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Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) [1991 Panel]

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Series
Publication Date
Free Keywords
census data; child care; child health; child support; demographic characteristics; disabilities; educational background; energy assistance; energy consumption; families; financial assets; financial support; government programs; health care access; health insurance; health services utilization; health status; higher education; housing costs; income; income distribution; investments; job history; labor force; living arrangements; participation; pensions; poverty programs; property; public housing; retirement; school attendance; unearned income; vehicles; wealth; welfare services
  • Abstract

    This data collection is part of a longitudinal survey designed to provide detailed information on the economic situation of households and persons in the United States. These data examine the distribution of income, wealth, and poverty in American society and gauge the effects of federal and state programs on the well-being of families and individuals. There are three basic elements contained in the survey. The first is a control card that records basic social and demographic characteristics for each person in a household, as well as changes in such characteristics over the course of the interviewing period. The second element is the core portion of the questionnaire, with questions repeated at each interview on labor force activity, types and amounts of income, participation in various cash and noncash benefit programs, attendance in postsecondary schools, private health insurance coverage, public or subsidized rental housing, low-income energy assistance, and school breakfast and lunch participation. The third element consists of topical modules, which are a series of supplemental questions asked during selected household visits. Topical modules include some core data to help link individuals to the core files. A topical module was not created for the first wave of the 1991 Panel. The Wave 2 Topical Module (Part 5) covers employment, work disability, education and training, marital status, migration, fertility history, and receipt of benefits from government programs. The Wave 3 Topical Module (Part 9) includes data concerning work schedule, child care, child support agreements, support for nonhousehold members, functional limitations and disability, and utilization of health care services. Data in the Wave 4 Topical Module (Part 13) include selected financial assets, medical expenses and work disability, real estate, shelter costs, dependent care, and vehicles. The Wave 5 Topical Module (Part 17) covers annual income and retirement accounts, taxes, and school enrollment and financing. The Wave 6 Topical Module (Part 20) includes information on consumer durables, living conditions, and basic needs. The Wave 7 Topical Module (Part 22) focuses on assets and liabilities, retirement expectations and pension plan coverage, and real estate property and vehicles. The Wave 8 Topical Module (Part 24) covers school enrollment and financing. Part 26 of this study is the Wave 5 Topical Module Microdata Research File, an unedited version of Part 17. This research file has not been edited nor imputed but has been topcoded or bottomcoded and recoded if necessary by the Census Bureau to avoid disclosure of individual respondents' identities.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Wave 1 Core Microdata File
    • DS2: Data Dictionary for Wave 1 Core Microdata File
    • DS3: Wave 2 Core Microdata File
    • DS4: Data Dictionary for Wave 2 Core Microdata File
    • DS5: Wave 2 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS6: Data Dictionary for Wave 2 Topical Module File
    • DS7: Wave 3 Core Microdata File
    • DS8: Data Dictionary for Wave 3 Core Microdata File
    • DS9: Wave 3 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS10: Data Dictionary for Wave 3 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS11: Wave 4 Core Microdata File
    • DS12: Data Dictionary for Wave 4 Core Microdata File
    • DS13: Wave 4 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS14: Data Dictionary for Wave 4 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS15: Wave 5 Core Microdata File
    • DS16: Data Dictionary for Wave 5 Core Microdata File
    • DS17: Wave 5 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS18: Data Dictionary for Wave 5 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS19: Wave 6 Core Microdata File
    • DS20: Wave 6 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS21: Wave 7 Core Microdata File
    • DS22: Wave 7 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS23: Wave 8 Core Microdata File
    • DS24: Wave 8 Topical Module Microdata File
    • DS25: User Notes
    • DS26: Wave 5 Topical Module Microdata Research File
Temporal Coverage
  • 1990-10 / 1992-08
    Time period: 1990-10--1992-08
  • 1991-02 / 1992-09
    Collection date: 1991-02--1992-09
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Resident population of the United States, excluding persons living in institutions and military barracks.
A multistage stratified sampling design was used. One-fourth of the sample households were interviewed each month, and households were reinterviewed at four-month intervals. All persons at least 15 years old who were present as household members at the time of the first interview were included for the entire study, except those who joined the military, were institutionalized for the entire study period, or moved from the United States. Original household members who moved during the study period were followed to their new residences and interviewed there. New persons moving into households of members of the original sample also were included in the survey, but were not followed if they left the household of an original sample person.
Collection Mode
  • (1) Beginning with the 1990 Panel, the file structure of SIPP was changed. The unit of observation is one record for each person for each month, rather than one record per person. Also, topical modules are provided separately from the core files. (2) The codebooks are provided as Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided through the ICPSR Website on the Internet.

