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National Prisoner Statistics, 1978-2011

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2013-06-25
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Language
English
Free Keywords
correctional system; demographic characteristics; HIV; offenders; parole; prison inmates; state correctional facilities
Description
  • Abstract

    The National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) data collection began in 1926 in response to a congressional mandate to gather information on persons incarcerated in state and federal prisons. Originally under the auspices of the United States Census Bureau, the collection moved to the Bureau of Prisons in 1950, and then in 1971 to the National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service, the precursor to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) which was established in 1979. Since 1979, the Census Bureau has been the NPS data collection agent. The NPS is administered to 51 respondents. Before 2001, the District of Columbia was also a respondent, but responsibility for housing the District of Columbia's sentenced prisoners was transferred to the federal Bureau of Prisons, and by yearend 2001 the District of Columbia no longer operated a prison system. The NPS provides an enumeration of persons in state and federal prisons and collects data on key characteristics of the nation's prison population. NPS has been adapted over time to keep pace with the changing information needs of the public, researchers, and federal, state, and local governments.
  • Abstract

    The NPS-1 is an annual collection known as the "Summary of Sentenced Population Movement." Before 1978, the collection tracked admissions and releases by type and sex during each calendar year, as well as the number of prisoners in custody by sex and sentence length on December 31. In 1978, NPS-1 was expanded to include the number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal adult correctional officials, the number of inmates held in local jails solely to ease overcrowding in prisons, and the race and Hispanic origin by sex of the jurisdiction population at yearend. In 1991, NPS-1 was further expanded to include questions on the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and confirmed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases in the custody population. In 1999, the NPS-1 was expanded again to collect data on inmates housed in local facilities without reference to prison overcrowding, inmates held in other state or federal facilities, and inmates held in privately operated facilities. In addition, the race and Hispanic origin questions were combined into a single item to better comport with administrative recordkeeping systems maintained by state departments of correction (DOCs). Finally, the survey began collecting more detailed counts of inmate deaths by cause. The NPS-1A was introduced in 1981 to track the rapidly growing prison population. It included counts of the number of inmates under jurisdiction and in custody of prisons, by sentence length and sex, on June 30 of each year. This collection was eliminated in 2010 to reduce burden on data respondents. The NPS-1B was added to provide advance counts of the December 31 (yearend) populations and to obtain data by sex, race, and sentence length. It was expanded in 1982 to include counts of inmates housed in local jails because of prison overcrowding, and again in 1983 to provide measures of housing capacity and numbers of early releases due to prison overcrowding. NPS-1 and NPS-1B were merged in 2007 under the title NPS-1B "Summary of Sentenced Population Movement." This single collection captures counts by sex of yearend jurisdiction and custody populations by sentence length; number of prisoners held in local, federal, private, and other state facilities; the race and ethnicity of inmates; types of admissions and releases during the calendar year; prison system capacity; and HIV infections and confirmed cases of AIDS. In 2011, two items were added from the former NPS-1A collection, including the yearend custody counts of noncitizens and inmates age 17 or younger.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1978 / 2011
    Time period: 1978--2011
  • 1978 / 2011
    Collection date: 1978--2011
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Prisoners under jurisdiction of federal or state correctional authorities in the United States. Smallest Geographic Unit: state
Collection Mode
  • mail questionnaire, web-based survey

Availability
Download
This study is freely available to the general public via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 34540 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Publications
  • Binswanger, Ingrid A., Carson, E. Ann, Krueger, Patrick M., Mueller, Shane R., Steiner, John F., Sabol, William J.. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking United States prisons: Population based retrospective analysis. BMJ.349, 2014.
    • ID: 10.1136/bmj.g4542 (DOI)
  • Pfaff, John F.. The war on drugs and prison growth: Limited importance, limited legislative options. Harvard Journal on Legislation.2014.
  • Lum, Kristian, Swarup, Samarth, Eubank, Stephen, Hawdon, James. An Agent-based Epidemiological Model of Incarceration. . 2013.
