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Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Exposure to Violence (Subject), Wave 1, 1994-1997

Version
v0
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Earls, Felton J. (Harvard Medical School)
  • Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne (Scientific Director. Columbia University. Teacher's College. Center for the Study of Children and Families)
  • Raudenbush, Stephen W. (Scientific Director. University of Michigan. School of Education and Survey Research Center)
  • Sampson, Robert J. (Scientific Director. Harvard University. Department of Sociology)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Series
Publication Date
2005-07-22
Funding Reference
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
  • Harris Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
  • United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
  • Turner Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
adolescents; assault; child development; childhood; family violence; emotional problems; neighborhoods; social behavior; threats; violence
Description
  • Abstract

    The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. One such measure was the Exposure to Violence (ETV), administered to those subjects belonging to Cohorts 9 to 18. It assessed the subject's experience of exposure to different types of violent acts, as well as how exposure to violence may have affected the subject, his or her family, and friends.
  • Abstract

    Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources. Longitudinal Cohort Study One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. Exposure to Violence (Subject) The data files contain information from the Exposure to Violence (ETV) protocol (Subject version). The PHDCN version of the ETV was adapted from the most widely used measure of exposure to violence, the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence, which was designed to assess the frequency with which a child victimized by, witnessed, or heard about 20 different forms of violence and violence related activities in the community. The Subject version of the ETV instrument used in the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort study was designed to assess the subject's experience of exposure to four different types of violent acts. These include: seeing someone shoved, kicked, or punched, seeing someone attacked with a knife, hearing a gunshot, and seeing someone shot. The purpose of the ETV protocol was to advance current understanding of the frequency, form, and consequences of child and adolescent exposure to violence.
  • Abstract

    Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts, and geographic boundaries and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people. Longitudinal Cohort Study For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed. For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. Interviews were conducted in Spanish, English, and Polish. In Wave 1 the complete protocol was translated into Spanish and Polish. An interpreter was hired for participants who spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes were also included. Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use. Exposure to Violence (Subject) Completed between 1994 and 1997, the Exposure to Violence (ETV) instrument was completed by subjects belonging to Cohorts 9 to 18 of the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study. The Subject version of the ETV instrument was designed to assess the subject's experience of exposure to four different types of violent acts. These include: seeing someone shoved, kicked, or punched, seeing someone attacked with a knife, hearing a gunshot, and seeing someone shot. This measure also assessed the location and frequency of such events, as well as the identification of victim(s) and/or perpetrator(s), and the subject's relationship to both (e.g., parent, friend, sibling, etc.).
  • Abstract

    In addition to the variables containing the responses to the ETV instrument, the data contain administrative variables that record identification numbers for respondents and interviewers, cohort, and wave number, as well as the time and date that the ETV interview was completed.
  • Methods

    none
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Presence of Common Scales: none
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The overall response rate for Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 75 percent or 6,228 participants. The response rates by cohort were: 76.2 percent (1,269) for Cohort 0; 76.6 percent (1,003) for Cohort 3; 75.0 percent (980) for Cohort 6; 75.9 percent (828) for Cohort 9; 74.3 percent (820) for Cohort 12; 71.6 percent (696) for Cohort 15; 70.3 percent (632) for Cohort 18;
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Cohort 9
    • DS2: Cohort 12
    • DS3: Cohort 15
    • DS4: Cohort 18
Temporal Coverage
  • 1994 / 1997
    Time period: 1994--1997
  • 1994 / 1997
    Collection date: 1994--1997
Geographic Coverage
  • Chicago
  • Illinois
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Children, adolescents, young adults, and their primary caregivers, living in the city of Chicago in 1994.
Sampling
Stratified probability sample.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview, telephone interview

    (1) The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection. (2) At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.

