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Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment, 1987-1989

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data and administrative records data
Creator
  • Sherman, Lawrence W. (Crime Control Institute)
  • Schmidt, Janell D. (Crime Control Institute)
  • Rogan, Dennis P. (Crime Control Institute)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1995-03-16
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
Language
English
Free Keywords
arrest records; arrests; deterrence; domestic assault; domestic violence; imprisonment; police response; recidivism; victims; womens shelters
Description
  • Abstract

    This study represents a modified replication of the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (SPECIFIC DETERRENT EFFECTS OF ARREST FOR DOMESTIC ASSAULT: MINNEAPOLIS, 1981-1982 [ICPSR 8250]). The Minneapolis study found arrest to be an effective deterrent against repeat domestic violence. The two key purposes of the current study were (1) to examine the possible differences in reactions to arrest, and (2) to compare the effects of short and long incarceration associated with arrest. Research protocol involved 35 patrol officers in four Milwaukee police districts screening domestic violence cases for eligibility, then calling police headquarters to request a randomly-assigned disposition. The three possible randomly assigned dispositions were (1) Code 1, which consisted of arrest and at least one night in jail, unless the suspect posted bond, (2) Code 2, which consisted of arrest and immediate release on recognizance from the booking area at police headquarters, or as soon as possible, and (3) Code 3, which consisted of a standard Miranda-style script warning read by police to both suspect and victim. A battered women's shelter hotline system provided the primary measurement of the frequency of violence by the same suspects both before and after each case leading to a randomized police action. Other forms of measurement included arrests of the suspect both before and after the offense, as well as offenses against the same victim. Initial victim interviews were attempted within one month after the first 900 incidents were compiled. A second victim interview was attempted six months after the incident for all 1,200 cases. Data collected for this study included detailed data on each of the 1,200 randomized events, less detailed data on an additional 854 cases found ineligible, "pipeline" data on the frequency of domestic violence in the four Milwaukee police districts, official measures of prior and subsequent domestic violence for both suspects and victims, interviews of arrested suspects for eligible and ineligible cases, criminal justice system dispositions of the randomized arrests, results of urinalysis tests of drug and alcohol use for some arrestees, and log attempts to obtain interviews from suspects and victims. Demographic variables include victim and suspect age, race, education, employment status, and marital status. Additional information obtained includes victim-offender relationships, alcohol and drug use during incident, substance of conflict, nature of victim injury and medical treatment as reported by police and victims, characteristics of suspects in the Code 1 and 2 arrest groups, victim and suspect reports of who called police, and victim and suspect versions of speed of police response.
  • Abstract

    This data collection is patterned after the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (SPECIFIC DETERRENT EFFECTS OF ARREST FOR DOMESTIC ASSAULT: MINNEAPOLIS, 1981-1982 [ICPSR 8250]), a study testing police responses to domestic violence. That study found that arrest was the most effective of three standard methods police use to reduce domestic violence. The other police methods--attempting to counsel both parties or sending assailants away from home for several hours--were found to be considerably less effective in deterring future domestic violence in the cases examined. The current study represents a modified replication in Milwaukee of the original Minneapolis experiment, with four times as many cases, fewer deviations from random assignment, a majority of Black victims and offenders, and measures of before-and-after differences in offending frequency. The main objectives of the study were (1) to replicate the Minneapolis experiment in a city with higher rates and seriousness of violence, particularly one with a greater ethnic and economic mix, (2) to test the impact of arrest with brief versus overnight jail time, and (3) to measure interaction effects by obtaining a larger sample size. The study focused on repeat domestic violence by the suspect against any victim, the total frequency of repeat violence associated with each of the police actions, and the total count of all violent incidents during the follow-up period.
  • Abstract

