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General Social Survey, 1993, 1998, 2000, 2002 with Cultural, Information Security, and Freedom Modules [United States]

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Davis, James A. (National Opinion Research Center. National Data Program for the Social Sciences)
  • Smith, Tom W. (National Opinion Research Center. National Data Program for the Social Sciences)
  • Marsden, Peter V. (National Opinion Research Center. National Data Program for the Social Sciences)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
2014-12-11
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
access to arts; arts; arts advocacy; arts attendance; arts education; arts funding; arts participation; arts policy; cultural attitudes; information use; Internet; leisure; music; performing arts; public opinion; reading; recreation; social attitudes; visual arts
Description
  • Abstract

    The General Social Survey (GSS), conducted annually between 1972 and 1994 (except for 1979, 1981, and 1992) and biennially thereafter by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago, collects information from the general public on a wide variety of subjects, including attitudes toward social issues, religion, education, jobs and the economy, government and other institutions, politics, and policy issues. Many questions are asked either in every survey or at various intervals across time, allowing trends to be analyzed. The 1993, 1998, and 2002 GSS are of particular interest to cultural policy researchers because they include a "Cultural Module," a battery of questions focused on culture and the arts. The 1993 Culture Module included questions on musical preferences, leisure and recreational activities, and attitudes toward art and literature. The 1998 Cultural Module included questions on attendance in arts events, personal engagement in artistic activities, attitudes toward art and literature, and attitudes toward arts funding. The 2002 Cultural Module included questions on musical preferences, attendance at arts events, and personal engagement in artistic activities. In 2002, another module on the "Information Society" included questions on the use of the Internet to obtain information about the arts. The 2000 GSS is of particular interest to cultural policy researchers because it included an "Information Society Module," a battery of questions on how people use the World Wide Web to access information about culture and the arts. More specifically, this module asked how people use the Web to learn about music, the visual arts, and literature. The 2000, another module on "Freedom" asked about freedom of expression, among other topics.
  • Abstract

    The General Social Survey (GSS) collects information from the general public on a wide variety of subjects, including attitudes toward social issues, religion, education, jobs and the economy, government and other institutions, politics, and policy issues. The GSS 1993, 1998, and 2000 included a "Cultural Module," a battery of questions focused on culture and the arts. The GSS 2000 included an Information Security Module," a battery of questions on how people use the World Wide Web to access information about culture and the arts and a "Freedom Module" that asked about freedom of expression, among other topics.
  • Abstract

    In-person interviews were conducted with a national, full probability sample of English-speaking persons 18 years of age or over, living in non-institutional arrangements within the United States. Interviews were conducted during February, March, and April of each of the four years in this collection. The number of people interviewed was 1,606 people in 1993, 2,832 people in 1998, 2,817 in 2000, and 2,765 in 2002. The average length of the interview was about 90 minutes. In 1993, there was a split-frame experiment in which half the cases were drawn from NORC's 1980 sampling frame and half from the new 1990 sampling frame. Beginning with the 1994 General Social Survey, two major innovations were introduced. First, the number of traditional core questions was substantially reduced to allow for the creation of mini-modules (i.e., supplemental question blocks devoted to a combination of topics). Second, a new biennial, split-sample design was implemented. The sample consists of two parallel sub-samples of approximately 1,500 cases each. The two sub-samples both contain the identical core questions. They differ in terms of the topical modules included. Thus, sample sizes for questions in specific topic modules will be about half the size of the total sample.
  • Abstract

    Data collected from the standard GSS questionnaire included information on social issues, religion, education, jobs and the economy, government and other institutions, politics, and policy issues. The 1993 Culture Module also included questions on musical preferences, leisure and recreational activities, and attitudes toward art and literature. The 1998 Cultural Module also included questions on attendance in arts events, personal engagement in artistic activities, attitudes toward art and literature, and attitudes toward arts funding. The 2002 Cultural Module also included questions on musical preferences, attendance at arts events, and personal engagement in artistic activities. The 2000 "Information Society" included questions about how people use the Web to learn about music, the visual arts, and literature and the 2000 "Freedom" module asked about freedom of expression, among other topics.
  • Methods

