My da|ra Login

Detailed view

metadata language: English

Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: County-Level Detailed Arrest and Offense Data, 1990

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • United States Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
arrests; arson; assault; auto theft; burglary; counties; crime rates; crime reporting; crime statistics; drug abuse; fraud; illegal gambling; larceny; law enforcement; murder; offenses; rape; robbery; sex offenses; Uniform Crime Reports; vandalism
  • Abstract

    This data collection contains counts of arrests and offenses for Part I offenses (murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson) and Part II offenses (forgery, fraud, embezzlement, vandalism, weapons violations, sex offenses, drug and alcohol abuse violations, gambling, vagrancy, curfew violations, and runaways). Two sets of county populations are reported: one for total county population and the other for counties reporting six months or more of data.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Arrests, All Ages
    • DS2: Arrests, Adults
    • DS3: Arrests, Juveniles
    • DS4: Crimes Reported
    • DS5: Codebook for All Parts
    • DS6: SAS Control Cards for Arrest Data
    • DS7: SAS Control Cards for Crimes Reported Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1990
  • Collection date: 1990
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
County law enforcement agencies in the United States.
Collection Mode
  • Data have been aggregated to the county level. Within each county, data for agencies reporting 6 to 11 months of information were weighted to yield 12-month equivalents. Agencies reporting fewer than 6 months of data were excluded from the aggregation. Data from agencies reporting only statewide figures were allocated to counties in proportion to each county's share of the state population (which totaled the populations of those county agencies reporting six months or more of data).

2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 5 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9785 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09785.v1
  • Aneja, Abhay, Donohue, John J., III, Zhang, Alexandria,. The Impact of Right to Carry Laws and the NRC Report: The Latest Lessons for the Empirical Evaluation of Law and Policy. Stanford Law and Economics Olin Working Paper No. 461.. 2014.
  • Rincke, Johannes. The effect of crime on regional economic performance: Evidence from U.S. metropolitan areas. . 2014.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Wright, Richard, Tekin, Erdal, Topalli, Volkan, McClellan, Chandler, Dickinson, Timothy, Rosenfeld, Richard. Less Cash, Less Crime: Evidence from the Electronic Benefit Transfer Program. 19996, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2014.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Durlauf, Steven N., Fu, Chao, Navarro, Salvador. Capital punishment and deterrence: Understanding disparate results. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.29, (1), 103-121.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10940-012-9171-0 (DOI)
  • Gouda, Moamen. The Long-term Effect of Slavery on Violent Crime: Evidence from US Counties. Job Market Paper.Phil: Philipps-Universit√§t Marburg, Marburg Center for Institutional Economics. 2013.
  • Kovandzic, Tomislav, Schaffer, Mark E., Kleck, Gary. Estimating the causal effect of gun prevalence on homicide rates: A local average treatment effect approach. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.29, (4), 477-541.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10940-012-9185-7 (DOI)
  • Owens, Jennifer L.. Capital Punishment in the Lone Star State: A County-level Analysis of Contextual Effects on Sentencing. Dissertation, University at Albany, State University of New York. 2013.
  • Grinols, Earl L., Mustard, David B., Staha, Melissa. How do visitors affect crime?. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.27, (3), 363-378.2011.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10940-010-9128-0 (DOI)
  • Schaefer, Shelly S.W.. Blurring the Lines: Blended Sentencing and the Juvenile Justice System. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 2011.
  • Haynes, Stacy Hoskins, Ruback, Barry. Courtroom workgroups and sentencing: The effects of similarity, proximity and stability. Crime and Delinquency.56, (1), 126-161.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128707313787 (DOI)
  • Schupp, Paul, Rivera, Craig. Identifying imprisonment patterns and their relation to crime among New York Counties 1990-2000: An exploratory application of trajectory modeling. Criminal Justice Policy Review.2, (1), 50-75.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0887403409338563 (DOI)
  • Helms, Ronald. Locally elected sheriffs and money compensation: A quantitative analysis of organizational and environmental contingency explanations. Criminal Justice Review.33, (1), 5-28.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/0734016808315588 (DOI)
  • Lim, Hyeyoung. Finding Explanations on the Growth of Incarceration and the Reductions in Crime: Incapacity or Social Threat?. Dissertation, Sam Houston State University. 2008.
