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Simmons Longitudinal Study: Adaptation and Development Across the Lifespan [New England, United States], Kindergarten Data, Wave 2, 1978

Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, observational data, survey data
  • Reinherz, Helen Z. (Simmons College. School of Social Work)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
Free Keywords
attitudes; behavior problems; child development; children; early childhood education; human behavior; life events; parental attitudes; parents; public schools; school age children; school attendance; school readiness; social services; student behavior; teacher attitudes; teachers
  • Abstract

    The Simmons Longitudinal Study (SLS) is a community-based study that has prospectively traced the life course of a single-aged cohort from childhood (age 5) to adulthood (age 26). Data were collected from multiple informants at seven major time points: age 5 (1977), age 6 (1978), age 9 (1980-1981), age 15 (1987), age 18 (1990), age 21 (1993-1994), and age 26 (1998). Since its inception in 1977, the SLS has utilized a multidisciplinary, multimethod approach, with the dual goals of: (1) tracing the development and course of academic difficulties, behavior problems, and psychopathology; and (2) identifying factors that promote health functioning from early childhood (age 5) to adulthood (age 26). The SLS has consistently emphasized the identification of modifiable social and environmental risk and protective factors that can be targeted directly in prevention and intervention programs. To date, SLS has published 50 journal articles and 9 book chapters. The original SLS study group was comprised of every child who entered kindergarten in the fall of 1977 in one public school district in a northeastern town in the United States. For this wave of the study, Wave 2, in 1978 at the end of the kindergarten year, mothers and teachers rated the students on measures of behavioral and emotional functioning.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: School Records and Child Observation Data (Parent Questionnaire and Teacher Questionnaire)
    • DS2: Computed Scales and Constructed Variables From Child Observation Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1978
  • Collection date: 1978
Geographic Coverage
  • Massachusetts
  • New England
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All children enrolling in kindergarten in one public school system in the northeastern United States.
The original 1977 sample included all youth registering for kindergarten in one public school system in a working class community in Massachusetts. The racial composition and gender division of the original sample were representative of the population of Massachusetts at that time. The sample included approximately equal numbers of males and females, and almost all (98 percent) were Caucasian. For information in regard to "Sample Retention" and "Effects of Sample Attrition," please review the ICPSR codebook available with this collection.
Collection Mode
  • self-enumerated questionnaire

    Data for Preschool Data, Wave 1, 1977 (ICPSR 22800), Grade 3 Data, Wave 3, 1980-1981 (ICPSR 24862), Grade 9 Data, Wave 4, 1987 (ICPSR 24863), Grade 12 Data, Wave 5, 1990 (ICPSR 24864), Age 21 Data, Wave 6, 1993-1994 (ICPSR 24865), and Age 26 Data, Wave 7, 1998 (ICPSR 24866) are also available from ICPSR.

    In 1977, when the study began, participants were all from one school district in the northeastern United States. In later data waves, especially Age 21, Wave 6, 1993-1994 and Age 26, Wave 7, 1998, most respondents resided throughout the United States; a few resided out of the country.

    The original file name as provided by the data producer for Part 1 was KALL and for Part 2 was KCOMP.

    Some instruments administered as part of this study may contain copyrighted instruments. Reproductions of the instruments are provided solely as documentation for the analysis of the data associated with this collection. Please contact the data producer for information on permissions to use the instruments for other purposes. To obtain further information in regard to the measures used for data collection, please refer to the "References" section of the ICPSR codebook for this data wave.

    Additional details about the Simmons Longitudinal Study can be found at the Simmons College School of Social Work Web site.

