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United States Historical Election Returns, 1824-1968

Version
v2
Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data, survey data
Creator
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • United States Historical Election Returns Series
Publication Date
1984-06-19
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
candidates; congressional elections; counties; election returns; elections; gubernatorial elections; historical data; political attitudes; political behavior; political parties; presidential elections; senatorial elections; states (USA)
Description
  • Abstract

    This collection of historical election data contains state files that list county-level returns for over 90 percent of all elections to the offices of president, governor, United States senator, and United States representative from 1824 through 1968. The data files include returns for all parties and candidates (as well as write-in and scattering votes if available for individual states), and for special elections as well as regularly-scheduled contests. Over 1,000 individual party names and many additional unaffiliated candidates are included.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Election Returns for Connecticut, 1824-1860
    • DS2: Election Returns for Connecticut, 1861-1904
    • DS3: Election Returns for Connecticut, 1906-1942
    • DS4: Election Returns for Connecticut, 1944-1968
    • DS5: Election Returns for Maine, 1824-1873
    • DS6: Election Returns for Maine, 1874-1902
    • DS7: Election Returns for Maine, 1906-1944
    • DS8: Election Returns for Maine, 1946-1968
    • DS9: Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1824-1855
    • DS10: Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1856-1895
    • DS11: Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1896-1928
    • DS12: Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1930-1964
    • DS13: Election Returns for Massachusetts, 1964-1968
    • DS14: Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1824-1871
    • DS15: Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1872-1875
    • DS16: Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1876-1918
    • DS17: Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1920-1926
    • DS18: Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1928-1964
    • DS19: Election Returns for New Hampshire, 1966-1968
    • DS20: Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1824-1866
    • DS21: Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1867-1899
    • DS22: Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1900-1903
    • DS23: Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1904-1938
    • DS24: Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1940-1944
    • DS25: Election Returns for Rhode Island, 1946-1968
    • DS26: Election Returns for Vermont, 1824-1866
    • DS27: Election Returns for Vermont, 1867-1910
    • DS28: Election Returns for Vermont, 1912-1914
    • DS29: Election Returns for Vermont, 1916-1950
    • DS30: Election Returns for Vermont, 1952-1958
    • DS31: Election Returns for Vermont, 1960-1968
    • DS32: Election Returns for Delaware, 1823-1876
    • DS33: Election Returns for Delaware, 1878-1920
    • DS34: Election Returns for Delaware, 1922-1926
    • DS35: Election Returns for Delaware, 1928-1968
    • DS36: Election Returns for New Jersey, 1824-1874
    • DS37: Election Returns for New Jersey, 1876-1882
    • DS38: Election Returns for New Jersey, 1883-1922
    • DS39: Election Returns for New Jersey, 1924-1953
    • DS40: Election Returns for New Jersey, 1954-1968
    • DS41: Election Returns for New York, 1824-1854
    • DS42: Election Returns for New York, 1856-1884
    • DS43: Election Returns for New York, 1885-1906
    • DS44: Election Returns for New York, 1908-1922
    • DS45: Election Returns for New York, 1923-1933
    • DS46: Election Returns for New York, 1934-1938
    • DS47: Election Returns for New York, 1940-1952
    • DS48: Election Returns for New York, 1954-1968
    • DS49: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1824-1876
    • DS50: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1878-1882
    • DS51: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1884-1899
    • DS52: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1900
    • DS53: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1901-1915
    • DS54: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1916-1928
    • DS55: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1930-1964
    • DS56: Election Returns for Pennsylvania, 1966-1968
    • DS57: Election Returns for Illinois, 1824-1878
    • DS58: Election Returns for Illinois, 1880-1910
    • DS59: Election Returns for Illinois, 1912-1930
    • DS60: Election Returns for Illinois, 1932-1968
    • DS61: Election Returns for Indiana, 1824-1872
    • DS62: Election Returns for Indiana, 1874-1926
    • DS63: Election Returns for Indiana, 1928-1968
    • DS64: Election Returns for Michigan, 1835-1874
    • DS65: Election Returns for Michigan, 1876-1886
    • DS66: Election Returns for Michigan, 1888-1920
    • DS67: Election Returns for Michigan, 1922-1928
    • DS68: Election Returns for Michigan, 1930-1960
    • DS69: Election Returns for Michigan, 1962-1968
    • DS70: Election Returns for Ohio, 1824-1873
    • DS71: Election Returns for Ohio, 1874-1878
    • DS72: Election Returns for Ohio, 1879-1916
    • DS73: Election Returns for Ohio, 1918-1920
    • DS74: Election Returns for Ohio, 1922-1948
    • DS75: Election Returns for Ohio, 1950
    • DS76: Election Returns for Ohio, 1952-1968
    • DS77: Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1848-1884
    • DS78: Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1886-1890
    • DS79: Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1892-1926
    • DS80: Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1928-1931
    • DS81: Election Returns for Wisconsin, 1932-1968
    • DS82: Election Returns for Iowa, 1846-1887
    • DS83: Election Returns for Iowa, 1888-1923
    • DS84: Election Returns for Iowa, 1924-1926
    • DS85: Election Returns for Iowa, 1928-1958
    • DS86: Election Returns for Iowa, 1960-1968
    • DS87: Election Returns for Kansas, 1862-1898
    • DS88: Election Returns for Kansas, 1900-1936
    • DS89: Election Returns for Kansas, 1938-1943
    • DS90: Election Returns for Kansas, 1944-1968