  • Becker, Jacob. Structural Indicators of Index Crime Rates in Metropolitan Counties for 1990 and 2000. Thesis, Duquesne University. 2007.
  • Luthra, Asha D., Bankston, William B., Kalich, DeAnn M., Forsyth, Craig J.. Economic fluctuation and crime: A time-series analysis of the effects of oil development in the coastal region of Louisiana. Deviant Behavior.28, (2), 113-130.2007.
    • ID: 10.1080/01639620601130976 (DOI)
  • Kovandzic, Tomislav V., Vieraitis, Lynne M.. The effect of county-level prison population growth on crime rates. Criminology and Public Policy.5, (2), 213-244.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2006.00375.x (DOI)
  • Lo, Celia C., Zhong, Hua. Linking Crime Rates to Relationship Factors: The Use of Gender-Specific Data. Journal of Criminal Justice.34, (3), 317-329.2006.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2006.03.001 (DOI)
  • Martin, Robert A., Jr., Legault, Richard L.. Systematic measurement error with state-level crime data: evidence from the 'More Guns, Less Crime' debate. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.42, (2), 187-210.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427804270052 (DOI)
  • Martin, Susan E., Maxwell, Christopher D., White, Helene R., Zhang, Yan. Trends in alcohol use, cocaine use, and crime: 1989-1998. Journal of Drug Issues.34, (2), 333-360.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260403400205 (DOI)
  • Dezhbakhsh, Hashem, Rubin, Paul H., Shepherd, Joanna M.. Does Capital Punishment Have a Deterrent Effect? New Evidence from Post-moratorium Panel Data. American Law and Economics Review.5, (2), 344-376.2003.
    • ID: 10.1093/aler/ahg021 (DOI)
  • Osgood, D. Wayne, Chambers, Jeff M.. Community Correlates of Rural Youth Violence. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin.NCJ 193591, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 2003.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Rubin, Paul H., Dezhbakhsh, Hashem. The effect of concealed handgun laws on crime: Beyond the dummy variables. International Review of Law and Economics.23, (2), 199-216.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0144-8188(03)00027-9 (DOI)
  • Schwaner, Shawn L., Keil, Thomas. Internal colonization, folk justice, and murder in Appalachia: The case of Kentucky. Journal of Criminal Justice.31, (3), 279-286.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(03)00008-4 (DOI)
  • Barnett, Cynthia, Mencken, F. Carson. Social disorganization theory and the contextual nature of crime in nonmetropolitan counties. Rural Sociology.67, (3), 372-393.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1549-0831.2002.tb00109.x (DOI)
  • Johnston, Richard. The battle against white-collar crime. USA Today.130, 36-38.2002.
  • Shepherd, Joanna M.. Fear of the first strike: The full deterrent effect of California's two- and three-strikes legislation. Journal of Legal Studies.31, (1), 159-201.2002.
    • ID: 10.1086/324660 (DOI)
  • Adcock, James Monroe. Solving murders South Carolina style: Solvability factors of murders in three South Carolina counties, 1988-1992. Dissertation, University of South Carolina. 2001.
  • Beyerlein, Kraig, Hipp, John R.. Religious Tradition Variation in Types of Civic Engagement and its Effect on County-Level Crime Rates. Southern Sociological Society. 2001.
