of Senate Candidates. Social Science Quarterly.80, (1), 84-96.1999.
  • Norrander, Barbara, Wilcox, Clyde. Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy. Policy Studies Journal.27, (4), 707-722.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.1999.tb01998.x (DOI)
  • Altman-Palm, Nancy, Tremblay, Carol Horton. The Effects of Parental Involvement Laws and the AIDS Epidemic on the Pregnancy and Abortion Rates of Minors. Social Science Quarterly.79, (4), 846-862.1998.
  • Atkeson, Lonna Rae, Partin, Randall W.. Economic and Referendum Voting and the Problem of Data Choice: A Reply. American Journal of Political Science.42, (3), 1003-1007.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991739 (URL)
  • Bowler, Shaun, Donovan, Todd, Tolbert, Caroline J.. Citizens as Legislators: Direct Democracy in the US. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press. 1998.
  • Burden, Barry C., Kimball, David C.. A new approach to the study of ticket splitting. American Political Science Review.92, (3), 533-544.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2585479 (URL)
  • Chaney, Carole Kennedy. Vote Choice in senate elections: The impact of campaigns and candidate gender, 1988-1992 (television). Dissertation, University of California, Riverside. 1998.
  • Dalager, Jon K.. Congressional Campaign Issues and Voter Concerns: Do Candidates Address the Issues That Matter?. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1998.
  • Nicholson, Stephen P.. Rethinking Voting Behavior: Agenda, Priming, and Spillover Effects in United States Elections. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 1998.
  • O'Brien, Robert M.. Correcting measures of relationship between aggregate-level variables for both unreliability and correlated errors: An empirical example. Social Science Research.27, (2), 218-234.1998.
    • ID: 10.1006/ssre.1998.0619 (DOI)
  • Sellers, Patrick J.. Strategy and background in congressional campaigns. American Political Science Review.92, (1), 159-171.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2585935 (URL)
  • Adams, Greg D., Squire, Peverill. Incumbent vulnerability and challenger emergence in Senate electins. Political Behavior.19, (2), 97-111.1997.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1024853907894 (DOI)
  • Born, Richard. Causal linkages between constituents' evaluations of their federal legislators. American Politics Quarterly.25, (2), 179-202.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X9702500203 (DOI)
  • Frymer, Paul, Kim, Thomas M., Bimes, Terri L.. Party elites, ideological voters, and divided party government. Legislative Studies Quarterly.22, (2), 195-216.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/440382 (URL)
  • Hill, Kim Quaile, Hanna, Stephen, Shafqat, Sahar. The liberal-conservative ideology of U.S. Senators: A new measure. American Journal of Political Science.41, (4), 1395-1413.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2960495 (URL)
  • Kahn, Kim Fridkin, Kenney, Patrick J.. A model of candidate evaluations in Senate elections: The impact of campaign intensity. Journal of Politics.59, (4), 1173-1205.1997.
  • Sellers, Patrick J.. Fiscal consistency and federal district spending in congressional elections. American Journal of Political Science.41, (3), 1024-1041.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2111685 (URL)
  • Strand, Douglas Alan. Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, and Stigma: Voter Attitudes and Behavior in the Politics of Homosexuality. Stigma and Sexual Orientation: Understanding Prejudice against Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals.Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. 1997.
  • Wolpert, Robin M., Gimpel, James G.. Information, recall, and accountability: The electorate's response to the Clarence Thomas nomination. Legislative Studies Quarterly.22, (4), 535-550.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/440342 (URL)
  • Dalager, Jon K.. Voters, Issues, and Elections: Are the Candidates' Messages Getting Through?. Journal of Politics.58, (2), 486-515.1996.
  • Dalager, Jon K.. Voters, issues, and elections: Are the candidates' messages getting through?. Journal of Politics.58, (2), 486-515.1996.
  • Gerber, Elisabeth R.. Legislative response to the threat of popular initiatives. American Journal of Political Science.40, (1), 99-128.1996.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2111696 (URL)
  • Jones, Bradford S., Norrander, Barbara. The reliability of aggregated public opinion measures. American Journal of Political Science.40, (1), 295-309.1996.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2111703 (URL)
  • Oppenheimer, Bruce I.. The representational experience: The effect of state population on senator-constituency linkages. American Journal of Political Science.40, (4), 1280-1299.1996.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2111751 (URL)
  • Parker, Glenn R., Barrilleaux, Charles J.. The Electoral Connection: Images of US Senators and Representatives. Broken Contract? Changing Relationships Between Americans and their Government.Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1996.