    Experimental procedures involved 35 patrol officers in four of Milwaukee, Wisconsin's six police districts screening all misdemeanor domestic battery cases for eligibility, then calling the Crime Control Institute office at police headquarters to request a randomly-assigned disposition. The eligibility requirements included probable cause that a misdemeanor battery had taken place between two adult cohabitants or former cohabitants or parents of the same child, where a single suspect was present and none of the following conditions were found: (a) a valid restraining order in effect, (b) an outstanding warrant for the suspect's arrest, (c) serious bodily injury or threat of more violence, and (d) suspect's assault on a police officer. The method of random assignment was to pre-number the dispositions as Codes 1, 2, or 3, and arrange the sequence of those three dispositions in a computer- generated order in sealed envelopes with the sequence numbers marked on the outside. Crime Control Institute staff opened the envelopes when police called, telling police the correct disposition and recording the case in the caselog. Code 1 consisted of arrest and at least one night in jail, unless the suspect posted $250 bond. Code 2 involved arrest and immediate release on recognizance from the booking area at police headquarters, preferably within two hours, or as soon as possible. Code 3 consisted of a standard Miranda-style script warning read by police to both suspect and victim, telling them that no arrest would be made unless police had to return to the home that evening. The primary measurement of recidivism was calls recorded by a Milwaukee battered women's shelter hotline system. Additional measures of prior offending and recidivism were obtained from the Milwaukee Police Department's file on individual arrest histories and victim interviews. Initial victim interviews were attempted within one month after the first 900 incidents were compiled. At some point six months after the randomized incident, follow-up interviews were attempted for all 1,200 cases. Interviews with arrested eligible suspects (Codes 1 and 2) and ineligible suspects were conducted in the police department's lockup cells prior to booking. To explore the connection between domestic violence and alcohol or drug abuse, urine sampling was undertaken for the last 300 eligible and ineligible domestic violence arrestees.
  • Abstract

    Victim interviews collected information regarding the nature of the domestic assault incident such as reason for the argument, extent of violence, threats, and property damage, and incidents of domestic assault subsequent to the presenting incident. Additional information was collected regarding victim-offender relationships, alcohol and drug use during the incident, nature of victim injury and medical treatment as reported by police and victims, characteristics of suspects in the two arrest groups, victim and suspect reports of who called police, and victim and suspect versions of speed of police response. Demographic variables include victim and suspect age, race, education, employment status, and marital status.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: None.
  • Methods

    Response Rates: A total of 705 initial interviews were conducted from the 1,200 eligible domestic battery incidents, or 59 percent. Six-month follow-up interviews were conducted with 921 respondents from the original 1,200 incidents, or 77 percent. There are more "follow-up" interviews than initial interviews because the researchers included some individuals who were not initially interviewed.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Case Log Data
    • DS2: Criminal Justice Processing Data
    • DS3: Eligible Cases Data
    • DS4: Hotline Data
    • DS5: Suspect History Data
    • DS6: Victim Initial Interview Data
    • DS7: Follow-Up Interview Data
    • DS9: Codebook for Victim Initial Interview Data
    • DS10: Codebook for Follow-Up Interview Data
    • DS11: SAS Data Definition Statements for Case Log Data
    • DS12: SAS Data Definition Statements for Criminal Justice Processing Data
    • DS13: SAS Data Definition Statements for Eligible Cases Data
    • DS14: SAS Data Definition Statements for Hotline Data
    • DS15: SAS Data Definition Statements for Suspect History Data
Temporal Coverage
  • 1987 / 1989
    Time period: 1987--1989
  • 1987-04-06 / 1988-08-08
    Collection date: 1987-04-06--1988-08-08
Geographic Coverage
  • Milwaukee
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Misdemeanor domestic battery incidents.
Sampling
Calls received by the Milwaukee Police regarding misdemeanor domestic assault were screened by police officers to establish eligibility for the experiment. Eligible calls were referred to the Crime Control Institute staff, who randomly assigned one of three treatments. Selection of cases continued until 1,200 eligible cases were obtained.
Collection Mode
  • The Follow-Up Interview Data contain more cases than the Victim Initial Interview Data because the researchers subsequently included some respondents who did not participate in the initial interviews.

