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Correlates of War Project: International and Civil War Data, 1816-1992

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data and event/transaction data
Creator
  • Singer, J. David
  • Small, Melvin
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Correlates of War Project Series
Publication Date
1994-05-20
Funding Reference
  • United States Institute of Peace
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
armed conflict; civil wars; international conflict; military intervention; military strength; population; power; war; war deaths; world wars
Description
  • Abstract

    This data collection describes international and civil wars for the years 1816-1992. Part 1, the International Wars file, describes the experience of each interstate member in each war. The unit of analysis is the participant in a particular conflict. When and where each interstate member fought is coded, along with battle and total deaths, pre-war population and armed forces, and whether the member in question initiated the conflict. Each war is characterized as interstate, colonial, or imperial, and major power status and/or central system membership of the warring parties is noted. Part 2, the Civil Wars file, describes when and where fighting took place, whether the war was fought within the boundaries of a major power or central system member, whether there was outside intervention and, if so, whether the intervening state was a major power, on what side they intervened, who won the war, number of battle deaths, total population, and total number of pre-war armed forces.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: International Wars Raw Data
    • DS2: Civil Wars Raw Data
    • DS3: Codebook for All Parts
    • DS4: SPSS Export File for International Wars Data
    • DS5: SPSS Export File for Civil Wars Data
    • DS6: SAS Data Definition Statements for Part 1, International Wars Raw Data
    • DS7: SAS Data Definition Statements for Part 2, Civil Wars Raw Data
    • DS20: Diskette D00142
Temporal Coverage
  • 1816 / 1992
    Time period: 1816--1992
  • 1982 / 1992
    Collection date: 1982--1992
Geographic Coverage
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Wars from 1816-1992 in which at least one member of the interstate system took part.
Collection Mode
  • Part 5, an SPSS Export File, contains three alphanumeric variables (WARNAME, ABBREV, and NATNAME), not included in the raw data version of this collection. This data collection replaces WAGES OF WAR, 1816-1980: AUGMENTED WITH DISPUTES AND CIVIL WAR DATA (ICPSR 9044).

Note
2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 3 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads. Funding insitution(s): United States Institute of Peace (464 and SES9213364). National Science Foundation.
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9905 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09905.v1
Publications
  • Boehmer, C.R., Jungblut, B.M.E., Stoll, R.J.. Tradeoffs in trade data: Do our assumptions affect our results?. Conflict Management and Peace Science.28, (2), 145-167.2011.
    • ID: 10.1177/0738894210396630 (DOI)
  • Hausmann, Ricardo, Pritchett, Lant., Rodrik, Dani. Growth accelerations. Journal of Economic Growth.10, (4), 303-329.2005.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10887-005-4712-0 (DOI)
  • Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke. Greed and grievance in civil war. Oxford Economic Papers.56, 563-595.2004.
    • ID: 10.1093/oep/gpf064 (DOI)
  • Gleditsch, Kristian S.. A revised list of wars between and within independent states, 1816-2002. International Interactions.30, (3), 231-262.2004.
    • ID: 10.1080/03050620490492150 (DOI)
  • Clark, David, et al. Opportunities to fight: A statistical technique for modeling unobservable phenomena. Journal of Conflict Resolution.47, (1), 94-115.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002702239513 (DOI)
  • Collier, Paul, Elliott, V.L., Hegre, Havard, Hoeffler, Anke, Reynal-Querol, Marta, Sambanis, Nicholas. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. A World Bank Policy Research Report.26121, Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development; World Bank. 2003.