  • Cureton, Steven R.. An empirical test of the social threat phenomenon: Using 1990 census and Uniform Crime Reports. Journal of Criminal Justice.29, (2), 157-166.2001.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0047-2352(00)00091-X (DOI)
  • Kleck, Gary. Can owning a gun really triple the owner's chances of being murdered?: The anatomy of an implausible causal mechanism. Homicide Studies.5, (1), 64-77.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767901005001005 (DOI)
  • Kovandzic, Tomislav V.. The impact of Florida's habitual offender law on crime. Criminology.39, (1), 179-203.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2001.tb00920.x (DOI)
  • Matthews, Rick A., Maume, Michael O., Miller, William J.. Deindustrialization, economic distress, and homicide rates in midsized rust belt cities. Homicide Studies.5, (2), 83-113.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767901005002001 (DOI)
  • Olson, David E., Maltz, Michael D.. Right-to-carry concealed weapon laws and homicide in large U.S. counties: The effect on weapon types, victim characteristics, and victim-offender relationships. Journal of Law and Economics.44, (S2), 747-770.2001.
    • ID: 10.1086/338345 (DOI)
  • Sondheimer, Diane L.. Young female offenders: Increasingly visible yet poorly understood. Gender Issues.19, (1), 79-90.2001.
    • ID: 10.1007/s12147-001-0005-x (DOI)
  • Akins, Scott, Griffin, Robert. Multiple birth rate and racial type: A research note regarding r/K theory. Deviant Behavior.21, (1), 15-22.2000.
  • Blumstein, Alfred, Rivara, Frederick P., Rosenfeld, Richard. The rise and decline of homicide - and why. Annual Review of Public Health.21, 505-541.2000.
    • ID: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.21.1.505 (DOI)
  • Brightman, Heath Jordan. The Four 'C's' of Education: A Study of the Relationships between New Jersey's Children, Curricula, Computers, and Consumptive-Criminality. Dissertation, Seton Hall University. 2000.
  • Cureton, Steven R.. Justifiable arrests or discretionary justice: Predictors of racial arrest differentials. Journal of Black Studies.30, (5), 703-719.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/002193470003000505 (DOI)
  • Hagan, John, Foster, Holly. Making corporate and criminal America less violent: Public norms and structural reforms. Contemporary Sociology.29, (1), 44-53.2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Holmes, Malcolm D.. Minority threat and police brutality: Determinants of civil rights criminal complaints in U.S. municipalities. Criminology.38, (2), 343-367.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00893.x (DOI)
  • Joseph, R.. The evolution of sex differences in language, sexuality, and visual-spatial skills. Archives of Sexual Behavior.29, (1), 35-66.2000.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1001834404611 (DOI)
  • Kayitsinga, Jean, Maxwell, Christopher D.. Michigan's criminal justice response to incidents of rape. Sexual Assault Surveillance System.vol 3, issue 2, East Lansing, MI: Violence and Intentional Injury Prevention Program, Michigan State University. 2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Kayitsinga, Jean, Maxwell, Christopher D.. Trends in reported incidents of rape in Michigan and beyond. Sexual Assault Surveillance System.vol 3, issue 1, East Lansing, MI: Violence and Intentional Injury Prevention Program, Michigan State University. 2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Luthra, Asha D.. Underemployment and Violent Crime: Differential Effects of Age and Race. Southern Sociological Society. 2000.
  • Maume, Michael O., Miller, William J., Matthews, Rick. Explaining homicide rates in small and mid-sized U.S. cities, 1980-1990. Southern Sociological Society. 2000.
  • Osgood, D. Wayne, Chambers, Jeff M.. Social disorganization outside the metropolis: An analysis of rural youth violence. Criminology.38, (1), 81-115.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00884.x (DOI)
  • Palmiotto, Michael J., Janeksela, Galan M.. A comparative study of index crimes in five peer cities. Journal of Crime and Justice.23, (1), 111-123.2000.
    • ID: 10.1080/0735648X.2000.9721112 (DOI)
  • Pellegrini, Robert J., Roundtree, Terry, Camagna, Tina F., Queirolo, Sergio S.. On the epidemiology of violent juvenile crime in America: A total arrest-referenced approach. Psychological Reports.86, 1171-1186.2000.