    Since 1975 the GSS has used full-probability sampling of households designed to give each household an equal probability of being included in the GSS. Hence, for household-level variables the GSS is self-weighting. The data for each of the four years include three weight variables: ADULTS (Household Members 18 Yrs and Older), FORMWT (Post-Stratification Weight) and OVERSAMP (Weights for Black Oversamples). Since only one adult per household was interviewed, persons living in large households had a lower probability to be selected for the survey. For person-level variables, weighting statistical results in proportion to the number of persons over 18 in the household (variable ADULTS) can compensate for this. For all four years FORMWT and OVERSAMP have all cases equal to 1 in the dataset. In addition, the variable SAMPCODE is provided for the convenience of persons who wish to study within-cluster and between-cluster variations in the GSS. More information about these variables is included in the Notes in the variable description of each variable.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: In 1993, the response rate was 82 percent, in 1998, 76 percent, in 2000, 70 percent, and in 2002, 70 percent.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: General Social Survey 1993 Data with Cultural Module
    • DS2: General Social Survey 1998 Data with Cultural Module
    • DS3: General Social Survey 2000 with Information Security and Freedom Modules
    • DS4: General Social Survey 2002 Data with Cultural Module
Temporal Coverage
  • 1993-01-01 / 1993-12-31
    Time period: 1993-01-01--1993-12-31
  • 1998-01-01 / 1998-12-31
    Time period: 1998-01-01--1998-12-31
  • 2000-01-01 / 2000-12-31
    Time period: 2000-01-01--2000-12-31
  • 2002-01-01 / 2002-12-31
    Time period: 2002-01-01--2002-12-31
  • 1993-02-01 / 1993-04-30
    Collection date: 1993-02-01--1993-04-30
  • 1998-02-01 / 1998-04-30
    Collection date: 1998-02-01--1998-04-30
  • 2000-02-01 / 2000-04-30
    Collection date: 2000-02-01--2000-04-30
  • 2002-02-01 / 2002-04-30
    Collection date: 2002-02-01--2002-04-30
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All noninstitutionalized English-speaking persons 18 years of age or older living in the United States. Smallest Geographic Unit: region
Sampling
Full probability samples were used, which are designed to give each household an equal probability of inclusion in the sample.
Collection Mode
  • computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), paper and pencil interview (PAPI)

    National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago conducted the survey on behalf of the National Data Program for the Social Sciences. The National Data Program for the Social Sciences (General Social Survey) is both a data diffusion project and a program of social indicator research.

    This data collection was previously distributed by the Cultural Policy and the Arts National Data Archive (CPANDA). The CPANDA Identification Number (study number) for the entire data collection is c00006. The CPANDA Identification number for the GSS 1993 is a00006, for the GSS 1998 is a00031, for the GSS 2000 is a00032, and for the GSS 2002 is a00079. CPANDA conducted the following processing steps for release of this collection: produced a codebook, checked for undocumented codes, performed consistency checks, provided frequencies, performed recodes, and reformatted the data.

    The GSS 2000 data distributed by CPANDA had 4,222 variables. Of these, 3,117 variables were in a variable group named "Not asked in 2000." NADAC removed these variables from the GSS 2000 dataset being distributed by NADAC since all cases in the variables in this group were coded using some form of missing data code.

    Users are encouraged to read more about the General Social Survey on the NORC Web site.

    The data from the interviews were processed according to NORC procedures. Cleaning procedures -- utilizing a combination of the coding specifications and the interviewer instructions -- were used to check for inconsistent or illegitimate codes.

    Due to the limit in the number of allowable columns in Excel 97-2003 (file ending, xls), the Excel files being distributed with this collection are in the later version of Excel (file ending of xlsx).

