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Simmons Longitudinal Study: Adaptation and Development Across the Lifespan [New England, United States], Age 21 Data, Wave 6, 1993-1994

Resource Type
Dataset : observational data, survey data
  • Reinherz, Helen Z. (Simmons College. School of Social Work)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
Free Keywords
attitudes; behavior problems; beliefs; body image; demographic characteristics; education; employment; family background; family relationships; friendships; health status; human behavior; income; life satisfaction; living arrangements; mental health; mental health services; military service; parental attitudes; parents; pregnancy; self evaluation; social behavior; social contact; social support; substance abuse; young adults
  • Abstract

    The Simmons Longitudinal Study (SLS) is a community-based study that has prospectively traced the life course of a single-aged cohort from childhood (age 5) to adulthood (age 26). Data were collected from multiple informants at seven major time points: age 5 (1977), age 6 (1978), age 9 (1980-1981), age 15 (1987), age 18 (1990), age 21 (1993-1994), and age 26 (1998). Since its inception in 1977, the SLS has utilized a multidisciplinary, multimethod approach, with the dual goals of: (1) tracing the development and course of academic difficulties, behavior problems, and psychopathology; and (2) identifying factors that promote health functioning from early childhood (age 5) to adulthood (age 26). The SLS has consistently emphasized the identification of modifiable social and environmental risk and protective factors that can be targeted directly in prevention and intervention programs. To date, SLS has published 50 journal articles and 9 book chapters. The original study group was comprised of every child who entered kindergarten in the fall of 1977 in one public school district in a northeastern town in the United States. For this wave of the study, Wave 6, researchers spoke with respondents, then 21 years old in 1993, and their mothers or other close family member. This early-adulthood period was a varied developmental stage for the group: some respondents were away from home attending college, others were married and working full-time, and a number were living with their parents as they pursued their education and career paths. Similar to the age-18 data wave, diagnostic information on a variety of mental health problems was collected. In addition, the interviews focused on current education and career activities; family, peer, and romantic relationships; and other aspects of current behavioral and emotional functioning.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Respondent Questionnaire
    • DS2: Child Observation Data (Parent or Relative Questionnaire)
    • DS3: Individual Questions From the Age 21 DIS-III-R
    • DS4: Computed Diagnostic Information From the Age 21 DIS-III-R
    • DS5: Computed Scales and Constructed Variables From Respondent Questionnaire and Child Observation Data
Temporal Coverage
  • 1993 / 1994
    Time period: 1993--1994
  • 1993 / 1994
    Collection date: 1993--1994
Geographic Coverage
  • New England
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Young adults aged 21 followed prospectively since age 5 when they were screened for entry into one public school system in the northeastern United States.
(1) The original 1977 sample included all youth registering for kindergarten in one public school system in a working class community in Massachusetts. The racial composition and gender division of the original sample were representative of the population of Massachusetts at that time. The sample included approximately equal numbers of males and females, and almost all (98 percent) were Caucasian. For information in regard to "Sample Retention" and "Effects of Sample Attrition," please review the ICPSR codebook available with this collection. (2) If the respondent lived out of the area, a telephone interview was conducted rather than a face-to-face interview.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview, self-enumerated questionnaire, telephone interview

    Data for Preschool Data, Wave 1, 1977 (ICPSR 22800), Kindergarten Data, Wave 2, 1978 (ICPSR 24861), Grade 3 Data, Wave 3, 1980-1981 (ICPSR 24862), Grade 9 Data, Wave 4, 1987 (ICPSR 24863), Grade 12 Data, Wave 5, 1990 (ICPSR 24864), and Age 26 Data, Wave 7, 1998 (ICPSR 24866) are also available from ICPSR.

    In 1977, when the study began, participants were all from one school district in the northeastern United States. In later data waves, especially Age 21, Wave 6, 1993-1994 and Age 26, Wave 7, 1998, most respondents resided throughout the United States; a few resided out of the country.

    The original file name as provided by the data producer for Part 1 was AGE21RQ, for Part 2 was AGE21PQ, for Part 3 was A21DIS3R, for Part 4 was AGE21DX, and for Part 5 was A21COMP.

    Some instruments administered as part of this study may contain copyrighted instruments. Reproductions of the instruments are provided solely as documentation for the analysis of the data associated with this collection. Please contact the data producer for information on permissions to use the instruments for other purposes. To obtain further information in regard to the measures used for data collection, please refer to the ICPSR codebook for this data wave.