    • ID: 10.2466/PR0.86.3.1171-1186 (DOI)
  • Sales, Paloma, Murphy, Sheigla. Surviving violence: Pregnancy and drug use. Journal of Drug Issues.30, (4), 695-724.2000.
  • Witt, Robert, Witte, Ann. Crime, prison, and female labor supply. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.16, (1), 69-85.2000.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1007525527967 (DOI)
  • Zimring, Franklin E., Fagan, Jefferey. The search for causes in an era of crime declines: Some lessons from the study of New York City homicide. Crime and Delinquency.46, (4), 446-456.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128700046004002 (DOI)
  • Allen, Ralph C., Stone, Jack H.. Market and public policy mechanisms in poverty reduction: The differential effects on property crime. Review of Social Economy.62, (2), 156-173.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/00346769900000033 (DOI)
  • Becsi, Zsolt. Economics and crime in the states. Economic Review - Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.84, (1), 38-56.1999.
  • Brooks, Randall. Crime strike. American Rifleman.147, (6), 42-43.1999.
  • Butterfield, Fox. F.B.I. study finds gun use in violent crimes declining. New York Times.19 -1999.
  • Chamlin, Mitchell B., Novak, Kenneth J., Lowenkamp, Christopher T., et al. Social altruism, tax policy and crime: A cautionary tale. Criminal Justice Policy Review.10, (3), 429-446.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/088740349901000305 (DOI)
  • Doyle, Joanne M., Ahmed, Ehsan, Horn, Robert N.. The effects of labor markets and income inequality on crime: Evidence from panel data. Southern Economic Journal.65, (4), 717-738.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Halloran, Elizabeth C., Doumas, Diana M., John, Richard S., Margolin, Gayla. The relationship between aggression in children and locus of control beliefs. Journal of Genetic Psychology.160, (1), 5-21.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/00221329909595376 (DOI)
  • Kashani, Javad H., Jones, Michael R., Bumby, Kurt M., Thomas, Lisa A.. Youth violence: Psychosocial risk factors, treatment, prevention, and recommendations. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.7, (4), 200 -1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/106342669900700402 (DOI)
  • Lindberg, Kristen. Girls in Gangs: The Girls Behind the Boys. Chicago, IL: Chicago Crime Commission. 1999.
  • Mencken, F. Carson, Barnett, Cynthia. Murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and spatial autocorrelation in mid-South counties. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.15, (4), 407-422.1999.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1007592124641 (DOI)
  • Rephann, Terance J.. Links between rural development and crime. Papers in Regional Science.78, (4), 365-386.1999.
    • ID: 10.1007/s101100050032 (DOI)
  • Rosenfeld, Richard, Decker, Scott H.. Are arrest statistics a valid measure of illicit drug use? The relationship between criminal justice and public health indicators of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use. Justice Quarterly.16, (3), 685-699.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829900094311 (DOI)
  • Tentis, Dedra Rene. A Social Ecological Analysis of Violent Crime Rates in Minnesota and Wisconsin from 1989-1991. Dissertation, South Dakota State University. 1999.
  • Black, Dan A., Nagin, Daniel S.. Do right-to-carry laws deter violent crime?. Journal of Legal Studies.27, 209-219.1998.
  • Bronars, Stephen G., Lott, John R., Jr.. Criminal deterrence, geographic spillovers, and the right to carry concealed handguns. American Economic Review.88, (2), 475-479.1998.