Note
2007-09-27 The Wave 1 Questionnaire file has been added. Funding insitution(s): John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau. Harris Foundation. United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau. United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005). United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health. United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Turner Foundation.
Availability
Delivery
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 13589 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR13589.v1
Publications
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M.. Do age effects on youth secondary exposure to violence vary across social context?. Justice Quarterly.32, (2), 193-222.2015.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418825.2012.754922 (DOI)
  • Browning, Christopher R., Gardner, Margo, Maimon, David, Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne. Collective efficacy and the contingent consequences of exposure to life-threatening violence. Developmental Psychology.50, (7), 1878-1890.2014.
    • ID: 10.1037/a0036767 (DOI)
  • Gibson, Chris L., Fagan, Abigail A., Antle, Kelsey. Avoiding violent victimization among youths in urban neighborhoods: The importance of street efficacy. American Journal of Public Health.104, (2), e154-e161.2014.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301571 (DOI)
  • Miller, Riane N., Fagan, Abigail A., Wright, Emily M.. The moderating effects of peer and parental support on the relationship between vicarious victimization and substance use. Journal of Drug Issues.44, (4), 362-380.2014.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022042614526995 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M.. The covariates of parent and youth reporting differences on youth secondary exposure to community violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.43, (9), 1576-1593.2014.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-014-0099-6 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M., Messner, Steven F., Rees, Carter. Incorporating unstructured socializing into the study of secondary exposure to community violence: Etiological and empirical implications. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.29, (10), 1802-1833.2014.
    • ID: 10.1177/0886260513511702 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M., Posick, Chad. Detecting specialization in interpersonal violence versus suicidal behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.07.003 (DOI)
  • Browning, Christopher R., Jackson, Aubrey L.. The social ecology of public space: Active streets and violent crime in urban neighborhoods. Criminology.51, (4), 1009-1043.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/1745-9125.12026 (DOI)
  • Fagan, Abigail A., Wright, Emily M., Pinchevsky, Gillian M.. Racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent substance use. Journal of Drug Issues.43, (1), 69-84.2013.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022042612462218 (DOI)
  • Foster, Holly, Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne. Neighborhood, family and individual influences on school physical victimization. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.42, (10), 1596-1610.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-012-9890-4 (DOI)
  • Jain, Sonia, Cohen, Alison K.. Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: A longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors. Prevention Science.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11121-012-0344-8 (DOI)
  • Kennedy, Traci M.. Exposed: Revealing Patterns of Community Violence Exposure and Psychological Well-Being Among Urban Youth. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2013.
  • Milan, Stephanie, Zona, Kate, Acker, Jenna, Turcios-Cotto, Viana. Prospective risk factors for adolescent PTSD: Sources of differential exposure and differential vulnerability. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.41, (2), 339-353.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10802-012-9677-9 (DOI)
  • Price, Maggi, Higa-McMillan, Charmaine, Kim, Sunyoung, Frueh, B. Christopher. Trauma experience in children and adolescents: An assessment of the effects of trauma type and role of interpersonal proximity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders.27, (7), 652-660.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.07.009 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M.. Does violence toward others affect violence toward oneself? Examining the direct and moderating effects of violence on suicidal behavior. Social Problems.60, (3), 357-382.2013.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.2013.60.3.357 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M., Farrell, Amy S.. Gender differences in the effects of parental underestimation of youths' secondary exposure to community violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.42, (10), 1512-1527.2013.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-012-9897-x (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory R., Messner, Steven F.. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence. American Journal of Public Health.103, (3), 435-442.2013.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300931 (DOI)