  • Wright, Gerald C.. NES and the Forgetful Respondent: Assessing Some Aspects of Response Quality. NES Research and Development Conference on Congressional Elections.Chicago, IL. 1996.
  • Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., Franklin, Charles H.. The Long Campaign: Senate Elections in 1992. Democracy's Feast: Elections in America.Chatham, NJ: Chatham House. 1995.
  • Highton, Benjamin. The Causes and Consequences of Candidate Familiarity in Senate Elections. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1995.
  • Highton, Benjamin. The Causes of Candidate Familiarity in Senate Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1995.
  • Koch, Jeffrey W.. Electoral Competitiveness and the Voting Decision: Evidence From the Pooled Senate Election Study. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.Tampa, FL. 1995.
  • Lau, Richard R., Pomper, Gerald M., Mazeika, Erlinda. The Effects of Negative Campaigning. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1995.
  • O'Connor, Robert E., Berkman, Michael P.. Religious Determinants of State Abortion Policy. Social Science Quarterly.76, (2), 447-459.1995.
  • Shields, Todd G., Goidel, Robert K., Tadlock, Barry. The net impact of media exposure on individual voting decision in U.S. Senate and House elections. Legislative Studies Quarterly.20, (3), 415-430.1995.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/440229 (URL)
  • Adams, Greg D.. Incumbent Vulnerability and Challenger Emergence in the 1992 Senate Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1994.
  • Ahuja, Sunil. Electoral Status and Representation in the United States Senate: Does Temporal Proximity to Election Matter?. American Politics Quarterly.22, (1), 104-118.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X9402200107 (DOI)
  • Babbitt, Paul R., Lau, Richard R.. The Impact of Negative Political Campaigns on Political Knowledge. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.Atlanta, GA. 1994.
  • Cook, Elizabeth Adell. Voter Responses to Women Sensitive Candidates. The Year of the Woman: Myths and Realities.Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1994.
  • Gronke, Paul W.. A Pooled Approach to the Study of Senate and House Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1994.
  • Jacobson, Gary C., Rivers, Douglas. Overreport of Vote for House Incumbents in NES Surveys. ANES Pilot Study Reports.Ann Arbor, MI: American National Election Studies. 1994.
  • Levy, Dena, Squire, Peverill. Constituency Size and Home Style: A Comparison of Senators and Representatives. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.New York, NY. 1994.
  • Mueller, Melinda A.. Constituent Opinion and Senate Voting: Predicting Agreement Across Issues. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.New York, NY. 1994.
  • Norrander, Barbara. Public Opinion and Public Policy: The Case of Capital Punishment. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1994.
  • Oppenheimer, Bruce I.. The Representational Experience: The Effect of State Population on Senator-Constituency Linkages. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.New York, NY. 1994.
  • Tadlock, Barry L.. The Impact of Senatorial Campaigns on the Electorate. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1994.
  • Wattier, Mark J., Daynes, Byron W., Tatalovich, Raymond. Presidential Elections and Abortion, 1972-1992: Evaluating the Single-Issue Voting Thesis. annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association.Albuquerque, NM. 1994.
  • Franklin, Charles H.. Senate incumbent visibility over the election cycle. Legislative Studies Quarterly.18, (2), 271-290.1993.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439994 (URL)
  • Norrander, Barbara, Wilcox, Clyde. State Differences in Attitudes toward Abortion. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 1993.
  • Wetstein, Matthew E.. Abortion Rates in the American States: The Impacts of Opinion and Policy on Abortion Utilization. Dissertation, Northern Illinois University. 1993.
  • Wetstein, Matthew Edward. Abortion Rates in the American States: The Impacts of Opinion and Policy on Abortion Utilization. Dissertation, Northern Illinois University. 1993.