    • DS91: Election Returns for Minnesota, 1857-1902
    • DS92: Election Returns for Minnesota, 1904-1908
    • DS93: Election Returns for Minnesota, 1910-1946
    • DS94: Election Returns for Minnesota, 1948-1950
    • DS95: Election Returns for Minnesota, 1952-1968
    • DS96: Election Returns for Missouri, 1824-1872
    • DS97: Election Returns for Missouri, 1874-1922
    • DS98: Election Returns for Missouri, 1924-1968
    • DS99: Election Returns for Nebraska, 1866-1908
    • DS100: Election Returns for Nebraska, 1910-1912
    • DS101: Election Returns for Nebraska, 1914-1948
    • DS102: Election Returns for Nebraska, 1950-1952
    • DS103: Election Returns for Nebraska, 1954-1968
    • DS104: Election Returns for North Dakota, 1889-1926
    • DS105: Election Returns for North Dakota, 1928-1962
    • DS106: Election Returns for North Dakota, 1964-1968
    • DS107: Election Returns for South Dakota, 1889-1932
    • DS108: Election Returns for South Dakota, 1934-1968
    • DS109: Election Returns for Virginia, 1824-1888
    • DS110: Election Returns for Virginia, 1893-1929
    • DS111: Election Returns for Virginia, 1930-1932
    • DS112: Election Returns for Virginia, 1933-1968
    • DS113: Election Returns for Alabama, 1824-1874
    • DS114: Election Returns for Alabama, 1876-1918
    • DS115: Election Returns for Alabama, 1920-1960
    • DS116: Election Returns for Alabama, 1962-1968
    • DS117: Election Returns for Arkansas, 1836-1890
    • DS118: Election Returns for Arkansas, 1892-1902
    • DS119: Election Returns for Arkansas, 1904-1940
    • DS120: Election Returns for Arkansas, 1942
    • DS121: Election Returns for Arkansas, 1944-1968
    • DS122: Election Returns for Florida, 1845-1900
    • DS123: Election Returns for Florida, 1902-1914
    • DS124: Election Returns for Florida, 1916-1956
    • DS125: Election Returns for Florida, 1958-1968
    • DS126: Election Returns for Georgia, 1824-1860
    • DS127: Election Returns for Georgia, 1868-1930
    • DS128: Election Returns for Georgia, 1932-1946
    • DS129: Election Returns for Georgia, 1948-1968
    • DS130: Election Returns for Louisiana, 1824-1892
    • DS131: Election Returns for Louisiana, 1894-1938
    • DS132: Election Returns for Louisiana, 1940-1948
    • DS133: Election Returns for Louisiana, 1950-1968
    • DS134: Election Returns for Mississippi, 1824-1896
    • DS135: Election Returns for Mississippi, 1898-1941
    • DS136: Election Returns for Mississippi, 1942-1951
    • DS137: Election Returns for Mississippi, 1952-1968
    • DS138: Election Returns for North Carolina, 1824-1874
    • DS139: Election Returns for North Carolina, 1876-1928
    • DS140: Election Returns for North Carolina, 1930-1936
    • DS141: Election Returns for North Carolina, 1938-1968
    • DS142: Election Returns for South Carolina, 1824-1894
    • DS143: Election Returns for South Carolina, 1896-1904
    • DS144: Election Returns for South Carolina, 1906-1940
    • DS145: Election Returns for South Carolina, 1942-1968
    • DS146: Election Returns for Texas, 1846-1896
    • DS147: Election Returns for Texas, 1898-1931
    • DS148: Election Returns for Texas, 1932-1936
    • DS149: Election Returns for Texas, 1937-1968
    • DS150: Election Returns for Kentucky, 1824-1875
    • DS151: Election Returns for Kentucky, 1876-1880
    • DS152: Election Returns for Kentucky, 1882-1928
    • DS153: Election Returns for Kentucky, 1929-1959
    • DS154: Election Returns for Kentucky, 1960-1968
    • DS155: Election Returns for Maryland, 1824-1880
    • DS156: Election Returns for Maryland, 1882-1924
    • DS157: Election Returns for Maryland, 1926-1968
    • DS158: Election Returns for Oklahoma, 1907-1938
    • DS159: Election Returns for Oklahoma, 1940-1948
    • DS160: Election Returns for Oklahoma, 1950-1968
    • DS161: Election Returns for Tennessee, 1825-1882
    • DS162: Election Returns for Tennessee, 1884-1930
    • DS163: Election Returns for Tennessee, 1932-1968
    • DS164: Election Returns for West Virginia, 1863-1916
    • DS165: Election Returns for West Virginia, 1918-1954
    • DS166: Election Returns for West Virginia, 1956-1968
    • DS167: Election Returns for Arizona, 1911-1944
    • DS168: Election Returns for Arizona, 1946-1952
    • DS169: Election Returns for Arizona, 1954-1968
    • DS170: Election Returns for Colorado, 1876-1910
    • DS171: Election Returns for Colorado, 1912-1914
    • DS172: Election Returns for Colorado, 1916-1946
    • DS173: Election Returns for Colorado, 1948-1968
    • DS174: Election Returns for Idaho, 1890-1924
    • DS175: Election Returns for Idaho, 1926-1934
    • DS176: Election Returns for Idaho, 1936-1968
    • DS177: Election Returns for Montana, 1889-1932
    • DS178: Election Returns for Montana, 1934-1968
    • DS179: Election Returns for Nevada, 1864-1912
    • DS180: Election Returns for Nevada, 1914-1924
    • DS181: Election Returns for Nevada, 1926-1960
    • DS182: Election Returns for Nevada, 1962-1968
    • DS183: Election Returns for New Mexico, 1911-1942
    • DS184: Election Returns for New Mexico, 1944-1968
    • DS185: Election Returns for Utah, 1896-1936
    • DS186: Election Returns for Utah, 1938-1946
    • DS187: Election Returns for Utah, 1948-1968
    • DS188: Election Returns for Wyoming, 1890-1930
    • DS189: Election Returns for Wyoming, 1932-1968
    • DS190: Election Returns for California, 1849-1894
    • DS191: Election Returns for California, 1896-1900
    • DS192: Election Returns for California, 1902-1936
    • DS193: Election Returns for California, 1938-1944
    • DS194: Election Returns for California, 1946-1968
    • DS195: Election Returns for Oregon, 1858-1904
    • DS196: Election Returns for Oregon, 1906-1916
    • DS197: Election Returns for Oregon, 1918-1952
    • DS198: Election Returns for Oregon, 1954-1968
    • DS199: Election Returns for Washington, 1889-1924
    • DS200: Election Returns for Washington, 1926-1930
    • DS201: Election Returns for Washington, 1932-1968
    • DS202: Election Returns for Alaska, 1958-1968
    • DS203: Election Returns for Hawaii, 1959-1968
    • DS204: Political Party Codes
Temporal Coverage
  • 1824 / 1968
    Time period: 1824--1968
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Collection Mode
  • The election data have been matched-merged and fixed-formatted within states. Because of the volume of data available for some states, it was necessary to store the election returns in more than one file per state.

