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Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Exposure to Violence (Primary Caregiver), Wave 1, 1994-1997

Version
v2
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Earls, Felton J. (Harvard Medical School)
  • Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne (Scientific Director. Columbia University. Teacher's College. Center for the Study of Children and Families)
  • Raudenbush, Stephen W. (Scientific Director. University of Michigan. School of Education and Survey Research Center)
  • Sampson, Robert J. (Scientific Director. Harvard University. Department of Sociology)
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Series
Publication Date
2005-07-22
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
  • United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
  • Turner Foundation
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
  • Harris Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Language
English
Free Keywords
adolescents; assault; child development; childhood; emotional problems; family violence; neighborhoods; social behavior; threats; violence
Description
  • Abstract

    The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. One such measure was the Exposure to Violence (ETV), administered to the primary caregiver (PC) of subjects belonging to Cohorts 3 to 15. It assessed the PC's perception of the subject's experience of exposure to different types of violent acts, as well as how exposure to violence my have affected the PC, his or her family, and friends.
  • Abstract

    Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources. Longitudinal Cohort Study One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. Exposure to Violence (Primary Caregiver) The data files contain information from the Exposure to Violence (ETV) protocol (Primary Caregiver version). The PHDCN version of the ETV was adapted from the most widely used measure of exposure to violence, the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence, designed to assess the frequency with which a child was victimized by, witnessed, or heard about 20 different forms of violence and violence related activities in the community. This version of the ETV instrument used in the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort study was designed to assess the subject's experience of exposure to four different types of violent acts from the perspective of the primary caregiver. These include: seeing someone shoved, kicked, or punched, seeing someone attacked with a knife, hearing a gunshot, and seeing someone shot. The purpose of the ETV protocol was to advance current understanding of the frequency, form, and consequences of child and adolescent exposure to violence.
  • Abstract

    Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts, and geographic boundaries and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people. Longitudinal Cohort Study For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed. For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. Interviews were conducted in Spanish, English, and Polish. In Wave 1 the complete protocol was translated into Spanish and Polish. An interpreter was hired for participants who spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes were also included. Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use. Exposure to Violence (Primary Caregiver) Completed between 1994 and 1997, the Exposure to Violence (ETV) instrument was completed by the primary caregiver of subjects belonging to Cohorts 3 to 15 of the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study. The ETV instrument was designed to assess the subject's experience of exposure to four different types of violent acts. These include: seeing someone shoved, kicked, or punched, seeing someone attacked with a knife, hearing a gunshot, and seeing someone shot. This measure also assessed the location and frequency of such events, as well as the identification of victim(s) and/or perpetrator(s), and the subject's relationship to that both (e.g., parent, friend, sibling, etc.).
  • Abstract

    In addition to the variables containing the responses to the ETV instrument, the data contain administrative variables that record identification numbers for respondents and interviewers, cohort, and wave number, as well as the time and date that the ETV interview was completed.
  • Methods

    none
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: none
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The overall response rate for Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 75 percent or 6,228 participants. The response rates by cohort were: 76.2 percent (1,269) for Cohort 0; 76.6 percent (1,003) for Cohort 3; 75.0 percent (980) for Cohort 6; 75.9 percent (828) for Cohort 9; 74.3 percent (820) for Cohort 12; 71.6 percent (696) for Cohort 15; 70.3 percent (632) for Cohort 18;
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Cohort 3
    • DS2: Cohort 6
    • DS3: Cohort 9
    • DS4: Cohort 12
    • DS5: Cohort 15
Temporal Coverage
  • 1994 / 1997
    Time period: 1994--1997
  • 1994 / 1997
    Collection date: 1994--1997
Geographic Coverage
  • Chicago
  • Illinois
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Children, adolescents, young adults, and their primary caregivers, living in the city of Chicago in 1994.
Sampling
Stratified probability sample.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview, telephone interview

    (1) The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection. (2) At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.

Note
2007-09-27 The Wave 1 Questionnaire file has been added. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005). United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health. United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Turner Foundation. John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau. Harris Foundation. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau. United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Availability
Download
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 13588 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR13588.v1
Publications
  • Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela, Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: Test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Journal of Family Psychology.2014.
    • ID: 10.1037/a0038242 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M., Messner, Steven F., Rees, Carter. Incorporating unstructured socializing into the study of secondary exposure to community violence: Etiological and empirical implications. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.29, (10), 1802-1833.2014.
    • ID: 10.1177/0886260513511702 (DOI)
  • Kennedy, Traci M.. Exposed: Revealing Patterns of Community Violence Exposure and Psychological Well-Being Among Urban Youth. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2013.
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M., Farrell, Amy S.. Gender differences in the effects of parental underestimation of youths' secondary exposure to community violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.42, (10), 1512-1527.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-012-9897-x (DOI)
  • Gardner, Margo, Browning, Christopher, Brooks-Gun, Jeanne. Can organized youth activities protect against internalizing problems among adolescents living in violent homes?. Journal of Research on Adolescence.22, (4), 662-677.2012.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00811.x (DOI)
  • Gibson, Chris L., Sullivan, Christopher J., Jones, Shayne, Piquero, Alex R.. 'Does it take a village?' Assessing neighborhood influences on children's self-control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.47, (1), 31-62.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427809348903 (DOI)
  • Milesi, Carolina, Lansing, Jiffy, Claussen Bell, Katie, Goerge, Robert, Stagner, Matthew. Postsecondary Educational Trajectories of Urban Youth: Addressing Vulnerabilities and Barriers to Enrollment and Persistence. Chapin Hall Issue Brief.Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. 2010.
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M.. Impulsivity, Offending, and the Neighborhood: Investigating the Person-Context Nexus. Dissertation, State University of New York, Albany. 2009.
  • Brennan, Robert T., Molnar, Beth E., Earls, Felton. Refining the measurement of exposure to violence (ETV) in urban youth. Journal of Community Psychology.35, (5), 603-618.2007.
    • ID: 10.1002/jcop.20167 (DOI)
  • Lara, Sandra L.. An Examination of Links Between Family Processes, Exposure to Violence, and Child Mental Health Outcomes: Do SES, Race/Ethnicity, Immigration or Neighborhood Context Matter?. Dissertation, Columbia University. 2002.
  • Kuo, Meichun, Mohler, Beat, Raudenbush, Stephen L., Earls, Felton. Assessing exposure to violence using multiple informants: Application of hierarchical linear model. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines.41, (8), 1049-1056.2000.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Earls, Felton J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Sampson, Robert J. (2005): Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Exposure to Violence (Primary Caregiver), Wave 1, 1994-1997. Version 2. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Series. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13588.v2