2016-04-14 The codebook and data collection instrument have been made publicly available. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (5-R01 MH-27458).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 24861 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR24861.v1
  • Reinherz, H.Z., Tanner, J.L., Paradis, A.D., Beardslee, W.R., Szigethy, E.M., Bond, A.E.. Depressive disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: Theoretical and Clinical Implications.London, England: Brunner-Routledge. 2006.
  • Tanner, J.L.. Recentering during emerging adulthood: A critical turning point in life span human development. Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2006.
  • Giaconia, Rose M., Reinherz, Helen Z., Paradis, Angela D., Stashwick, Cecilia K.. Comorbidity of substance use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents. Trauma and Substance Abuse: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment of Comorbid Disorders.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2003.
  • Moorhead, Debra J., Stashwick, Cecilia K., Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M., Streigel-Moore, Ruth M., Paradis, Angela D.. Child and adolescent predictors for eating disorders in a community population of young adult women. lnternational Journal of Eating Disorders.33, (1), 1-9.2003.
    • ID: 10.1002/eat.10105 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Paradis, Angela D., Giaconia, Rose M., Stashwick, Cecilia K., Fitzmaurice, Garrett. Childhood and adolescent predictors of major depression in the transition to adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry.160, (12), 2141-2147.2003.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.12.2141 (DOI)
  • Carbonell, Dina M., Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M.. Risk for depression and resilience in late adolescence. Prevention Researcher.8, (4), 7-9.2001.
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M., Hauf, Amy M. Carmola, Wasserman, Michelle S., Paradis, Angela D.. General and specific childhood risk factors for depression and drug disorders by early adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.39, (2), 223-231.2000.
    • ID: 10.1097/00004583-200002000-00023 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.Z., Giaconia, R.M., Wasserman, M.S., Silverman, A.B., Burton, L.. Coming of age in the 1990s: Influences of contemporary stressors on major depression in young adults. Historical and Geographical Influences on Psychopathology.Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1999.
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M., Hauf, Amy M. Carmola, Wasserman, Michelle S., Silverman, Amy B.. Major depression in the transition to adulthood: Risks and impairments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.108, (3), 500-510.1999.
    • ID: 10.1037/0021-843X.108.3.500 (DOI)
  • Friedman, A.. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Self-Reported Attempts in an Adolescent Community Population. Unpublished dissertation, Simmons College. 1997.
  • Pakiz, Bilge, Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M.. Early risk factors for serious antisocial behavior at age 21: A longitudinal community study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.67, (1), 92-101.1997.
    • ID: 10.1037/h0080214 (DOI)
  • Carbonell, D.. Major Depression in Adolescence: Risk and Resilience. Unpublished dissertation, Simmons College. 1996.
  • Reinherz, H.Z., Giaconia, R.M., Frost, A.K., Cohen, E., Pakiz, B., Silverman, A.. Identifying comprehensive service needs of children and adolescents: A 14 year longitudinal perspective. A System of Care for Children's Mental Health: Expanding the Research Base.Tampa, FL: Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health. 1995.
  • Giaconia, Rose M., Reinherz, Helen Z., Silverman, Amy B., Pakiz, Bilge, Frost, Abbie K., Cohen, Elaine. Ages of onset of psychiatric disorders in a community population of older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.33, (5), 706-717.1994.
    • ID: 10.1097/00004583-199406000-00012 (DOI)
  • Kalman, D.. Adolescent Substance Abuse and the Family. Unpublished dissertation, Simmons College. 1994.
  • Cohen, Elaine, Reinherz, Helen, Frost, Abbie. Self-perceived unpopularity: Its relationship to emotional and behavioral problems. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal.10, (2), 107-122.1993.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF00778782 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M., Pakiz, Bilge, Silverman, Amy B., Frost, Abbie K., Lefkowitz, Eva S.. Psychosocial risks for major depression in late adolescence: A longitudinal community study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.32, (6), 1155-1163.1993.
    • ID: 10.1097/00004583-199311000-00007 (DOI)