    County names have been standardized, including names for counties that have experienced name changes over time. In addition to the names, a county identification number was added to all county-level records. This number allows unique identification of all counties within states.

    Data for elections to the office of United States representative have been collapsed to the whole-county level.

    The election data files for each county contain the congressional district number of that county at the time of each election for the office of United States representative. When a county was divided into more than one congressional district, a code value indicating the number of congressional districts into which the county was divided was inserted in place of the congressional district number. It is thus possible to aggregate to the congressional district level all county-level election data (except in the case of split-district counties), and to perform the aggregations for the districts as they were constituted for any Congress.

    Counties may have been assigned a congressional district number of zero if they were not in existence at the time of the election, did not report vote totals, or did not participate in that election.

    For 1970 to 1990 election returns data, see GENERAL ELECTION DATA FOR THE UNITED STATES, 1970-1990 (ICPSR 0013).

    Part 204, a listing of political party codes used in all data files, is an ASCII text file included as supplementary documentation. There is no actual codebook for this collection. Variable information is contained in the setup files. Some variable labels are cryptic. For example, the variable label V34="825 2 GOV 9001 VOTE" is interpreted as year of election/code for elected office/type of election/elected office/party code.

    There are data for one race in Delaware from 1823 included in the collection, though this year is not reflected in the title.