Note
2016-05-19 The study title was updated to include the names of the modules. Details about weighting were added. Data Lead-in documentation was added to highlight subjects and variables related to arts and culture.2015-01-12 The Excel files are being distributed as xlsx files. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SBR-9617727).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 35536 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR35536.v2
Publications
  • Bergsma, Wicher, van der Ark, Andries. Categorical marginal models: Quite extensive package for the estimation of marginal models for categorical data. Comprehensive R Archive Network.London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Research Online, marginal models. 2015.
    • ID: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/61309/1/Bergsma_cmm.pdf (URL)
  • Lizardo, Omar, Skiles, Sara. Musical taste and patterns of symbolic exclusion in the United States 1993-2012: Generational dynamics of differentiation and continuity. Poetics.53, 9-21.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.poetic.2015.08.003 (DOI)
  • Leroux, Kelly, Bernadska, Anna. Impact of the Arts on Individual Contributions to US Civil Society. Journal of Civil Society.10, (2), 144-164.2014.
    • ID: 10.1080/17448689.2014.912479 (DOI)
  • Robinson, John P.. Arts and leisure participation among IT users: Further evidence of time enhancement over time displacement. Social Science Computer Review.29, (4), 470-480.2011.
    • ID: 10.1177/0894439310385643 (DOI)
  • Bergsma, Wicher, Croon, Marcel A., Hagenaars, Jacques A.. Marginal Models for Dependent, Clustered, and Longitudinal Categorical Data. Statistics for Social and Behavioral Sciences Series.New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009.
    • ID: 10.1007/978-0-387-09610-0 (DOI)
  • Coward Bucher, Carrie. You Are What You Hear: The Relationship among Race, Class, Gender and Musical Taste. Dissertation, Emory University. 2009.
  • Griswold, Wendy. Regionalism and the Reading Class. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 2008.
  • Alderson, Arthur S., Junisbai, Azamat, Heacock, Isaac. Social status and cultural consumption in the United States. Poetics.35, (2-3), 191-212.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.poetic.2007.03.005 (DOI)
  • Dixon, Jeffrey C.. The ties that bind and those that don't: Toward reconciling group threat and contact theories of prejudice. Social Forces.84, (4), 2179-2204.2006.
    • ID: 10.1353/sof.2006.0085 (DOI)
  • Griffin, Larry J.. Give me that old-time music . . . or not . Southern Cultures.12, (4), 98-107.2006.
  • Lizardo, Omar. The puzzle of women's 'highbrow' culture consumption: Integrating gender and work into Bourdieu's class theory of taste. Poetics.34, (1), 1-23.2006.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.poetic.2005.09.001 (DOI)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Discrepancies in Gender Codes. GSS Methodological Report No. 102.Chicago, IL: NORC. 2005.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/DOCUMENTS/REPORTS/Methodological_Reports/MR102.pdf (URL)
  • Hout, Michael. Getting the Most Out of the GSS Income Measures. GSS Methodological Report 101.. 2004.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents/reports/methodological_reports/MR101.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. A review of church attendance measures. American Sociological Review.63, (1), 131-136.1998.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2657485 (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Measuring Race by Observation and Self-Identification. Chicago, IL: NORC. 1997.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/DOCUMENTS/REPORTS/Methodological_Reports/MR089.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. A Review of Ethno-Racial Measures on the General Social Survey. Chicago, IL: NORC. 1995.
  • Nakao, Keiko, Treas, Judith. Updating occupational prestige and socioeconomic scores: How the new measures measure up. Sociological Methodology.24, 1-72.1994.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/270978 (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. A Comparison of Two Governmental Spending Scales. Chicago, IL: NORC. 1994.
  • Smith, Tom W.. A Comparison of Two Confidence Scales. GSS Methodological Report No. 80.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1993.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents/MTRT/MR080%20A%20Comparison%20of%20Two%20Confidence%20Scales.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Little Things Matter: A Sampler of How Differences in Questionnaire Format Can Affect Survey Responses. Chicago, IL: NORC. 1993.
    • ID: http://www.websm.org/uploadi/editor/1367667204Smith_1995_Little_Things_Matter.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. A Methodological Analysis of the Sexual Behavior Questions on the General Social Surveys. Journal of Official Statistics.8, (3), 309-325.1992.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents/MTRT/MR065%20A%20Methodological%20Analysis%20of%20the%20Sexual%20Behavior%20Questions%20on%20the%20GSS.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. A Report on the GSS Household Enumeration Variables. GSS Methodological Report No. 73.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1992.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/DOCUMENTS/REPORTS/Methodological_Reports/MR073.pdf (URL)
