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Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 1990

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
administration; budgets; law enforcement; law enforcement agencies; management; personnel; police departments; statistical data; wages and salaries; workers
  • Abstract

    This survey, the second in the Bureau of Justice Statistics' program on Law Enforcement and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), presents information on four types of general-purpose law enforcement agencies: state police, local police, special police, and sheriff's departments. Variables include size of the population served by the police or sheriff's department, levels of employment and spending, various functions of the department, average salary levels for uniformed officers, and other matters related to management and personnel.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1990
  • 1990-07 / 1991-01
    Collection date: 1990-07--1991-01
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All state, local, special, and sheriff's law enforcement agencies in the United States.
All primary general-purpose state police agencies were chosen. All sheriff's departments, local police departments, and special agencies with more than 100 sworn officers were chosen. A stratified random sampling method was used in selecting smaller agencies.
Collection Mode
  • The data map is provided as an ASCII text file, and the codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file.

2012-08-02 Short and long form surveys have been added to the codebook.2008-12-05 This study has been updated to reflect full current Hermes product suite, Part 2, which was the SAS data definition statements, has been rolled into Part 1, and the codebook has been rewritten.2007-08-03 Codebook corrections have been made.2004-03-22 Machine-readable documentation converted to PDF. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9749 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09749.v1
  • Kunihama, Tsuyoshi. Nonparametric Bayes Analysis of Social Science Data. Dissertation, Duke University. 2015.
  • Reaves, Brian A.. Local Police Departments, 2013: Equipment and Technology. NCJ 248767, Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2015.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Anzia, Sarah F., Moe, Terry M.. Public sector unions and the costs of government. Journal of Politics.2014.
  • Matusiak, Matthew C., Campbell, Bradley A., King, William R.. The legacy of LEMAS: Effects on police scholarship of a federally administered, multi-wave establishment survey. Policing.37, (3), 630-648.2014.
  • Chalfin, Aaron, McCrary, Justin. Are U.S. cities underpoliced?: Theory and evidence. . 2013.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Chalfin, Aaron, McCrary, Justin. The Effect of Police on Crime: New Evidence from U.S. Cities, 1960-2010. NBER Working Paper Series.18815, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2013.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Graco, Warwick, Koesmarno, Warwick. Configurations and couplings: An exploratory study. Advances in Data Mining: Applications and Theoretical Aspects.New York, NY: Springer. 2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/978-3-642-39736-3_21 (DOI)
  • Garicano, Luis, Heaton, Paul. Information technology, organization, and productivity in the public sector: Evidence from police departments. Journal of Labor Economics.28, (1), 167-201.2010.
    • ID: 10.1086/649844 (DOI)
  • Langton, Lynn. Women in Law Enforcement, 1987-2008. Bureau of Justice Statistics Crime Data Brief.NCJ 230521, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2010.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Kaminski, Robert J., Stucky, Thomas D.. Reassessing political explanations for murders of police. Homicide Studies.13, (1), 3-20.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767908326678 (DOI)
  • Briggs, Steven J., Zhao, Jihong, Wilson, Steve, Ren, Ling. The effect of collective bargaining on large police agency supplemental compensation policies: 1990-2000. Police Practice and Research.9, (3), 227-238.2008.
    • ID: 10.1080/15614260701797496 (DOI)
  • Helms, Ronald. Locally elected sheriffs and money compensation: A quantitative analysis of organizational and environmental contingency explanations. Criminal Justice Review.33, (1), 5-28.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/0734016808315588 (DOI)
  • Holian, Matt. Compstat, community policing and the science of success: A market-based approach to police management. Economic Affairs.27, (4), 23-29.2007.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1468-0270.2007.00776.x (DOI)
  • Catalano, Shannan M.. An Examination of the Convergence between Police Recording and Victim Reporting of Serious Violent Crime, 1973-2002. Dissertation, University of Missouri St. Louis. 2004.
  • Sever, Brion, McSkimming, Michael J.. The impact of racial composition and other county characteristics on the size of sheriff's departments: A new analysis of police force growth. Criminal Justice Policy Review.15, (4), 486-512.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/0887403403261279 (DOI)
  • Maguire, Edward R., Shin, Yeunhee, Zhao, Jihong 'Solomon', Hassell, Kimberly D.. Structural change in large police agencies during the 1990s. Policing.26, (2), 251-265.2003.
  • Smith, Brad W., Holmes, Malcolm D.. Community accountability, minority threat and policy brutality: An examination of civil rights criminal complaints. Criminology.41, (4), 1035 -2003.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2003.tb01013.x (DOI)
  • Stults, Brian J.. Social Threat and Benign Neglect: A Conflict Perspective on Racial Differences in Arrest. Dissertation, University at Albany, State University of New York. 2003.
  • Maguire, Edward R.. Multiwave establishment surveys of police organizations. Justice Research and Policy.4, 39-60.2002.
    • ID: 10.3818/JRP.4.1.2002.39 (DOI)
  • Stucky, Thomas D.. An Institutional Resources Perspective on Crime and Crime Control in U.S. Cities. Dissertation, University of Iowa. 2001.
  • Lott, John R., Jr.. Does a helping hand put others at risk? Affirmative action, police departments, and crime. Economic Inquiry.38, (2), 239-277.2000.
    • ID: 10.1093/ei/38.2.239 (DOI)
  • King, William R.. Time, constancy, and change in American municipal police organizations. Police Quarterly.2, (3), 338-364.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/109861119900200305 (DOI)
  • Pascarella, Jospeh E.. Municipal police salaries as a function of community home values, household incomes, and physical housing characteristics. Justice Research and Policy.1, (2), 89-110.1999.
  • Sass, Tim R., Troyer, Jennifer L.. Affirmative action, political representation, unions, and female police employment. Journal of Labor Research.20, (4), 571-587.1999.
    • ID: 10.1007/s12122-999-0022-1 (DOI)
  • Maguire, Edward R.. Structural change in large municipal police organizations during the community policing era. Justice Quarterly.14, (3), 547-576.1997.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829700093471 (DOI)
  • Zhao, Jihong, Lovrich, Nicholas. Collective bargaining and the police: The consequences for supplemental compensation policies in large agencies. Policing.20, (3), 508-518.1997.
  • Schroedel, Jean Reith, Frisch, Scott, Hallamore, Nancy, Peterson, Julie, Vanderhorst, Nicole. The joint impact of race and gender on police department employment practices. Women and Criminal Justice.8, (2), 59-77.1996.
    • ID: 10.1300/J012v08n02_04 (DOI)
  • Martin, Susan E.. A Cross-burning is Not Just an Arson: Police Social Construction of Hate Crimes in Baltimore County. Criminology.33, (3), 303-326.1995.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1995.tb01180.x (DOI)
  • Walker, Samuel, Katz, Charles M.. Less than meets the eye: Police department bias-crime units. American Journal of Police.14, (10), 29-48.1995.
  • Zawitz, Marianne W., Klaus, Patsy A., Bachman, Ronet, Langan, Patrick, Harlow, Carol W.. Violence Between Intimates. Selected Findings.NCJ 149259, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Reaves, Brian A.. Drug Enforcement by Police and Sheriffs' Departments, 1990. BJS Special Report.NCJ 134505, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1992.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Reaves, Brian A.. Sheriffs' Departments 1990: A LEMAS Report. BJS Bulletin.NCJ 133283, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1992.
  • Reaves, Brian A.. State and Local Police Departments, 1990. BJS Bulletin.NCJ 133284, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1992.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 10 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (1993): Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS), 1990. Archival Version. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.