2002-09-19 Part 26, Wave 5 Topical Module Microdata Research File, has been added to this collection along with a corresponding PDF codebook. This research file is an unedited version of Part 17. This research file has not been edited nor imputed but has been topcoded or bottomcoded and recoded if necessary by the Census Bureau to avoid disclosure of individual respondents' identities. Codebooks for other data files in the collection have been converted to PDF as well.1998-01-14 Part 8, Data Dictionary for Wave 3 Core Microdata File, has been added, and the codebook for the Wave 3 data file is now available as a PDF file.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9855 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09855.v1
  • Van Hook, Jennifer, Glick, Jennifer E.. Immigration and living arrangements: Moving beyond economic need versus acculturation. Demography.44, (2), 225-249.2007.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2007.0019 (DOI)
  • Elder, Todd E., Powers, Elizabeth T.. The Incredible Shrinking Program: Trends in SSI Participation of the Aged. Research on Aging.28, (3), 341-358.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/0164027505285918 (DOI)
  • Washington, Ebonya. The impact of banking and fringe banking regulation on the number of unbanked Americans. Journal of Human Resources.41, (1), 106-137.2006.
  • Almond, Douglas, Mazumder, Bhashkar. 1918 influenza pandemic and subsequent health outcomes: An analysis of SIPP data. American Economic Review.95 , (2), 258-262.2005.
    • ID: 10.1257/000282805774669943 (DOI)
  • Gottschalk, Peter. Downward nominal-wage flexibility: Real or measurement error?. Review of Economics and Statistics.87, (3), 556-568.2005.
    • ID: 10.1162/0034653054638328 (DOI)
  • Ham, John C., Shore-Sheppard, Lara. The effect of Medicaid expansions for low-income children on Medicaid participation and private insurance coverage: Evidence from the SIPP. Journal of Public Economics.89, (1), 57-83.2005.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.011 (DOI)
  • Card, David, Hildreth, Andrew K. G., Shore-Sheppard, Lara D.. The measurement of Medicaid coverage in the SIPP: Evidence from a comparison of matched records. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics.22, (4), 410-420.2004.
    • ID: 10.1198/073500104000000208 (DOI)
  • Grogger, Jeffrey. Welfare transitions in the 1990s: The economy, Welfare policy, and the EITC. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.23, (4), 671-695.2004.
    • ID: 10.1002/pam.20042 (DOI)
  • Johnson, John H. IV. Do long work hours contribute to divorce?. Topics in Economic Analysis and Policy.4, (1), 1-23.2004.
  • Neumark, David, Kawaguchi, Daiji. Attrition bias in labor economics research using matched CPS files. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement.29, (4), 445-472.2004.
  • Han, Wen-Jui, Waldfogel, Jane. Parental Leave: The Impact of Recent Legislation on Parents' Leave Taking. Demography.40, (1), 191-200.2003.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2003.0003 (DOI)
  • Neumark, David, Powers, Elizabeth T.. Effect of the SSI program on labor supply: Improved evidence from Social Security administrative files. Social Security Bulletin.65, (3), 45-60.2003.
  • Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Houser, Scott. EITC and marriage. National Tax Journal.55, (1), 25-40.2002.
  • Moore, James H., Jr., Muller, leslie A.. An analysis of lump-sum pension distribution recipients. Monthly Labor Review.125, (5), 29-46.2002.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Yamaki, K., Fujiura, G.T.. Employment and income status of adults with developmental disabilities living in the community. Mental Retardation.40, (2), 132-141.2002.
    • ID: 10.1352/0047-6765(2002)040<0132:EAISOA>2.0.CO;2 (DOI)
  • Davies, Paul S., Huynh, Minh, Newcomb, Chad, O'Leary, Paul, et al. Modeling SSI financial eligibility and simulating the effect of policy options. Social Security Bulletin.64, (2), 16-45.2001.
  • DeLeire, Thomas. Changes in wage discrimination against people with disabilities: 1984-93. Journal of Human Resources.36, (1), 144-158.2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Gruber, Jonathan. The wealth of the unemployed. Industrial and Labor Relations Review.55, (1), 79-94.2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Stapleton, David C., Wittenburg, David C., Fishman, Michael E., Livermore, Gina A.. Transitions from AFDC to SSI before welfare reform. Social Security Bulletin.64, (1), 84-114.2001.
  • Swingle, Joseph F.. Children in flux: An empirical study of American children living with neither parent in the 20th century. Dissertation, Harvard University. 2001.
  • Anonymous. Pricis: Unemployment and wealth. Monthly Labor Review.123, (2), 47 -2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bartfeld, Judi. Child support and the postdivorce economic well-being of mothers, fathers, and children. Demography.37, (2), 203-213.2000.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Cullen, Julie Berry, Gruber, Jonathan. Does unemployment insurance crowd out spousal labor supply?. Journal of Labor Economics.18, (3), 546 -2000.
    • ID: 10.1086/209969 (DOI)
  • Dey, Matthew Scott. Employer-Provided Health Insurance: Mobility, Welfare, and Labor Market Equilibrium. Dissertation, New York University. 2000.