Note
2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 16 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 8 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (86-IJ-CX-K043).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9966 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09966.v1
Publications
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Harris, Heather M.. Increased death rates of domestic violence victims from arresting vs. warning suspects in the Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment (MilDVE). Journal of Experimental Criminology.11, (1), 1-20.2015.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11292-014-9203-x (DOI)
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Harris, Heather M.. Increased homicide victimization of suspects arrested for domestic assault: A 23-year follow-up of the Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment (MilDVE). Journal of Experimental Criminology.9, 491-514.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11292-013-9193-0 (DOI)
  • Johnson, Richard R.. Predicting officer physical assaults at domestic assault calls. Journal of Family Violence.26, (3), 163-169.2011.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10896-010-9346-0 (DOI)
  • Siddique, Zahra. Partially Identified Treatment Effects under Imperfect Compliance: The Case of Domestic Violence. IZA Discussion Paper Series.Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 2009.
  • Piquero, Ales R., Brame, Robert, Fagan, Jeffrey, Moffitt, Terrie E.. Assessing the offending activity of criminal domestic violence suspects: Offense specialization, escalation, and de-escalation evidence from the Spouse Assault Replication Program. Public Health Reports.121, 409-418.2006.
  • Piquero, Alex R., Brame, Robert, Fagan, Jeffrey, Moffitt, Terrie E.. Assessing the Offending Activity of Criminal Domestic Violence Suspects: Offense Specialization, Escalation, and De-Escalation Evidence from the Spouse Assault Replication Program. Final Report.NCJ 212298, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2005.
  • Maxwell, Christopher D., Garner, Joel H., Fagan, Jefferey A.. The preventive effects of arrest on intimate partner violence: Research, policy and theory. Criminology and Public Policy.2, (1), 51-79.2002.
  • Maxwell, Christopher D., Garner, Joel H., Fagan, Jeffrey A.. The effects of arrest on intimate partner violence: New evidence from the spouse assault replication program. Research in Brief.NCJ 188199, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/188199.pdf (URL)
  • Schumacher, Julie Ann. Battering and common couple violence: A construct validation. Dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook. 2001.
  • Farmer, Amy, Tiefenthaler, Jill. The Employment Effects of Domestic Violence. Colgate University Working Paper 100-04.. 2000.
  • Garner, Joel H., Maxwell, Christopher D.. What are the lessons of the police arrest studies?. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma.4, (1), 83-114.2000.
    • ID: 10.1300/J146v04n01_05 (DOI)
  • Moore-Parmley, Angela Marie. An exploratory study of the effects of arrest, victim characteristics, and community factors on same-offender repeat victimization in misdemeanor domestic violence cases. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. 1999.
  • Mills, Linda G.. Mandatory arrest and prosecution policies for domestic violence: A critical literature reviw and the case for more research to test victime empowerment approaches. Criminal Justice and Behavior.25, (3), 306-318.1998.
    • ID: 10.1177/0093854898025003002 (DOI)
  • Fagan, Jeffrey, Garner, Joel, Maxwell, Christopher. Reducing Injuries to Women in Domestic Assaults, Final Report. Atlanta, GA: United States Department of Health and Human Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997.
  • Paternoster, Raymond, Brame, Robert, Bachman, Ronet, et al. Do fair procedures matter? The effect of procedural justice on spouse assault. Law and Society Review.31, (1), 163-204.1997.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3054098 (URL)
  • Weiss, Alexander. On the use of police officers in randomized field experiments: Some lessons from the Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment. Police Studies.19, (1), 45-52.1996.
  • Garner, Joel H., Fagan, Jeffrey, Maxwell, Christopher. Published finding from the Spouse Assault Replication Program: A critical review. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.11, (1), 3-28.1995.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02221298 (DOI)
  • Marciniak, Elizabeth Marie. Community policing of domestic violence: Neighborhood differences in the effect of arrest. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park. 1994.
  • Berk, Richard A., Campbell, Alec, Klap, Ruth, Western, Bruce. The Deterrent Effect of Arrest: A Bayesian Analysis of Four Field Experiments. American Sociological Review.57, 698-708.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095923 (URL)
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Schmidt, Janell D., Rogan, Dennis P.. Policing Domestic Violence: Experiments and Dilemmas. New York, NY: Free Press. 1992.
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Schmidt, Janell D., Rogan, Dennis P., Smith, Douglas A., Gartin, Patrick R., Cohn, Ellen G., Collins, Dean J., Bacich, Anthony R.. The variable effects of arrest on crime control: The Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.83, 137-169.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1143827 (URL)
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Schmidt, Janell D., Rogan, Dennis P., Smith, Douglas A., Gartin, Patrick R., Cohn, Ellen G., Collins, J., Bacich, Anthony R.. The variable effects of arrest on criminal careers: The Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.83, (1), 137-169.1992.
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Smith, Douglas A., Schmidt, Janell D., Rogan, Dennis P.. Crime, punishment, and stake in conformity: Legal and informal control of domestic violence. American Sociological Review.57, 680-690.1992.
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Schmidt, Janell D., Rogan, Dennis P., Gartin, Patrick R., Cohn, Ellen G., Collins, Dean J., Bacich, Anthony R.. From initial deterrence to long-term escalation: Short-custody arrest for poverty ghetto domestic violence. Criminology.29, (4), 821-850.1991.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01089.x (DOI)
  • Sherman, Lawrence W.. The Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment, Final Report. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. 1990.
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Cohn, Ellen G.. The impact of research on legal policy: The Minneapolis domestic violence experiment. Law and Society Review.23, (1), 117-144.1989.
  • Sherman, Lawrence W., Berk, Richard A.. The Specific Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault. American Sociological Review.49, (2), 261-272.1984.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095575 (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-15

Sherman, Lawrence W.; Schmidt, Janell D.; Rogan, Dennis P. (1995): Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment, 1987-1989. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09966