  • Cassell, Paul G.. Protecting the innocent from false confessions and lost confessions -- and from Miranda. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.88, (2), 497-556.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Chaney, Carole Kennedy, Saltzstein, Grace Hall. Democratic control and bureaucratic responsiveness: The police and domestic violence. American Journal of Political Science.42, (3), 745-768.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Chong, Jenny. Crime indicators for alcohol and drug abuse. Criminal Justice and Behavior.25, (3), 283-305.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0093854898025003001 (DOI)
  • DeFronzo, James, Hannon, Lance. Welfare assistance levels and homicide rates. Homicide Studies.2, (1), 31-45.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/1088767998002001003 (DOI)
  • Dezhbakhsh, Hashem, Rubin, Paul H.. Lives saved or lives lost? The effects of concealed-handgun laws on crime. American Economic Review.88, (2), 468-474.1998.
  • Fields, Gary, Overberg, Paul. Juvenile homicide arrest rate on rise in rural USA criminologists: Availability of guns may be behind trend. USA Today.(A), 11 -1998.
  • Hannon, Lance, DeFronzo, James. Welfare and property crime. Justice Quarterly.15, (2), 273-288.1998.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829800093741 (DOI)
  • Jesilow, Paul, Meyer, Jon'a, Parsons, Deborah, Tegeler, William. Evaluating problem-oriented policing: A quasi-experiment. Policing.21, (3), 449 -1998.
  • Kovandzic, Tomislav V., Vieraitis, Lynne M., Yeisley, Mark R.. The structural covariates of urban homicide: Reassessing the impact of income inequality and poverty in the post-Reagan era. Criminology.36, (3), 569-599.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1998.tb01259.x (DOI)
  • LaFree, Gary. Social institutions and the crime 'bust' of the 1990s. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.88, (4), 1325-1368.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Lott, John R., Jr.. The concealed-handgun debate. Journal of Legal Studies.27, (1), 221-243.1998.
  • Shihadeh, Edward S., Ousey, Graham C.. Industrial restructuring and violence: The link between entry-level jobs, economic deprivation, and black and white homicide. Social Forces.77, (1), 185-206.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Wordes, Madeline, Jones, Sharon M.. Trends in juvenile detention and steps toward reform. Crime and Delinquency.44, (4), 544-560.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128798044004005 (DOI)
  • Acierno, Ron, Resnick, Heidi S., Kilpatrick, Dean G.. Health impact of interpersonal violence 1: Prevalence rates, case identification, and risk factors for sexual assault, physical assault, and domestic violence in men and women. Behavioral Medicine.23, (2), 53-64.1997.
    • ID: 10.1080/08964289709596729 (DOI)
  • Boggess, Scott, Bound, John. Did Criminal Activity Increase during the 1980s? Comparisons across Data Sources. Social Science Quarterly.78, (3), 725-739.1997.
  • Britt, Chester L.. Reconsidering the unemployment and crime relationship: Variation by age group and historical period. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.13, (4), 405-428.1997.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02221048 (DOI)
  • Donziger, Steven R.. Fear, crime, and punishment in the United States. Tikkun.12, (6), 24-27.1997.
  • Feinberg, Gary. Does it Pay to Invest in Crime Control? A Multiple Regression Analysis of the Relationship between Expenditure for Crime Control Services and Crime Rates. Dissertation, Union Institute. 1997.
  • Gauthier, DeAnn K., Bankston, William B.. Gender equality and the sex ratio of intimate killing. Criminology.35, (4), 577-600.1997.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1997.tb01231.x (DOI)
  • Hannon, Lance. AFDC and homicide. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare.24, (4), 125-136.1997.
  • Hochstetler, Andrew L., Shover, Neal. Street crime, labor surplus, and criminal punishment, 1980-1990. Social Problems.44, (2), 358-368.1997.
  • LaFree, Gary, Drass, Kriss A.. African American Collective Action and Crime, 1955-1991. Social Forces.75, (3), 835-853.1997.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Levitt, Steven D.. Using electoral cycles in police hiring to estimate the effect of police on crime. American Economic Review.87, (3), 270-290.1997.
  • Lott, John R., Jr., Mustard, David B.. Crime, deterrence, and right-to-carry concealed handguns. Journal of Legal Studies.26, (1), 1-68.1997.