  • Eichenberg, Richard C., et al. Representing defense: Democratic control of the defense budget in the United States and Western Europe. Journal of Conflict Resolution.47, (4), 399-422.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002703254477 (DOI)
  • Fearon, James D., Laitin, David D.. Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. American Political Science Review.97, (1), 75-90.2003.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0003055403000534 (DOI)
  • Fortna, Virginia Page. Scraps of paper? Agreements and the durability of peace. International Organization.57, (2), 337-372.2003.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0020818303572046 (DOI)
  • Leeds, Brett Ashley. Alliance Reliability in Times of War: Explaining State Decisions to Violence Treaties. International Organization.57, (4), 801-827.2003.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0020818303574057 (DOI)
  • Moul, William. Power parity, preponderance, and war between great powers, 1816-1989. Journal of Conflict Resolution.47, (4), 468-489.2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002703252980 (DOI)
  • Ravlo, Hilde, et al. Colonial war and the democratic peace. Journal of Conflict Resolution.47, (4), 520 -2003.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002703254295 (DOI)
  • Blomberg, S. Brock, Hess, Gregory D.. The temporal links between conflict and economic activity. Journal of Conflict Resolution.46, (1), 74-90.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002702046001005 (DOI)
  • Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke. On the incidence of civil war in Africa. Journal of Conflict Resolution.46, (1), 13-28.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002702046001002 (DOI)
  • De Soysa, Indra. Paradise Is a Bazaar? Greed, Creed, and Governance in Civil War, 1989-99. Journal of Peace Research.39, (4), 395-416.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343302039004002 (DOI)
  • Elbadawi, Ibrahim, Sambanis, Nicholas. How much war will we see?: Explaining the prevalence of civil war. Journal of Conflict Resolution.46, (3), 307-334.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002702046003001 (DOI)
  • Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta, Strand, Havard, . Armed Conflict 1946-2001: A New Dataset. Journal of Peace Research.39, (5), 615-637.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343302039005007 (DOI)
  • Kim, Woosang. Power parity, aliiance, dissatisfaction, and wars in East Asia, 1860-1993. Journal of Conflict Resolution.46, (5), 654-671.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/002200202236168 (DOI)
  • Mansfield, Edward D., Snyder, Jack. Democratic Transitions, Institutional Strength, and War. International Organization.56, (2), 297-337.2002.
    • ID: 10.1162/002081802320005496 (DOI)
  • Murdoch, James C., Sandler, Todd. Economic growth, civil wars, and spatial spillovers. Journal of Conflict Resolution.46, (1), 91-110.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002702046001006 (DOI)
  • Palmer, Glenn, Wohlander, Scott B., Morgan, T. Clifton. Give or take: Foreign aid and foreign policy substitutability. Journal of Peace Research.39, (1), 5-26.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343302039001001 (DOI)
  • Peceny, Mark, Beer, Caroline C., Sanchez-Terry, Shannon. Dictatorial Peace?. American Political Science Review.96, (1), 15-26.2002.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0003055402004203 (DOI)
  • Pevehouse, Jon C.. Democracy from the Outside-In? International Organizations and Democratization. International Organization.56, (3), 515-549.2002.
    • ID: 10.1162/002081802760199872 (DOI)
  • Reiter, Dan, Tillman, Erik R.. Public, Legislative, and Executive Constraints on the Democratic Initiation of Conflict. Journal of Politics.64, (3), 810-826.2002.
  • Reynal-Querol, Marta. Ethnicity, political systems, and civil wars. Journal of Conflict Resolution.46, (1), 29-54.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002702046001003 (DOI)
  • Sambanis, Nicholas. Conceptual and Empirical Complexities of Identifying Civil Wars. Yale University, Unpublished manuscript. 2002.
  • Tir, Jaroslav, Diehl, Paul F.. Geographic Dimensions of Enduring Rivalries. Political Geography.21, (2), 263-286.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0962-6298(01)00059-2 (DOI)
  • Weitsman, Patricia A., Shambaugh, George E.. International Systems, Domestic Structures, and Risk. Journal of Peace Research.39, (3), 289-312.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343302039003003 (DOI)
  • Adres, Richard Brian. The balancing preference: Why powerful states win or lose militarized disputes. Dissertation, University of California, Davis. 2001.
  • Arreguin-Toft, Ivan. How the weak win wars: A theory of asymmetric conflict. International Security.26, (1), 93-128.2001.
