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Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (8th- and 10th-Grade Surveys), 2011

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Johnston, Lloyd D. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • Bachman, Jerald G. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • O'Malley, Patrick M. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • Schulenberg, John E. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Free Keywords
alcohol; attitudes; crime; demographic characteristics; drug education; drug use; educational objectives; family background; gender roles; high school students; human behavior; lifestyles; prescription drugs; religious attitudes; self esteem; social change; tobacco use; values; youths
  • Abstract

    These surveys of 8th- and 10th-grade students are part of a series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. Students in each grade are randomly assigned to complete one of four questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions but containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are more than 450 variables across the questionnaires. Drugs covered by this survey include amphetamines (stimulants), barbiturates (tranquilizers), other prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, inhalants, steroids, marijuana, hashish, LSD, hallucinogens, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, methamphetamine, and injectable drugs such as heroin.
  • Methods

    Each of the eight parts contains a weight variable, V5. They were originally varied by school but were modified to protect respondent confidentiality. Users should use the weight variable for all analyses, the results of which will differ slightly from published data tables that used original data.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The student response rates for the 2011 8th- and 10th-grade surveys were 91 percent and 86 percent, respectively.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: 8th-Grade Form 1 Data
    • DS2: 8th-Grade Form 2 Data
    • DS3: 8th-Grade Form 3 Data
    • DS4: 8th-Grade Form 4 Data
    • DS5: 10th-Grade Form 1 Data
    • DS6: 10th-Grade Form 2 Data
    • DS7: 10th-Grade Form 3 Data
    • DS8: 10th-Grade Form 4 Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2011
  • Collection date: 2011
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Enrolled 8th- and 10th-grade students in the contiguous United States.
A multistage area probability sample design was used involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 72 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty, 10 were selected with a probability of .50, and the remainder were selected using a probability based on their 2000 Census household count. Generally speaking, in schools with more than 350 students in the grade, a sample of students or classes was drawn. In schools with fewer than 350 students in a grade, all students were asked to participate unless logistical challenges required a sample be taken. For the 8th-grade survey, schools with fewer than 20 8th graders were generally excluded from the sample. For the 10th-grade survey, schools with fewer than 25 10th graders were excluded, with very few exceptions. Each school was asked to participate for two years so that each year one-half of the sample would be replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic). The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 80 percent since the inception of the study.
Collection Mode
  • on-site questionnaire

    This study was conducted by the Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan.

    To protect the anonymity of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been collapsed or recoded in the public use files. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use files.

    Variables omitted from the Western region questionnaires are noted in each codebook.

    A user guide is provided with the study documentation. It contains two year-to-year cross-time question indices for the MTF 8th- and 10th-grade surveys. The first is sorted by subject area and the second is sorted by question location.

    Frequency and percentage distributions displayed in the 2011 codebooks are unweighted.

    MTF does not release detailed geography codes in its public use files because of the disclosure risk it would cause. The MTF sample is drawn to generate representative samples of the four Census Bureau regions of the country (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West), but it does not generate representative samples of smaller geographic areas such as states, counties, or cities. For additional information about data that is withheld from the public use files please contact MTF directly at

Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA-01411).
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 33902 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Miech, Richard A., Johnston, Lloyd, O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John, Patrick, Megan E.. Trends in use of and attitudes toward marijuana among youth before and after decriminalization: The case of California 2007-2013. International Journal of Drug Policy.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.009 (DOI)
  • Schaefer, Brian P., Vito, Anthony G., Marcum, Catherine D., Higgins, George E., Ricketts, Melissa L.. Heroin use among adolescents: A multi-theoretical examination. Deviant Behavior.36, (2), 101-112.2015.
    • ID: 10.1080/01639625.2014.910066 (DOI)
  • Vito, Anthony G., Schafer, Brian P., Higgins, George E., Marcum, Catherine D., Ricketts, Melissa L.. Juvenile hallucinogen use: What do multiple theories say about it?. American Journal of Criminal Justice.2015.
    • ID: 10.1007/s12103-013-9233-3 (DOI)
  • Arria, Amelia M., Bugbee, Brittany A., Caldeira, Kimberly M., Vincent, Kathryn B.. Evidence and knowledge gaps for the association between energy drink use and high-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Nutrition Reviews.72, (S1), 87-97.2014.
    • ID: 10.1111/nure.12129 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991-2011. Surveillance Report #96.Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System . 2013.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Johnston, L.D.. Middle and high school drug testing and student illicit drug use: A national study 1998-2011. Journal of Adolescent Health.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.11.020 (DOI)
  • Terry-McElrath, Y.M., O'Malley, P.M., Johnston, L.D.. School soft drink availability and consumption among US secondary students. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.44, (6), 573-582.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2013.01.026 (DOI)
  • Veliz, P., Boyd, C., McCabe, S.E.. Adolescent athletic participation and nonmedical adderall use: an exploratory analysis of a performance-enhancing drug. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.74, (5), 714-719.2013.
  • Veliz, Philip T., Boyd, Carol, McCabe, Sean E.. Playing through pain: Sports participation and nonmedical use of opioid medications among adolescents. 2013.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301242 (DOI)
  • Dever, B.V., Schulenberg, J.E., Dworkin, J.B., O'Malley, P.M., Kloska, D.D., Bachman, J.G.. Predicting risk-taking with and without substance use: The effects of parental monitoring, school bonding, and sports participation. Prevention Science.13, (6), 605-615.2012.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11121-012-0288-z (DOI)
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Demographic Subgroup Trends for Various Illicit and Illicit Drugs, 1975-2011. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 77.Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2012.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John E.. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2012.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E. (2012): Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (8th- and 10th-Grade Surveys), 2011. Version 1. Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.