    • ID: 10.1086/467988 (DOI)
  • Moon, Melissa M., Applegate, Brandon K., Latessa, Edward J.. RECLAIM Ohio: A politically viable alternative to treating youthful felony offenders. Crime and Delinquency.43, (4), 438-456.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128797043004003 (DOI)
  • Parker, Linda S.. A 'brutal case' or 'only a family jar'?: Violence against women in San Diego County, 19980-1900. Violence Against Women.3, (3), 294-318.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/1077801297003003005 (DOI)
  • Phillips, Julie A.. Variation in African-American homicide rates: An assessment of potential explanations. Criminology.35, (4), 527-559.1997.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1997.tb01229.x (DOI)
  • Stolzenberg, Lisa, D'Alessio, Stewart J.. 'Three strikes and you're out': The impact of California's new mandatory sentencing law on serious crime rates. Crime and Delinquency.43, (4), 457-469.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128797043004004 (DOI)
  • Yates, Jeff. Racial Incarceration Disparity among States. Social Science Quarterly.78, (4), 1001-1010.1997.
  • Chamlin, Mitchell B., Cochran, John K.. Macro social measures of crime: Toward the selection of an appropriate deflator. Journal of Crime and Justice.19, (2), 121-144.1996.
    • ID: 10.1080/0735648X.1996.9721550 (DOI)
  • Episcopo, Peter F., Moor, Darrin L.. The violent gang and terrorist organizations file. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.65, (10), 21-23.1996.
  • Faggiani, Donald, Dover, Thomas J., Sturgis, Jennifer. Juvenile Murder in Virgina: A Study of Arrests and Convictions. Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services. 1996.
  • Houseknecht, Sharon K., Sastry, Jaya. Family 'decline' and child well-being: A comparative assessment. Journal of Marriage and Family.58, (3), 726-739.1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Jacobs, James B., Henry, Jessica S.. The social construction of a hate crime epidemic. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.86, (2), 366 -1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Kanan, James Wilson. Spatial Stratification and Black Violence: The Effects of Residential Segregation on Black Rates of Homicide and Robbery, 1990. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. 1996.
  • Kingery, Paul M., Pruitt, B.E., Heuberger, Greg. A profile of rural Texas adolescents who carry handguns to school. Journal of School Health.66, (1), 18 -1996.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.1996.tb06252.x (DOI)
  • Marvell, Thomas B., Moody, Carlisle E.. Determinate sentencing and abolishing parole: The long-term impacts on prisons and crime. Criminology.34, (1), 107-128.1996.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01197.x (DOI)
  • O'Brien, Robert M.. Police productivity and crime rates: 1973-1992. Criminology.34, (2), 183-207.1996.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1996.tb01202.x (DOI)
  • Steffensmeier, Darrell, Allan, Emilie. Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology.22, 459-487.1996.
    • ID: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.459 (DOI)
  • Boxley, Jeanne, Lawrance, Lynette, Gruchow, Harvey. A preliminary study of eighth grade students' attitudes toward rape myths and women's roles. Journal of School Health.65, (3), 96 -1995.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.1995.tb03356.x (DOI)
  • Boyd, David G.. On the cutting edge. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.64, (7), 1 -1995.
  • Garoogian, Rhoda, Garoogian, Andrew, Fromm, Joy. Crime in America's Top-Rated Cities: A Statistical Profile, 1995-1996. Boca Raton, FL: University Reference Publications. 1995.
  • Levitt, Steven D.. Using Electoral Cycles in Police Hiring to Estimate the Effect of Police on Crime. NBER Working Paper Series.4991, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Marvell, Thomas B., Moody, Carlisle E.. The impact of enhanced prison terms for felonies committed with guns. Criminology.33, (2), 247-281.1995.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1995.tb01178.x (DOI)
  • Smith, M. Dwayne, Feiler, Stephen M.. Absolute and relative involvement in homicide offending: Contemporary youth and the baby boom cohorts. Violence and Victims.10, (4), 327-333.1995.