    • ID: http://arxiv.org/pdf/1312.1670.pdf (URL)
  • Raphael, Steven, Stoll, Michael A.. Why Are So Many Americans in Prison?. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. 2013.
  • Baumer, Eric P., Rosenfeld, Richard, Wolff, Kevin T.. Expanding the scope of research on recent crime trends. NCJ 240204, . 2012.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/240204.pdf (URL)
  • Carson, E. Ann, Sabol, William J.. Prisoners in 2011. BJS Bulletin.NCJ 239808, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2012.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p11.pdf (URL)
  • Glaze, Lauren E., Parks, Erika. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2011. Bulletin.NCJ 239972, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2012.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus11.pdf (URL)
  • Heimer, Karen, Johnson, Kecia R., Lang, Joseph B., Rengifo, Andres F., Stemen, Don. Race and women's imprisonment: Poverty, African American presence, and social welfare. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.28, (2), 219-244.2012.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10940-011-9144-8 (DOI)
  • Johnson, Rucker, Raphael, Steven. How much crime reduction does the marginal prisoner buy?. Journal of Law and Economics.55, (2), 275-310.2012.
    • ID: 10.1086/664073 (DOI)
  • Kyckelhahn, Tracey. State Corrections Expenditures, FY 1982-2010. Bulletin.NCJ 239672, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2012.
    • ID: http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/scefy8210.pdf (URL)
  • Laubepin, Frederique. Experiments in Punishment: Explaining Differences in the Scope of Penal Sanctioning in the American States. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2012.
  • Maruschak, Laura M.. HIV in Prisons, 2001-2010. Bulletin.NCJ 238877, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2012.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp10.pdf (URL)
  • Noonan, Margaret E.. Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2010 - Statistical Tables. NCJ 239911, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Programs. 2012.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/mljsp0010st.pdf (URL)
  • Pfaff, John F.. The micro and macro causes of prison growth. Georgia State University Law Review.28, (4), 2012.
  • Glaze, Lauren E.. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2010. Bulletin.NCJ 236319, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2011.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus10.pdf (URL)
  • Guerino, Paul, Harrison, Paige M., Sabol, William J.. Prisoners in 2010. Bulletin.NCJ 236095, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2011.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p10.pdf (URL)
  • West, Heather C., Sabol, William J., Greenman, Sarah H.. Prisoners in 2009. Bulletin.NCJ 231675, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2010.
    • ID: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/p09.pdf (URL)
  • Maruschak, Laura M., Beavers, Randy. HIV in Prisons, 2007-08. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 228307, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp08.pdf (URL)
  • Sabol, William J., West, Heather C., Cooper, Matthew. Prisoners in 2008. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 228417, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2009.
    • ID: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/p08.pdf (URL)
  • West, Heather C., Sabol, William J.. Prisoners in 2007. Bulletin.NCJ 224280, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2008.
    • ID: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/p07.pdf (URL)
  • Sabol, William J., Couture, Heather, Harrison, Paige M.. Prisoners in 2006. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 219416, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2007.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p06.pdf (URL)
  • Harrison, Paige M., Beck, Allen J.. Prisoners in 2005. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 215092, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p05.pdf (URL)
  • Harrison, Paige M., Beck, Allen J.. Prisoners in 2004. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 210677, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p04.pdf (URL)
  • Harrison, Paige M., Beck, Allen J.. Prisoners in 2003. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 205335, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p03.pdf (URL)
  • Maruschak, Laura M.. HIV in Prisons and Jails, 2002. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 205333, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj02.pdf (URL)
  • Maruschak, Laura M.. HIV in Prisons, 2001. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 202293, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp01.pdf (URL)
  • Harrison, Paige M., Beck, Allen J.. Prisoners in 2002. Bureau of Justice Statistics.NCJ 200248, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2003.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p02.pdf (URL)
  • Beck, Allen J., Harrison, Paige M.. Prisoners in 2001. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 195189, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p01.pdf (URL)
  • Travis, Jeremy, Lawrence, Sarah. Beyond the Prison Gates: The State of Parole in America. Research Report.Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310583_Beyond_prison_gates.pdf (URL)
  • Beck, Allen J., Harrison, Paige M.. Prisoners in 2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 188207, Washington, DC: United States of Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 2001.