    • ID: 10.1162/016228801753212868 (DOI)
  • Baker, William D., Oneal, John R.. Patriotism or opinion leadership?: The nature and origins of the 'rally 'round the flag' effect. Journal of Conflict Resolution.45, (5), 661-687.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002701045005006 (DOI)
  • Beck, Nathaniel, Katz, Jonathan N.. Throwing out the baby with the bath water: A comment on Green, Kim, and Yoon. International Organization.55, (2), 487-495.2001.
    • ID: 10.1162/00208180151140658 (DOI)
  • Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. The role of arms transfers in the quest for human security. Journal of Political and Military Sociology.29, (2), 240-258.2001.
  • Cederman, Lars-Erik, Rao, Mohan Penubarti. Exploring the dynamics of the democratic peace. Journal of Conflict Resolution.45, (6), 818-833.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002701045006006 (DOI)
  • Danilovic, Vesna. The sources of threat credibility in extended deterrence. Journal of Conflict Resolution.45, (3), 341-369.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002701045003005 (DOI)
  • Gelpi, Christopher F., Griesdorf, Michael. Winners or losers? Democracies in international crisis, 1918-94. American Political Science Review.95, (3), 633-647.2001.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0003055401003148 (DOI)
  • Gleditsch, Kristian S., Ward, Michael D.. Measuring Space: A Minimum-Distance Database and Applications to International Studies. Journal of Peace Research.38, (6), 739-758.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343301038006006 (DOI)
  • Green, Donald P., Kim, Soo Yeaon, Yoon, David H.. Dirty pool. International Organization.55, (2), 441-468.2001.
    • ID: 10.1162/00208180151140630 (DOI)
  • Hegre, Håvard, Ellingsen,Tanja, Gates, Scott, Gleditsch, Nils Petter. Toward a democratic civil peace? Democracy, political change, and civil war, 1816-1992. American Political Science Review.95, (1), 33-48.2001.
  • Hensel, Paul R.. Contentious issues and world politics: The management of territorial claims in the Americas, 1816-1992. International Studies Quarterly.45, (1), 81-109.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00183 (DOI)
  • Horwitz, Michael, Reiter, Dan. When does aerial bombing work? Quantitative empirical tests, 1917-1999. Journal of Conflict Resolution.45, (2), 147-173.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002701045002001 (DOI)
  • Ireland, Michael J., Gartner, Scott Sigmund. Time to fight: Government type and conflict initiation in parliamentary systems. Journal of Conflict Resolution.45, (5), 547-568.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002701045005001 (DOI)
  • Lemke, Douglas, Reed, William. The relevance of politically relevant dyads. Journal of Conflict Resolution.45, (1), 126-144.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002701045001006 (DOI)
  • Oneal, John R., Russett, Bruce. Clear and clean: The fixed effects of the liberal peace. International Organization.55, (2), 469-485.2001.
    • ID: 10.1162/00208180151140649 (DOI)
  • Parris, Thomas M.. Accessing Data on Armed Conflicts and Humanitarian Crises. Environment.43, (2), 3-3.2001.
    • ID: 10.1080/00139150109605141 (DOI)
  • Pickering, Jeffrey. The conflict-prone and the conflict-weary: War outcomes and types of military intervention, 1946-1996. Journal of Political and Military Sociology.29, (2), 221-239.2001.
  • Rasler, Karen, Thompson, William R.. Rivalries and the Democratic Peace in the Major Power Subsystem. Journal of Peace Research.38, (6), 659-683.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343301038006002 (DOI)
  • Reiter, Dan. Does Peace Nurture Democracy?. Journal of Politics.63, (3), 935-948.2001.
  • Sambianis, Nicholas. Do ethnic and nonethnic civil wars have the same causes?. Journal of Conflict Resolution.45, (3), 259-282.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002701045003001 (DOI)
  • Scanlon, Stephen J.. Guns, butter, and development: Security and military famine extensions of the modernization versus dependency debate. Journal of Political and Military Sociology.29, (2), 331-355.2001.
