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Changing Patterns of Drug Abuse and Criminality Among Crack Cocaine Users in New York City: Criminal Histories and Criminal Justice System Processing, 1983-1984, 1986

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data
Creator
  • Fagan, Jeffrey
  • Belenko, Steven
  • Johnson, Bruce D.
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1992-10-31
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
arrest records; case processing; crack cocaine; convictions (law); criminal histories; criminal justice system; criminality; disposition (legal); drug abuse; drug offenders; imprisonment
Description
  • Abstract

    This data collection compares a sample of persons arrested for offenses related to crack cocaine with a sample arrested for offenses related to powdered cocaine. The collection is one of two parts of a study designed to examine the characteristics of crack users and sellers, the impact of large numbers of crack-related offenders on the criminal justice system, and their effects on drug treatment and community programs. Official arrest records and supplementary data bases are used to analyze the official arrest, conviction, and incarceration histories of powdered cocaine and crack defendants. Questions addressed by the collection include: (1) How are defendants charged with crack-related offenses different from defendants charged with offenses related to powdered cocaine? (2) Is there a difference between the ways the criminal justice system handles crack offenders and powdered cocaine offenders in pretrial detention, charges filed, case dispositions, and sentencing? (3) How do the criminal careers of crack offenders compare with the criminal careers of powdered cocaine offenders, especially in terms of total arrest rates, frequencies of nondrug crimes, and frequencies of violent crimes? (4) Is violence more strongly associated with crack dealing than with powdered cocaine dealing? and (5) How does the developmental history of powdered cocaine sales and possession compare with the history of crack sales and possession? Variables include demographic information such as gender, residence, and race, arrest, conviction, and incarceration histories, prior criminal record, community ties, and court outcomes of the arrests.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1983 / 1984
    Time period: 1983--1984
  • Time period: 1986
  • Collection date: 1983-1984
  • Collection date: 1986
Geographic Coverage
  • New York City
  • New York (state)
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Individuals arrested by the New York City Police Department for crack-related offenses (August through October of 1986) or powdered cocaine-related offenses (1983-1984).
Sampling
The data collection utilized a matched cohort research design in which a sample of defendants arrested for offenses related to crack cocaine was drawn and compared with a similarly drawn matched sample of defendants arrested for offenses related to powdered cocaine. A total of 3,403 persons in the crack cohort and 3,424 persons in the powdered cocaine cohort were sampled.
Note
2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.2002-06-27 SAS and SPSS data definition statements were created for this collection and the codebook was converted to PDF. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (87-IJ-CX-0064).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9790 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09790.v1
Publications
  • Fagan, Jeffrey. Women and drugs revisited: Female participation in the cocaine economy. Journal of Drug Issues.24, (2), 179-225.1994.
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D.. Cohort differences in drug-use pathways to crack among current crack abusers in New York City. Criminal Justice and Behavior.21, (4), 403-422.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0093854894021004002 (DOI)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D.. The shifting importance of alcohol and marijuana as gateway substances among serious drug abusers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol.55, (5), 607-614.1994.
  • Johnson, Bruce D., Golub, Andrew, Hossain, Mokerrom. Developing and Using a Serious Drug Abuser Scale in the Criminal Justice System, Executive Summary. NCJ 152212, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1993.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/152212NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Johnson, Bruce D., Golub, Andrew, Hossain, Mokerrom. Using a Serious Drug Abuser Scale in the Criminal Justice System. Final Report: Expanding Applications of Drug Use Forecasting Data in New York.NCJ 152209, New York, NY: Institute for Special Populations Research. 1993.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/152209NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Johnson, Bruce D., Golub, Andrew, Hossain, Mokerrom. Trends in Heroin Use Among Arrestees in the Drug Use Forecasting Program. NCJ 151210, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1992.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/151210NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Williams, Terry, Dunlap, Eloise, Johnson, Bruce D., Hamid, Ansley. Personal safety in dangerous places. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography.21, (3), 343-374.1992.
    • ID: 10.1177/089124192021003003 (DOI)
  • Belenko, Steven, Fagan, Jeffrey A., Chin, Ko Lin. Criminal Justice Responses to Crack. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.28, (1), 55-74.1991.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427891028001004 (DOI)
  • Chin, K., Fagan, Jeffrey. Impact of Crack on Drug and Crime Involvement. NCJ 162269, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1991.
  • Fagan, Jeffrey, Chin, Ko-Lin. Social processes of initiation into crack. Journal of Drug Issues.21, 313-343.1991.
  • Dunlap, Eloise, Johnson, B., Sanabria, H., Holliday, E., Lipsey, V., Barnett, M., Hopkins, W., Sobel, I., Randolph, D., Chin, K.. Studying Crack Users and Their Criminal Careers: The Scientific and Artistic Aspects of Locating Hard-to-Reach Subjects and Interviewing Them About Sensitive Topics. Contemporary Drug Problems.17, (1), 121-144.1990.
  • Fagan, Jeffrey, Chin, Ko-lin. Violence as Regulation and Social Control in the Distribution of Crack. Drugs and Violence.Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. 1990.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/128781-128794NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Johnson, B., Elmoghazy, E., Dunlap, E.. Crack Abusers and Noncrack Drug Abusers: A Comparison of Drug Use, Drug Sales, and Nondrug Criminality. New York, NY: Narcotic and Drug Research, Inc.. 1990.
  • Johnson, Bruce D., Elmoghazy, Elsayed, Dunlap, Eloise. Crack Abusers and Noncrack Drug Abusers: A Comparison of Drug Use, Drug Sales, and Nondrug Criminality. Meeting of the American Society of Criminology.Baltimore, MD. 1990.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/126720NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Belenko, Steven, Fagan, Jeffrey A., Chin, Ko Lin. Typologies of Criminal Careers Among Crack Arrestees. New York, NY: New York City Criminal Justice Agency. 1989.
  • Fagan, Jeffrey A., Chin, Ko-lin. Initiation into crack and cocaine: A tale of two epidemics. Contemporary Drug Problems.16, (4), 579-617.1989.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Fagan, Jeffrey; Belenko, Steven; Johnson, Bruce D. (1992): Changing Patterns of Drug Abuse and Criminality Among Crack Cocaine Users in New York City: Criminal Histories and Criminal Justice System Processing, 1983-1984, 1986. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09790