    • ID: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/p00.pdf (URL)
  • Maruschak, Laura M.. HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1999. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 187456, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj99.pdf (URL)
  • Maruschak, Laura M., Beck, Allen J.. Medical Problems of Inmates, 1997. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.NCJ 181644, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/mpi97.pdf (URL)
  • Beck, Allen J.. Prisoners in 1999. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 183476, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Program. 2000.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p99.pdf (URL)
  • Strom, Kevin J.. Profile of State Prisoners under Age 18, 1985-97, Special Report. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.NCJ 176989, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2000.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/pspa1897.pdf (URL)
  • Beck, Allen J., Mumola, Christopher J.. Prisoners in 1998. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 175687, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 1999.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p98.pdf (URL)
  • Gilliard, Darrell K., Beck, Allen J.. Prisoners in 1997. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 170014, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 1998.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p97.pdf (URL)
  • Maruschak, Laura. HIV in Prisons and Jails,1995. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 164260, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 1997.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivpj95.pdf (URL)
  • Mumola, Christopher J., Beck, Allen J.. Prisoners in 1996. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 164619, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 1997.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p96.pdf (URL)
  • Brien, Peter M., Beck, Allen J.. HIV in Prisons 1994. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 158020, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 1996.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/Hivip94.pdf (URL)
  • Beck, Allen J., Gilliard, Darrell K.. Prisoners in 1994. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 151654, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 1995.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/Pi94.pdf (URL)
  • Brien, Peter M., Harlow, Caroline W.. HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1993. NCJ 152765, United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. 1995.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivip93.pdf (URL)
  • Gilliard, Darrell K.. Prisoners in 1992. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 141874, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1993.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p92.pdf (URL)
  • Harlow, Caroline Wolf. HIV in U.S. Prisons and Jails. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.NCJ 143292, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1993.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivuspj.pdf (URL)
  • Morton, Danielle C., Snell, Tracy L.. Prisoners in 1991. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 134729, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1992.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p91.pdf (URL)
  • Cohen, Robin L.. Prisoners in 1990. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 129198, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1991.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p90.pdf (URL)
  • Greenfeld, Lawrence A.. Prisoners in 1988. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 116315, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1989.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p88.pdf (URL)
  • Hester, Tom. Correctional Populations in the United States, 1986. NCJ 111611, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1989.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus86.pdf (URL)
  • Beck, Allen, Minor-Harper, Stephanie. Prisoners in State and Federal Institutions on December 31. NCJ 103768, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1987.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/psfi84.pdf (URL)
  • Greenfeld, Lawrence A.. Prisoners in 1986. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 104864, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1987.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p86.pdf (URL)
  • Hester, Tom. Correctional Populations in the United States, 1985. NCJ 103957, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1987.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cpus85.pdf (URL)
  • Greenfeld, Lawrence A., Hinners, David G.. Capital Punishment 1984. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 98399, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1985.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cp84.pdf (URL)
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics. Capital Punishment 1982. NCJ 91533, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1984.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cp82nps.pdf (URL)
  • Cantwell, Mimi. Capital Punishment, 1982. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 89395, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1983.
    • ID: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cp82.pdf (URL)
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics. Capital Punishment, 1981. National Prisoner Statistics Report.NCJ 86484, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1982.
  • Marbrook, M.. Myths and Realities about Crime - A Nontechnical Presentation of Selected Information from the National Prisoner Statistics Program and the National Crime Survey. NCJ 46249, . 1978.
    • ID: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/46249NCJRS.pdf (URL)
  • Lum, Kristian, Swarup, Samarth, Eubank, Stephen, Hawdon, James. The Contagious Nature of Imprisonment: An Agent-Based Model to Explain Racial Disparities in Incarceration Rates. . .
    • ID: http://staff.vbi.vt.edu/swarup/papers/lum-et-al-incarceration-epidemic.pdf (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013): National Prisoner Statistics, 1978-2011. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34540.v1