  • Aron, Janine. Growth and institutions: A review of the evidence. World Bank Research Observer.15, (1), 99-135.2000.
    • ID: 10.1093/wbro/15.1.99 (DOI)
  • Ayres, R. William. A World Flying Apart? Violent Nationalist Conflict and the End of the Cold War. Journal of Peace Research.37, (1), 105-117.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343300037001006 (DOI)
  • Bennett, D. Scott, Stam, Allan C.. Research design and estimator choices in the analysis of interstate dyads. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (5), 653-685.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044005005 (DOI)
  • Caprioli, Mary. Gendered Conflict. Journal of Peace Research.37, (1), 51-68.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343300037001003 (DOI)
  • Collier, Paul. Rebellion as a quasi-criminal activity. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (6), 839-853.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044006008 (DOI)
  • Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke. Greed and Grievance in Civil War. World Bank working papger.2355, Washington, DC: World Bank. 2000.
  • Doyle, Michael W., Sambanis, Nicholas. International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis. American Political Science Review.94, (4), 779-801.2000.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586208 (URL)
  • Ellingsen, Tanja. Colorful community or ethnic witches' brew?. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (2), 228-249.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044002004 (DOI)
  • Gartzke, Erik. Preferences and the Democratic Peace. International Studies Quarterly.44, (2), 191-212.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00155 (DOI)
  • Gleditsch, Kristian S., Ward, Michael D.. War and Peace in Space and Time: The Role of Democratization. International Studies Quarterly.44, (1), 1-29.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00146 (DOI)
  • Goemans, H.E.. Fighting for survival: The fate of leaders and the duration of war. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (5), 555-579.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044005001 (DOI)
  • Gowa, Joanne. Ballots and Bullets: The Elusive Democratic Peace. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2000.
  • Henderson, Errol A.. When states implode; The correlates of Africa's civil wars, 1950-92. Studies in Comparative International Development.35, (2), 28-47.2000.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02687469 (DOI)
  • Hensel, Paul R., Goertz, Gary, Diehl, Paul F.. The democratic peace and rivalries. Journal of Politics.62, (4), 1173-1188.2000.
  • Lai, Brian, Reiter, Dan. Democracy, political similarity, and international alliances, 1816-1992. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (2), 203-227.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044002003 (DOI)
  • Leeds, Brett Ashley, Long, Andrew G., Mitchell, Sara McLaughlin. Reevaluating alliance reliability: Specific threats, specific promises. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (5), 686-699.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044005006 (DOI)
  • Mansfield, Edward D., Milner, Helen V., Rosendorff, B. Peter. Free to Trade: Democracies, Autocracies, and International Trade. American Political Science Review.94, (2), 305 -2000.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2586014 (URL)
  • Mansfield, Edward D., Pevehouse, Jon C.. Trade Blocs, Trade Flows, and International Conflict. International Organization.54, (4), 775-808.2000.
    • ID: 10.1162/002081800551361 (DOI)
  • Morgan, T. Clifton, Palmer, Glenn. A model of foreign policy substitutability. Journal of Conflict Resolution.44, (1), 11-32.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002700044001002 (DOI)
  • Pfetsch, Frank R., Rohloff, Christoph. KOSIMO: A databank on political conflict. Journal of Peace Research.37, (3), 379-389.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343300037003006 (DOI)
  • Sambanis, Nicholas. Partition as a solution to ethnic war: An empirical critique of the theoretical literature. World Politics.52, (4), 437-483.2000.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0043887100020074 (DOI)
  • Werner, Suzanne. The Effects of Political Similarity on the Onset of Militarized Disputes, 1816-1985. Political Research Quarterly.53, (2), 343-374.2000.
  • Auvinen, Juha, Nafziger, E. Wayne. The sources of humanitarian emergencies. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (3), 267-290.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043003001 (DOI)
  • Baker, William Donald. The 'Rally 'round the Flag' Effect and Presidential Uses of Force. Dissertation, University of Alabama. 1999.