  • Bernstein, Robert A.. Determinants of Differences in Feelings toward Senators Representing the Same State. Western Political Quarterly.45, (3), 701-725.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/448688 (URL)
  • Gronke, Paul W.. Overreporting the Vote in the 1988 Senate Election Study: A Response to Wright. Legislative Studies Quarterly.17, 113-129.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/440084 (URL)
  • Squire, Peverill. Challenger quality and voting behavior in U.S. Senate elections. Legislative Studies Quarterly.17, (2), 247-263.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/440060 (URL)
  • Wright, Gerald C.. Reported versus Actual Vote: There Is a Difference and It Matters. Legislative Studies Quarterly.17, 131-142.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/440085 (URL)
  • Bernstein, Robert A.. Ideological Deviation and Support for Reelection: Party Differences in Senate Races. Western Political Quarterly.44, (4), 987-1003.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/448804 (URL)
  • Dalager, Jon K.. Senate Campaign Issues and the Electorate: Are the Messages Getting Through?. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 1991.
  • Franklin, Charles H.. Eschewing obfuscation? Campaigns and the perception of U.S. Senate incumbents. American Political Science Review.85, (4), 1193-1214.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1963942 (URL)
  • Krasno, Jonathan Seth. Are Senate and House Elections Really Different?. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 1991.
  • Westlye, Mark C.. Senate Elections and Campaign Intensity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. 1991.
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Segal, Jeffrey A.. Beyond Willie Horton and the pledge of allegiance: National issues in the 1988 elections. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 565-580.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439897 (URL)
  • Carmines, Edward G., Champagne, Richard A., Jr.. Voting in Senate elections: A review and future research agenda. Congress and the Presidency.17, (2), 139-158.1990.
    • ID: 10.1080/07343469009507914 (DOI)
  • Erikson, Robert S.. Roll calls, reputations, and representation in the U.S. Senate. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 623-642.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439900 (URL)
  • Hibbing, John R., Alford, John R.. Constituency population and representation in the U.S. Senate. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 581-598.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439898 (URL)
  • Miller, Arthur H.. Public judgments of Senate and House candidates. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 525-542.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439895 (URL)
  • Shapiro, Catherine R., Brady, David W., Brody, Richard A., Ferejohn, John A.. Linking constituency opinion and Senate voting scores: A hybrid explanation. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 599-621.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439899 (URL)
  • Sinclair, Barbara. Washington behavior and home-state reputation: The impact of national prominence on Senators' images. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 475-494.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439893 (URL)
  • Stewart, Charles, III, Reynolds, Mark. Television markets and U.S. Senate elections. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 495-523.1990.
  • Wright, Gerald C.. Misreports of vote choice in the 1988 NES Senate election study. Legislative Studies Quarterly.15, (4), 543-564.1990.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/439896 (URL)
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Cribbs, Kenneth J.. Don't Worry, Be Happy: Evaluations of Senate and House Incumbents in 1988 . annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Atlanta, GA. 1989.
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Segal, Jeffrey A.. Beyond Willie Horton and the Pledge of Allegiance: National Issues in the 1988 Senate, House and Presidential Elections. Conference on Electing the Senate.Houston, TX. 1989.
  • Alford, John R., Hibbing, John R.. The Disparate Electoral Security of House and Senate Incumbents. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Atlanta, GA. 1989.
  • Brady, David W., Brody, Richard A., Ferejohn, John A.. Constituency Preferences and Senatorial Actions: Modeling the Representation of Constituency Interests. Conference on Electing the Senate.Houston, TX. 1989.
  • Erikson, Robert S.. Roll Calls, Reputations, and Representation in the U.S. Senate. Conference on Electing the Senate.Houston, TX. 1989.
  • Franklin, Charles H.. Eschewing Obfuscation? Campaigns and the Perception of Senate Incumbents. Conference on Electing the Senate.Houston, TX. 1989.
  • Hibbing, John R., Alford, John R.. Constituency Population and Representation in the United States Senate. Conference on Electing the Senate.Houston, TX. 1989.
  • Hurley, Patricia A.. The Senate, Representation and Recruitment to the Presidency. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Atlanta, GA. 1989.
  • Kenski, Henry C., Sigelman, Lee. Where the Votes Come From in Senate Elections: Group Components of the 1988 Senate Vote. Conference on Electing the Senate.Houston, TX. 1989.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Miller, Warren E.; Kinder, Donald R.; Rosenstone, Steven J.; University of Michigan. Center for Political Studies (1991): American National Election Study: Pooled Senate Election Study, 1988, 1990, 1992. Version 3. American National Election Study (ANES) Series. Version: v3. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09580.v3