    Additional details about the Simmons Longitudinal Study can be found at the Simmons College School of Social Work Web site.

2016-04-14 The codebook and data collection instrument have been made publicly available. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (5-R01 MH-41569).
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 24865 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR24865.v1
  • Diamond, Brie, Morris, Robert G., Piquero, Alex R.. Stability in the underlying constructs of self-control. Crime and Delinquency.2015.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128715603721 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.Z., Tanner, J.L., Paradis, A.D., Beardslee, W.R., Szigethy, E.M., Bond, A.E.. Depressive disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: Theoretical and Clinical Implications.London, England: Brunner-Routledge. 2006.
  • Tanner, J.L.. Recentering during emerging adulthood: A critical turning point in life span human development. Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2006.
  • Giaconia, Rose M., Reinherz, Helen Z., Paradis, Angela D., Stashwick, Cecilia K.. Comorbidity of substance use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents. Trauma and Substance Abuse: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment of Comorbid Disorders.Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2003.
  • Moorhead, Debra J., Stashwick, Cecilia K., Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M., Streigel-Moore, Ruth M., Paradis, Angela D.. Child and adolescent predictors for eating disorders in a community population of young adult women. lnternational Journal of Eating Disorders.33, (1), 1-9.2003.
    • ID: 10.1002/eat.10105 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Paradis, Angela D., Giaconia, Rose M., Stashwick, Cecilia K., Fitzmaurice, Garrett. Childhood and adolescent predictors of major depression in the transition to adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry.160, (12), 2141-2147.2003.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.12.2141 (DOI)
  • Carbonell, Dina M., Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M., Stashwick, Cecilia K., Paradis, Angela D., Beardslee, William R.. Adolescent protective factors promoting resilience in young adults at risk for depression. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal.19, (5), 393-412.2002.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1020274531345 (DOI)
  • Carbonell, Dina M., Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M.. Risk for depression and resilience in late adolescence. Prevention Researcher.8, (4), 7-9.2001.
  • Giaconia, Rose M., Reinherz, Helen Z., Paradis, Angela D., Hauf, Amy M. Carmola, Stashwick, Cecilia K.. Major depression and drug disorders in adolescence: General and specific impairments in early adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.40, (12), 1426-1433.2001.
    • ID: 10.1097/00004583-200112000-00013 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, H.Z., Giaconia, R.M., Wasserman, M.S., Silverman, A.B., Burton, L.. Coming of age in the 1990s: Influences of contemporary stressors on major depression in young adults. Historical and Geographical Influences on Psychopathology.Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1999.
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M., Hauf, Amy M. Carmola, Wasserman, Michelle S., Silverman, Amy B.. Major depression in the transition to adulthood: Risks and impairments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.108, (3), 500-510.1999.
    • ID: 10.1037/0021-843X.108.3.500 (DOI)
  • Friedman, A.. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation and Self-Reported Attempts in an Adolescent Community Population. Unpublished dissertation, Simmons College. 1997.
  • Pakiz, Bilge, Reinherz, Helen Z., Giaconia, Rose M.. Early risk factors for serious antisocial behavior at age 21: A longitudinal community study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.67, (1), 92-101.1997.
    • ID: 10.1037/h0080214 (DOI)
  • Carbonell, D.. Major Depression in Adolescence: Risk and Resilience. Unpublished dissertation, Simmons College. 1996.
  • Pakiz, B.. Estimating the Path of Serious Antisocial Behaviors at Age 21: Relationship of Early Behavior Problems and Aggression in a Community Population. Unpublished dissertation, Harvard University. 1996.
  • Silverman, A.B., Reinherz, H.Z., Giaconia, R.M.. The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: A longitudinal community study. Child Abuse and Neglect.20, 709-723.1996.
    • ID: 10.1016/0145-2134(96)00059-2 (DOI)
  • Reinherz, Helen Z., Frost, Abbie K., Pakiz, Bilge. Changing faces: Correlates of depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Family and Community Health.14, (3), 52-63.1991.

Update Metadata: 2016-05-03 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Reinherz, Helen Z. (2009): Simmons Longitudinal Study: Adaptation and Development Across the Lifespan [New England, United States], Age 21 Data, Wave 6, 1993-1994. Archival Version. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.