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Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2013

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Johnston, Lloyd D. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • Bachman, Jerald G. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • O'Malley, Patrick M. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • Schulenberg, John E. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
Other Title
  • Archival Version (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Free Keywords
alcohol; attitudes; crime; demographic characteristics; drug education; drug use; educational objectives; family background; gender roles; high school students; human behavior; lifestyles; prescription drugs; religious attitudes; self esteem; social change; tobacco use; values; youths
  • Abstract

    This survey of 12th-grade students is part of a series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. Students are randomly assigned to complete one of six questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions, but all containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are about 1,400 variables across the questionnaires. Drugs covered by this survey include tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, hashish, prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, LSD, hallucinogens, amphetamines (stimulants), Ritalin (methylphenidate), Quaaludes (methaqualone), barbiturates (tranquilizers), cocaine, crack cocaine, GHB (gamma hydroxy butyrate), ecstasy, methamphetamine, and heroin. Other topics include attitudes toward religion, changing roles for women, educational aspirations, self-esteem, exposure to drug education, and violence and crime (both in and out of school).
  • Methods

    Each of the seven parts contains a weight variable, ARCHIVE_WT. They were originally varied by school but were modified to protect respondent confidentiality. Users should use the weight variable for all analyses, the results of which will differ slightly from published data tables that used original data.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The overall student response rate for 2013 was 82 percent.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Core Data
    • DS2: Form 1 Data
    • DS3: Form 2 Data
    • DS4: Form 3 Data
    • DS5: Form 4 Data
    • DS6: Form 5 Data
    • DS7: Form 6 Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2013
  • Collection date: 2013
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
High school seniors in the contiguous United States.
A multistage area probability sample design was used involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 72 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty, 10 were selected with a probability of .50, and the remainder were selected using a probability based on their 2000 Census household count. Generally speaking, in schools with more than 350 seniors, a sample of seniors or classes was drawn. In schools with less than 350 seniors, all seniors were asked to participate unless logistical challenges required a sample be taken. Each school was asked to participate for two years so that each year one-half of the sample would be replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic). The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 85 percent since the inception of the study. The total sample of 12th graders was divided into 6 subsamples, each to be administered a different form of the questionnaire. "Core" drug and demographic questions were included in all questionnaire forms.
Collection Mode
  • on-site questionnaire

    Conducted by the University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Survey Research Center.

    To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been collapsed or recoded in the public use files. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use files.

    Variables omitted from the Western region questionnaires are noted in each codebook.

    A user guide is provided with the study documentation. It contains a year-to-year cross-time question index for the MTF 12th-grade surveys, which is sorted by subject area, item reference number, and questionnaire form.

    Frequency and percentage distributions displayed in the 2013 codebooks are unweighted, rather than weighted by variable "ARCHIVE_WT" (previously named "V5") as they had been in previous years. This change was made to simplify both the production of the codebooks and their interpretation by the analyst.

    MTF does not release detailed geography codes in its public use files because of the disclosure risk it would cause. The MTF sample is drawn to generate representative samples of the four Census Bureau regions of the country (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West), but it does not generate representative samples of smaller geographic areas such as states, counties, or cities. For additional information about data that is withheld from the public use files please contact MTF directly at

    With the approval of the MTF Principal Investigators ICPSR created a series of dichotomous recodes for 10 substances for the three standard time periods (lifetime, past 12 months, and past 30 days). The substances include tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, LSD, other psychedelics, amphetamines, sedatives/barbiturates, tranquilizers, inhalants, and other narcotics. These variables have been placed at the end of the file. Each variable has the same name and label as the original, but with the addition of the letter "D" at the end of the variable name and the words "(dichotomous recode)" included at the end of the variable label. This was only done for the core file.

    Using these new dichotomous recode variables ICPSR has created interactive maps to show the weighted response for each dichotomous variable by Census region. To create a map simply select the desired year/grade and question/variable. Then click on "Go". The resulting map will rank the regions by color. The Census region with the darkest shade will show the highest frequency of use. A frequency table is also provided.

2015-03-26 ICPSR created new dichotomous variables and placed them at the end of the core file. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA-01411).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 35218 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR35218.v1
  • Miech, Richard A., Johnston, Lloyd, O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John, Patrick, Megan E.. Trends in use of and attitudes toward marijuana among youth before and after decriminalization: The case of California 2007-2013. International Journal of Drug Policy.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.009 (DOI)
  • Palamar, Joseph J.. 'Bath salt' use among a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the United States. American Journal on Addictions.2015.
    • ID: 10.1111/ajad.12254 (DOI)
  • Palamar, Joseph J., Acosta, Patricia. Synthetic cannabinoid use in a nationally representative sample of US high school seniors. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.194-202.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.044 (DOI)
  • Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E., Miech, R.A.. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2013: Volume 2, College Students and Adults Ages 19–55. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2014.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 8 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E. (2014): Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2013. Archival Version. Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series. Version: v0. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.