  • Steffensmeier, Darrell J., Allan, Emilie Andersen. Age-inequality and property crime: The effects of age-linked stratification and status-attainment processes on patterns of criminality across the life course. Crime and Inequality.Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1995.
  • Wolfson, Mark, Wagennar, Alexander C., Hornseth, Gary W.. Law officers' views on enforcement of the minimum drinking age: A four-state study. Public Health Reports.110, (4), 428 -1995.
  • (author unknown). Crime rate squeezes judges. USA Today.(A), 2 -1994.
  • Albert, J.L.. Youth violent crime keeps climbing. USA Today.(A), 10 -1994.
  • Baumann, Marty. Kids and crime. USA Today.(A), 11 -1994.
  • Baumann, Marty. Prisons and the crime rate. USA Today.(A), 4 -1994.
  • Baumer, Eric P.. Poverty, crack, and crime: A cross-city analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.31, (3), 311-327.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427894031003004 (DOI)
  • Bebber, Charles C.. Increases in U.S. violent crime during the 1980s following four American military actions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.9, (1), 109-116.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/088626094009001007 (DOI)
  • Conley, Stephen. Children living under the gun. USA Today.(A), 3 -1994.
  • Guarino-Ghezzi, Susan. Reintegrative police surveillance of juvenile offenders: Forging an urban model. Crime and Delinquency.40, (2), 131 -1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128794040002001 (DOI)
  • Guarino-Ghezzi, Susan. Reintegrative policing: A model for urban juvenile offenders. Corrections Today.56, (4), 141 -1994.
  • Mullins, Marcy E.. Killings by police on increase. USA Today.(A), 3 -1994.
  • Shihadeh, Edward S., Steffensmeier, Darrell J.. Economic Inequality, Family Disruption, and Urban Black Violence: Cities as Units of Stratification and Social Control. Social Forces.73, (2), 729-751.1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Staimer, Marcia. Crime soaring in California. USA Today.(A), 3 -1994.
  • (author unknown). Deaths due to guns. USA Today.(A), 1 -1993.
  • (author unknown). Piracy: Vehicle theft takes a deadly turn. USA Today.37 -1993.
  • (author unknown). Rape and denial. New Republic.209, (21), 14 -1993.
  • (author unknown). Surge in child slaying. USA Today.(A), 8 -1993.
  • Conley, Stephen. USA snapshots: Arrested for murder. USA Today.(A), 1 -1993.
  • Kramer, Rita. The assault on juvenile crime. Wall Street Journal.(A), 14 -1993.
  • Rhodes, William, Scheiman, Paul, Carlson, Kenneth. What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs, 1988-1991. Washington, DC: United States Office of National Drug Control Policy. 1993.
  • Staimer, Marcia. Guns used in self defense. USA Today.(A), 6 -1993.
  • Steffensmeier, Darrell J.. National trends in female arrests, 1960-1990: Assessment and recommendations for research. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.9, (4), 411-441.1993.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF01064111 (DOI)
  • Visgaitis, Gary. Crimes by juveniles up. USA Today.(A), 6 -1993.
  • Anonymous. Physical fighting among high school students--United States, 1990. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.267, (22), 3009 -1992.
  • Kramer, Rita. Juvenile justice is delinquent. Wall Street Journal.(A), 14 -1992.
  • Palermo, George B., Smith, Maurice B., DiMotto, John J., Christopher, Thomas P.. Victimization revisited: A national statistical analysis. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.36, (3), 187-201.1992.
    • ID: 10.1177/0306624X9203600303 (DOI)
  • Soderberg, Jon Allyn. Son of Sam laws: A victim of the First Amendment?. Washington and Lee Law Review.49, (2), 629 -1992.
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation. Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. 1984.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation (1993): Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data [United States]: County-Level Detailed Arrest and Offense Data, 1990. Archival Version. Uniform Crime Reporting Program Data Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.