  • Gibson, Chris L.. An investigation of neighborhood disadvantage, low self-control, and violent victimization among youth. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.10, (1), 41-63.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/1541204011423767 (DOI)
  • Jain, Sonia, Buka, Stephen L., Subramanian, S. V., Molnar, Beth E.. Protective factors for youth exposed to violence: Role of developmental assets in building emotional resilience. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice.10, (1), 107-129.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/1541204011424735 (DOI)
  • Miller, Holly V.. Correlates of delinquency and victimization in a sample of Hispanic youth. International Criminal Justice Review.22, (2), 153-170.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/1057567712444922 (DOI)
  • Price, Maggie. Complex Trauma Experience in Children and Adolescents: An Assessment of the Effects of Trauma Type and Role of Interpersonal Proximity. Thesis, University of Hawaii, Hilo. 2012.
  • Emery, Clifton R., Jolley, Jennifer M., Wu, Shali. Desistance from intimate partner violence: The role of legal cynicism, collective efficacy, and social disorganization in Chicago neighborhoods. American Journal of Community Psychology.48, (3-4), 373-383.2011.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10464-010-9362-5 (DOI)
  • Zona, Kate, Milan, Stephanie. Gender differences in the logitudinal impact of exposure to violence on mental health in urban youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.40, (12), 1674-1690.2011.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10964-011-9649-3 (DOI)
  • Gibson, Chris L., Sullivan, Christopher J., Jones, Shayne, Piquero, Alex R.. 'Does it take a village?' Assessing neighborhood influences on children's self-control. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.47, (1), 31-62.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427809348903 (DOI)
  • Milesi, Carolina, Lansing, Jiffy, Claussen Bell, Katie, Goerge, Robert, Stagner, Matthew. Postsecondary Educational Trajectories of Urban Youth: Addressing Vulnerabilities and Barriers to Enrollment and Persistence. Chapin Hall Issue Brief.Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. 2010.
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M., Messner, Steven F.. Neighborhood context and the gender gap in adolescent violent crime. American Sociological Review.75, (6), 958-980.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0003122410386688 (DOI)
  • Gibson, Chris L., Morris, Sara Z., Beaver, Kevin M.. Secondary exposure to violence during childhood and adolescence: Does neighborhood context matter?. Justice Quarterly.26, (1), 30-57.2009.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418820802119968 (DOI)
  • Zimmerman, Gregory M.. Impulsivity, Offending, and the Neighborhood: Investigating the Person-Context Nexus. Dissertation, State University of New York, Albany. 2009.
  • Brennan, Robert T., Molnar, Beth E., Earls, Felton. Refining the measurement of exposure to violence (ETV) in urban youth. Journal of Community Psychology.35, (5), 603-618.2007.
    • ID: 10.1002/jcop.20167 (DOI)
  • Kirk, David S.. Unraveling the Neighborhood and School Effects on Youth Behavior. Dissertation, The University of Chicago. 2006.
  • Molnar, Beth E., Browne, Angela, Cerda, Magdalena, Buka, Stephen L.. Violent behavior by girls reporting violent victimization: A prospective study. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.159, (8), 731-739.2005.
    • ID: 10.1001/archpedi.159.8.731 (DOI)
  • Molnar, Beth E., Miller, Matthew J., Azrael, Deborah, Buka, Stephen L.. Neighborhood predictors of concealed firearm carrying among children and adolescents: Results from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.158, 657-664.2004.
    • ID: 10.1001/archpedi.158.7.657 (DOI)
  • Lara, Sandra L.. An Examination of Links Between Family Processes, Exposure to Violence, and Child Mental Health Outcomes: Do SES, Race/Ethnicity, Immigration or Neighborhood Context Matter?. Dissertation, Columbia University. 2002.
  • Kuo, Meichun, Mohler, Beat, Raudenbush, Stephen L., Earls, Felton. Assessing exposure to violence using multiple informants: Application of hierarchical linear model. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines.41, (8), 1049-1056.2000.
  • Earls, Felton. Linking Community Factors and Individual Development. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.NCJ 184348, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1998.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/fs000230.pdf (URL)
  • Selner-O'Hagan, Mary Beth, Kindlon, Daniel, Buka, Stephen L., Raudenbush, Stephen W., Earls, Felton. Assessing exposure to violence in urban youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines.39, (2), 215-224.1998.
  • Selner-O'Hagan, Mary Beth, Kindlon, Daniel J., Buka, Stephen L., Raudenbush, Stephen W., Earls, Felton. Assessing the Exposure of Urban Youth to Violence. National Institute of Justice Research Preview.NCJ 184414, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1996.
    • ID: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/exposure.pdf (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Earls, Felton J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Sampson, Robert J. (2005): Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Exposure to Violence (Subject), Wave 1, 1994-1997. Archival Version. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13589