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Ethnic Collective Action in Contemporary Urban United States -- Data on Conflicts and Protests, 1954-1992

Resource Type
Dataset : event/transaction data
  • Olzak, Susan (Stanford University)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation. Sociology Program
Free Keywords
ethnic discrimination; ethnic tensions; metropolitan statistical areas; protest demonstrations; racial discrimination; racial tensions; social protest; urban areas
  • Abstract

    This project seeks to identify sources of ethnic and racial conflict and protest in urban America from 1954 through 1992. The data on collective events are coded using The New York Times. Detailed coding rules produced a chronological dataset that allows researchers to: Analyze the location and timing of both conflicts (confrontations between two or more ethnic populations) and protests (marches, mass meetings, demonstrations on behalf of one ethnic group, expressing grievances related to discrimination or racial policy).; Specifically analyze a type of protest (e.g., civil rights movement activity, or urban race riots) and the potential dynamic relationship of different types of protests and conflicts.; Identify any ethnic, nationality, or racial characteristics of participants who were the targets and/or instigators of each protest and conflict.; Analyze information on each event's location, size, targets, police presence, arrests, damage or injuries, and the content of claims directed against government authorities, police, and other groups.;
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1954 / 1992
    Time period: 1954--1992
  • 1991 / 1995
    Collection date: 1991--1995
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The universe of this study encompasses all ethnic and racial protest and conflict events taking place between 1954-1992 within urban areas in the United States, as reported daily in The New York Times.
See the Project Description and Coding Manual for full information on how possible events were located using The New York Times Index.
Collection Mode
  • Data were collected from newspaper articles in The New York Times Index and daily microfilms. See the Project Description and Coding Manual for the coding scheme used.

    This dataset does not have geographic units of analysis, but all events took place in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA), in the United States.

Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation. Sociology Program (SES-9196229).
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 34341 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Olzak, Susan, Ryo, Emily. Organizational diversity, vitality and outcomes in the African American civil rights movement. Social Forces.85, (4), 1561-1592.2007.
    • ID: 10.1353/sof.2007.0076 (DOI)
  • Olzak, Susan, Shanahan, Suzanne. Racial policy and racial conflict in the urban United States, 1869-1924. Social Forces.82, (2), 481-517.2003.
    • ID: 10.1353/sof.2004.0019 (DOI)
  • Olzak, Susan, Shanahan, Suzanne. Immigration and conflict in the United States. Mass Migration to the United States: Classical and Contemporary Periods.Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press. 2002.
  • Olzak, Susan, Shanahan, Suzanne. The effects of immigrant diversity and ethnic competition on collective conflict in urban America: An assessment of two movements of mass migration, 1869-1924 and 1965-1993. Journal of American Ethnic History.18, (3), 40-64.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Olzak, Susan, Olivier, Johan L.. Comparative methods and event analysis: Black civil rights protest in the United States and South Africa. Acts of Dissent: New Developments of the Study of Protest.Berlin: Sigma Press. 1998.
  • Olzak, Susan, Olivier, Johan L.. Racial conflict and protest in South Africa and the United States. European Sociological Review.14, (3), 255-278.1998.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Olzak, Susan, Shanahan, Suzanne. Deprivation and race riots: An extension of Spilerman's analysis. Social Forces.74, (3), 931-961.1996.
  • Olzak, Susan, Shanahan, Suzanne, McEneaney, Elizabeth H.. Poverty, segregation, and race riots, 1960-1993. American Sociological Review.61, (4), 590-613.1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Olzak, Susan, Shanahan, Suzanne, West, Elizabeth. School desegregation, interracial exposure, and antibusing activity in contemporary urban America. American Journal of Sociology.100, (1), 196-241.1994.
    • ID: 10.1086/230503 (DOI)
  • Olzak, Susan. The political context of competition: Lynching and urban racial violence, 1882-1914. Social Forces.69, (2), 395-421.1990.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Olzak, Susan (2015): Ethnic Collective Action in Contemporary Urban United States -- Data on Conflicts and Protests, 1954-1992. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.