  • Ligon, Ethan. The Development and Use of a Consistent Income Measure for the General Social Survey. GSS Methodological Report No. 64.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1989.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents/reports/methodological_reports/mr064.pdf (URL)
  • Rasinski, Kenneth A.. The effect of question wording on public support for government spending. Public Opinion Quarterly.53, (3), 388-394.1989.
    • ID: 10.1086/269158 (DOI)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Timely Artifacts: A Review of Measurement Variation in the 1972-1988 GSS. GSS Methodological Report No. 56.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1988.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents/MTRT/MR056.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. That which we call welfare by any other name would smell sweeter: An analysis of the impact of question wording on response patterns [GSS Technical Report No. 55]. Public Opinion Quarterly.51, (1), 75-83.1987.
    • ID: 10.1086/269015 (DOI)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Attrition and Bias on the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) Supplement. GSS Technical Report No. 66.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1986.
  • Smith, Tom W., Peterson, Bruce L.. Problems in Form Randomization on the General Social Surveys. GSS Technical Report No. 58.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1986.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/DOCUMENTS/REPORTS/Methodological_Reports/MR036.pdf (URL)
  • Peterson, Bruce L.. Confidence: Categories and Confusion. GSS Technical Report No. 50.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1985.
  • Smith, Tom W.. The subjectivity of ethnicity. Surveying Subjective Phenomena, Vol. 2.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 1985.
  • Smith, Tom W.. Unhappiness on the 1985 GSS: Confounding Change and Context. GSS Technical Report No. 56.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1985.
  • Dempsey, Glenn R.. Scaling Political Views and Social Status: A Comparison of Two Methods. GSS Technical Report No. 45.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1984.
  • Smith, Tom W.. A Preliminary Analysis of Methodological Experiments on the 1984 GSS. GSS Technical Report No. 49.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1984.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/DOCUMENTS/REPORTS/Methodological_Reports/MR030.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Recalling attitudes: An analysis of retrospective questions on the 1982 General Social Survey [GSS Technical Report No. 35]. Public Opinion Quarterly.48, 639-649.1984.
  • Smith, Tom W.. Problems in Ethnic Measurement: Over-, Under-, and Misidentification. GSS Technical Report No. 29.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1982.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents/MTRT/MR018%20Problems%20in%20Ethnic%20Measurement.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Can We Have Confidence in Confidence? Revisited. [Technical Report No. 1, 1977. Superseded by GSS Technical Report No. 11.]. Measurement of Subjective Phenomena.Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census, Center for Demographic Studies. 1981.
    • ID: https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=N0YEYAURoJ8C&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&hl=en&pg=GBS.PP2 (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Contradictions on the Abortion Scale. GSS Technical Report No. 31.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1981.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/DOCUMENTS/REPORTS/Methodological_Reports/MR019.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Situational qualifications to generalized absolutes: 'Approval of hitting' questions on the General Social Surveys [GSS Technical Report No. 21]. Public Opinion Quarterly.45, 224-230.1981.
  • Smith, Tom W.. Ethnic measurement and identification [GSS Technical Report No. 8]. Ethnicity.7, (1), 78-95.1980.
  • Smith, Tom W.. Self-Employment--An Analysis of GSS Measures of Employment Status. GSS Technical Report No. 20.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1980.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/DOCUMENTS/REPORTS/Methodological_Reports/MR011.pdf (URL)
  • Smith, Tom W.. Sex and the GSS: Nonresponse Differences. GSS Technical Report No. 17.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1979.
  • Smith, Tom W.. Size of Place Codes in the 1972-1977 General Social Surveys. GSS Technical Report No. 4 [Appendix 2 covering 1980 Census added April, 1984.].Chicago, IL: NORC. 1978.
  • Stephenson, C. Bruce. Weighting the General Social Surveys for Bias Relating to Household Size. GSS Technical Report No. 3.Chicago, IL: NORC. 1978.
    • ID: http://publicdata.norc.org:41000/gss/documents/reports/methodological_reports/mr003.pdf (URL)

Update Metadata: 2016-05-19 | Issue Number: 7 | Registration Date: 2015-06-16

Davis, James A.; Smith, Tom W.; Marsden, Peter V. (2014): General Social Survey, 1993, 1998, 2000, 2002 with Cultural, Information Security, and Freedom Modules [United States]. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35536.v1