  • Barbieri, Katherine, Levy, Jack S.. Sleeping with the enemy: The impact of war on trade. Journal of Peace Research.36, (4), 463-479.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036004005 (DOI)
  • Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. Instruments of Security or Tools of Repression? Arms Imports and Human Rights Conditions in Developing Countries. Journal of Peace Research.36, (2), 233-244.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036002006 (DOI)
  • Crescenzi, Mark J.C., Enterline, Andrew J.. Ripples from the Waves?: A Systemic, Time-Series Analysis of Democracy, Democratization, and Interstate War. Journal of Peace Research.36, (1), 75-94.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036001005 (DOI)
  • Dassel, Kurt, Reinhart, Erik. Domestic Strife and the Initiation of Violence at Home and Abroad. American Journal of Political Science.43, (1), 56-85.1999.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991785 (URL)
  • Gartzke, Erik, Simon, Michael W.. 'Hot hand': A critical analysis of enduring rivalries. Journal of Politics.61, (3), 777-798.1999.
  • Gibler, Douglas M.. East or further east?. Journal of Peace Research.36, (6), 627-637.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036006002 (DOI)
  • Henderson, Errol A.. Neoidealism and the democratic peace. Journal of Peace Research.36, (2), 203-231.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036002005 (DOI)
  • Mason, T. David, Weingarten, Hoseph P., Jr., Fett, Patrick J.. Win, lose, or draw: Predicting the outcome of Civil Wars. Political Research Quarterly.52, (2), 239-268.1999.
  • Mitchell, Sara McLaughlin, Gates, Scott, Hegre, Havard. Evolution in democracy-war dynamics. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (6), 771-792.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043006005 (DOI)
  • Mousseau, Michael, Shi, Yuhang. A test for reverse causality in the democratic peace relationship. Journal of Peace Research.36, (6), 639-663.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036006003 (DOI)
  • Palmer, Glenn, David, J. Sky. Multiple goals or deterrence. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (6), 748-770.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043006004 (DOI)
  • Peceny, Mark. Forcing them to be free. Political Research Quarterly.52, (3), 549-582.1999.
  • Rasler, Karen, Thompson, William R.. Predatory initiators and changing landscapes for warfare. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (4), 411-433.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043004001 (DOI)
  • Reiter, Dan. Military strategy and the outbreak of international conflict: Quantitative empirical tests, 1903-1992. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (3), 366-387.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043003005 (DOI)
  • Reiter, Dan, Meek, Curtis. Determinants of Military Strategy, 1903-1994: A Quantitative Empirical Test. International Studies Quarterly.43, (2), 363-387.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00124 (DOI)
  • Schultz, Kenneth A.. Do democratic institutions constrain or inform? Contrasting two institutional perspectives on democracy and war. International Organization.53, (2), 233 -1999.
    • ID: 10.1162/002081899550878 (DOI)
  • Werner, Suzanne. Choosing demands strategically. Journal of Conflict Resolution.43, (6), 705-726.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002799043006002 (DOI)
  • Werner, Suzanne. The precarious nature of peace: Resolving the issues, enforcing the settlement, and renegotiating the terms. American Journal of Political Science.43, (3), 912-934.1999.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991840 (URL)
  • Art, Robert J.. Creating a disaster: NATO's open door policy. Political Science Quarterly.113, (3), 383-403.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2658073 (URL)
  • Art, Robert J.. Geopolitics Updated. International Security.23, (3), 79 -1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2539339 (URL)
  • Bennett, D. Scott. Integrating and testing models of rivalry duration. American Journal of Political Science.42, (4), 1200-1232.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991855 (URL)
  • Bennett, D. Scott, Stam, Allan C., III. The declining advantages of democracy. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (3), 344-366.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042003007 (DOI)
  • Benson, Michelle, Kugler, Jacek. Power, parity, democracy, and the severity of internal violence. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (2), 196-209.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042002004 (DOI)
  • Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce. The end of the cold war: Predicting an emergent property. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (2), 131-155.1998.
  • Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke. On economic causes of civil war. Oxford Economic Papers.50, (4), 563 -1998.
    • ID: 10.1093/oep/50.4.563 (DOI)
  • Enterline, A.J.. Regime Changes, Neighborhoods, and Interstate Conflict, 1816-1992. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (6), 804-829.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042006006 (DOI)
  • Enterline, Andrew J.. Regime changes and interstate conflict, 1816-1992. Political Research Quarterly.51, (2), 385-409.1998.
  • Gartzke, Erik. Kant we all just get along? Opportunity, willingness, and the origins of the democratic peace. American Journal of Political Science.42, (1), 1-27.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2991745 (URL)
  • Gibler, Douglas M., Vasquez, John A.. Uncovering the Dangerous Alliances, 1495-1980. International Studies Quarterly.42, (4), 785-807.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00106 (DOI)
  • Gissinger, Ranveig, Gleditsch, Nils Petter. Globalization and Domestic Violent Conflict. International Sociological Association. 1998.
  • Gowa, Joanne. Politics at the water's edge: Parties, voters, and the use of force abroad. International Organization.52, (2), 307 -1998.
    • ID: 10.1162/002081898753162839 (DOI)
  • Hauge, Wenche, Ellingsen, Tanja. Beyond Environmental Scarcity: Causal Pathways to Conflict. Journal of Peace Research.35, (3), 299-317.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343398035003003 (DOI)
  • Henderson, Errol A.. The impact of culture on African coups d'etat, 1960-1997. World Affairs.161, (1), 10-21.1998.
  • Henderson, Errol Anthony. The Democratic Peace Through the Lens of Culture, 1820-1989. International Studies Quarterly.42, (3), 461-484.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00092 (DOI)
  • Hironaka, Ann Mari. Boundaries of War: Historical Changes in Types of War, 1816-1980. Dissertation, Stanford University. 1998.
  • Huth, Paul K.. Major Power Intervention in International Crises, 1918-1988. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (6), 744-770.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042006004 (DOI)
  • Johnston, Alastair Iain. China's militarized interstate dispute behaviour 1949-1992: A first cut at the data. China Quarterly.426, 1-30.1998.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0305741000002964 (DOI)
  • Morrow, James D., Siverson, Randolph M., Tabares, Tressa E.. The political determinants of international trade: The major powers, 1907-90. American Political Science Review.92, (3), 649-661.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2585487 (URL)
  • Mousseau, Michael. Democracy and compromise in militarized interstate conflicts, 1816-1992. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (2), 210-230.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042002005 (DOI)
  • Reiter, Dan, Stam, Allan C., III. Democracy, war initiation, and victory. American Political Science Review.92, (2), 377-389.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2585670 (URL)
  • Sample, Susan G.. Military buildups, war, and realpolitik: A multivariate model. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (2), 156-175.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042002002 (DOI)
  • Schmeidl, Susanne, Jenkins, J. Craig. The early warning of humanitarian disasters: Problems in building an early warning system. International Migration Review.32, (2), 471-486.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2547192 (URL)
  • Soltvedt, Lars Peter. The Opportunity Costs of Militarized Conflict and War in the Third World, 1965-1992. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 1998.
  • Ward, Michael D., Gleditsch, Kristian S.. Democratizing for Peace. American Political Science Review.92, (1), 51-61.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2585928 (URL)
  • Werner, Suzanne. Negotiating the terms of settlement: War aims and bargaining leverage. Journal of Conflict Resolution.42, (3), 321-343.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002798042003006 (DOI)
  • Bennett, D. Scott. Measuring rivalry termination, 1816-1992. Journal of Conflict Resolution.41, (2), 227-254.1997.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Singer, J. David; Small, Melvin (1994): Correlates of War Project: International and Civil War Data, 1816-1992. Archival Version. Correlates of War Project Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09905