  • Bauman, Kurt J.. Shifting family definitions: The effect of cohabitation and other nonfamily household relationships on measures of poverty. Demography.36, (3), 315-325.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Freedman, Vicki A., Martin, Linda G.. The role of education in explaining and forecasting trends in functional limitations among older Americans. Demography.36, (4), 461-473.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bansak, Cynthia, Raphael, Steven. Have Employment Relationships in the United States Become Less Stable? Working Paper. 98/15, San Diego, CA: University of California, San Diego, Department of Economics. 1998.
  • Carrasquillo, Olveen, Himmelstein, David U., Woolhandler, Steffie, Bor, David H.. Can Medicaid managed care provide continuity of care to new Medicaid enrollees? An analysis of tenure on Medicaid. American Journal of Public Health.88, (3), 464-466.1998.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.88.3.464 (DOI)
  • Casper, Lynne M., O'Connell, Martin. Work, income, the economy, and married fathers as childcare providers. Demography.35, (2), 243-250.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Freeman, Richard B., Waldfogel, Jane. Dunning Delinquent Dads: The Effects of Child Support Enforcement Policy on Child Support Receipts by Never Married Women. NBER Working Paper Series.6664, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Han, Wen-Jui. The Effects of Child Care on Women's Employment and Child Care Utilization. Dissertation, Columbia University. 1998.
  • Iams, Howard M., Sandell, Steven H.. Cost-neutral policies to increase Social Security benefits for widows: A simulation for 1992. Social Security Bulletin.61, (1), 34-43.1998.
  • Neumark, David, Powers, Elizabeth. Welfare for the Elderly: The Effects of SSI on Pre-Retirement Labor Supply, Working Paper. NBER Working Paper Series.6805, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Short, Kathleen, Shea, Martina, Johnson, David, Garner, Thesia I.. Poverty-Measurement Research Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the Survey of Income and Program Participation. American Economic Review.88, (2), 352-356.1998.
  • DeBell, Megan, Yi, Hsiao-Ye, Hartmann, Heidi. Single Mothers, Jobs and Welfare: What the Data Tell Us. Research in Brief.Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research. 1997.
  • Ettner, Susan L.. Medicaid participation among the eligible elderly. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.16, (2), 237-255.1997.
    • ID: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6688(199721)16:2<237::AID-PAM3>3.0.CO;2-J (DOI)
  • Holden, K.C., Zick, C.D.. The economic impact of widowhood in the 1990s: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Consumer Interests Annual.43, 34-39.1997.
  • Iams, Howard M., Sandell, Steven H.. Projecting Social Security earnings: Past is prologue. Social Security Bulletin.60, (2), 3-16.1997.
  • Kennedy, Jae. Personal assistance benefits and federal health care reforms: Who is eligible on the basis of ADL assistance criteria?. Journal of Rehabilitation.63, (36), 40-45.1997.
  • Martini, Alberto. Why SIPP and CPS produce different poverty measures among the elderly. Social Security Bulletin.60, (4), 50-55.1997.
  • Martini, Alberto, Dowhan, Daniel. Documenting and Explaining SIPP-CPS Differences in Poverty Measures Among the Elderly. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. 1997.
  • Borjas, George J., Hilton, Lynette. Immigration and the Welfare State: Immigration Participation in Means-Tested Entitlement Programs. Quarterly Journal of Economics.111, (2), 575-604.1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Casper, Lynne M.. Who's Minding Our Preschoolers?. Current Population Reports.Washington, DC: United States Bureau of the Census. 1996.
  • Engen, Eric M., Gale, William G.. The Effects of Fundamental Tax Reform on Saving. The Economic Effects of Fundamental Tax Reform.Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. 1996.
  • Kennedy, James Joseph. Americans Needing Assistance with Activities of Daily Living: Current Estimates and Policy Implications. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley. 1996.
  • Spain, Daphne, Bianchi, Suzanne M.. Balancing Act: Motherhood, Marriage, and Employment Among American Women. New York: Russell Sage. 1996.
  • Anonymous. Weak economy of early 1990s meant lower-paying jobs for many workers. Tax Management Financial Planning Journal.11, (2), 43 -1995.
  • Bennefield, R.. Dynamics of Economic Well Being: Health Insurance, 1991 to 1993. Survey of Income and Program Participation Publication.70-43, Washington, DC: United States Department of Commerce. 1995.
  • Dortch, Shannon. The gold in Grandma's house. American Demographics.16, (4), 9 -1994.
  • Furukawa, Stacy. The Diverse Living Arrangements of Children: Summer 1991. Washington, DC: . 1994.
  • Turner, Rebecca M.. One in four preschoolers with working mothers attend day care facilities. Family Planning Perspectives.26, (5), 238 -1994.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 10 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census (1993): Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) [1991 Panel]. Archival Version. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.