  • Cohen, E.R.. Self-Perceived Unpopularity in Children and Adolescents: Its Antecedents, Characteristics, and Relationships to Later Maladjustment. Unpublished dissertation, Simmons College. 1991.
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Frost, Abbie K., Pakiz, Bilge. Changing faces: Correlates of depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Family and Community Health.14, (3), 52-63.1991.
  • Kinard, E.M., Reinherz, H.. School aptitude and achievement in children of adolescent mothers. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.76, 69-87.1987.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02141548 (DOI)
  • Kinard, E. Milling, Reinherz, Helen. Birthdate effects on school performance and adjustment: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Research.79, (6), 366-372.1986.
  • Anastas, J.W., Reinherz, H.. Gender differences in learning and adjustment problems in school: Results of a longitudinal study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.54, 110-122.1984.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.1984.tb01479.x (DOI)
  • Gracey, C.A., Azzara, C.V., Reinherz, H.. Screening revisited: A survey of U.S. requirements. Journal of Special Education.18, 101-107.1984.
    • ID: 10.1177/002246698401800203 (DOI)
  • Kinard, E.M., Reinherz, H.. Behavioral and emotional functioning in children of adolescent mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.54, 578-594.1984.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.1984.tb01528.x (DOI)
  • Kinard, E.M., Reinherz, H.. Marital disruption: Effects on behavioral and emotional functioning in children. Journal of Family Issues.5, (1), 90-115.1984.
    • ID: 10.1177/019251384005001006 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H., Walker, D.K., Gordon, A.L., Belfer, M., Ramsey, L.. Clinical assessment and maternal judgments: Concurrent and predictive relationships. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.54, 236-249.1984.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.1984.tb01491.x (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.Z., Fowler, P.C., Farkas, M.S., Raymundo, C.M., O'Regan, M., Park, R.M.. An epidemiological study of the behavior problems of young children. Handbook of Longitudinal Research.New York: Praeger. 1984.
  • Anastas, J.W., Gordon, A.L., Reinherz, H., Griffin, C.L.. Guidance services for children and a right to education law: Results of a longitudinal study. Personnel and Guidance Journal.61, 615-619.1983.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.2164-4918.1983.tb00009.x (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H., Gordon, A.L., Morris, K.M., Anastas, J.W.. Who shall be served? Issues in screening for emotional and behavioral problems in school. Journal of Primary Prevention.4, (2), 73-95.1983.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF01324791 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H., Gracey, C.A.. The Simmons Behavior Checklist: Technical Information. Boston, MA: Simmons College School of Social Work. 1983.
  • Gallerani, D., O'Regan, M., Reinherz, H.. Prekindergarten screening: How well does it predict readiness for first grade?. Psychology in the Schools.19, 175-182.1982.
    • ID: 10.1002/1520-6807(198204)19:2<175::AID-PITS2310190207>3.0.CO;2-7 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.Z.. Primary prevention of emotional disorders in school settings. The Modern Practice of Community Mental Health.San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 1982.
  • Fowler, P.C.. Maximum likelihood factor structure of the Family Environment Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology.37, 160-164.1981.
    • ID: 10.1002/1097-4679(198101)37:1<160::AID-JCLP2270370132>3.0.CO;2-Q (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.. Evaluating programs of primary prevention: How can we know if they make a difference?. Primary Prevention in Mental Health and Social Work: A Sourcebook of Curriculum and Teaching Materials.New York: Council on Social Work. 1981.
  • Fowler, P.C.. Family environment and early behavioral development: A structural analysis of dependencies. Psychological Reports.47, 611-617.1980.
    • ID: 10.2466/pr0.1980.47.2.611 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.. Primary prevention of emotional disorders of children: Mirage or reality?. Journal of Prevention.1, 4-14.1980.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF01114539 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.. Primary prevention in community mental health: Holy Grail or empty vessel?. Community Mental Health: Issues for Social Work Practice and Education.New York: Council on Social Work Education. 1979.

Update Metadata: 2016-05-03 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Reinherz, Helen Z. (2009): Simmons Longitudinal Study: Adaptation and Development Across the Lifespan [New England, United States], Kindergarten Data, Wave 2, 1978. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.