Note
1999-04-26 A machine-readable listing of political party codes has been added to the collection as Part 204.1997-09-26 SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been generated for all parts, and reformatted logical record length data files are now available for Parts 12, 33, 34, 35, 84, 96, 101, 104, 130, 156, and 194. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (GS881).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 1 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR00001.v3
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR00001.v1
Publications
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  • Fishback, Price V., Horrace, William C., Kantor, Shawn. Do Federal Programs Affect Internal Migration? The Impact of New Deal Expenditures on Mobility During the Great Depression. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona. 2005.
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  • Fishback, Price V., Haines, Michael R., Kantor, Shawn. The impact of the New Deal on black and white infant mortality in the South. Explorations in Economic History.38, (1), 93-122.2001.
    • ID: 10.1006/exeh.2000.0759 (DOI)
  • Fishback, Price V., Horrace, William C., Kantor, Shawn. The Impact of New Deal Expenditures on Local Economic Activity: An Examination of Retail Sales, 1929-1939. NBER Working Paper Series.8108, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2001.
  • Fishback, Price V., Horrace, William C., Kantor, Shawn. The Origins of Modern Housing Finance: The Impact of Federal Housing Programs During the Great Depression. Yale University, . 2001.
    • ID: http://economics.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Workshops-Seminars/Economic-History/fishback-020228.pdf (URL)
  • Redding, Kent, James, David R.. Estimating levels and modeling determinants of black and white voter turnout in the South, 1880 to 1912. Historical Methods.34, (4), 141-158.2001.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615440109598978 (DOI)
  • Southworth, Caleb. Aid to Sharecroppers: How Agrarian Class Structure and Tenant-Farmer Politics Influenced Federal Relief in the South, 1933-1935. Social Science History.26, (1), 33-70.2001.
    • ID: 10.1215/01455532-26-1-33 (DOI)
  • Gutmann, Myron P., Pullum, Sara M.. From local to national political cultures: Social capital and civic organization in the Great Plains. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.24, (4), 725-762.1999.
    • ID: 10.1162/002219599551877 (DOI)
  • McVeigh, Rory. Structural incentives for conservative mobilization: power devaluation and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan, 1915-1925. Social Forces.77, (4), 1461-1496.1999.
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  • Werum, Regina E.. Tug-of-war: Political mobilization and access to schooling in the southern racial state. Sociology of Education.72, (2), 89-110.1999.
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  • Dugan, William E., Taggart, William A.. The changing shape of the American political universe revisited. Journal of Politics.57, (2), 469-482.1995.
  • Lengle, James I., Owen, Diana, Sonner, Molly W.. Divisive nominating mechanisms and democratic party electoral prospects. Journal of Politics.57, (2), 370-383.1995.
  • Brown, Courtney. Nonlinear transformation in a landslide: Johnson and Goldwater in 1964. American Journal of Political Science.37, (2), 582-609.1993.
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  • Schlatterer, Helen Marie Fell. Educational documentation to accompany the great American history machine. Dissertation, Carnegie-Mellon University. 1989.
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  • Claggett, William. The Nationalization of Congressional Turnout: A Research Note. Western Political Quarterly.40, (3), 527-533.1987.
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  • Ginsburg, Gerald. Computing antebellum turnout: Methods and models. Journal of Interdisciplinary History.16, (4), 579-611.1986.
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  • Ferejohn, John A., Calvert, Randall L.. Presidential Coattails in Historical Perspective. American Journal of Political Science.28, (1), 127-146.1984.
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  • Gienapp, William E.. Salmon P. Chase, nativism, and the formation of the Republican Party in Ohio. Ohio History.93, 5-39.1984.
  • Gross, Donald A., Garand, James C.. The Vanishing Marginals, 1824-1980. Journal of Politics.46, (1), 224-237.1984.
  • Shefter, Martin. Regional receptivity to reform: The elgacy of the Progressive Era. Political Science Quarterly.98, (3), 459-483.1983.
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  • Ladd, Everett Carll, Jr.. Where Have all the Voters Gone?: The Fracturing of America's Political Parties, 2nd Edition. New York: Norton. 1982.
  • Wanat, John, Burke, Karen. Estimating the degree of mobilization and conversion in the 1890s: An inquiry into the nature of electoral change. American Political Science Review.76, (2), 360-370.1982.
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  • Allen, Howard W.. Poindexter of Washington: A Study of Progressive Politics. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 1981.
  • Kleppner, Paul, Burnham, Walter Dean, Formisano, Ronald P., Hays, Samuel P., Jenson, Richard, Shade, William G.. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems. Westport, CT: Greenwood. 1981.
  • Levine, Peter. Draft Evasion in the North during the Civil War, 1863-1865. Journal of American History.67, (4), 816-834.1981.
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  • Clubb, Jerome M., Flanigan, William H., Zingale, Nancy H.. Partisan Realignment: Voters, Parties, and Government in American History. Sage Library of Social Research series, vol. 108.Beverly Hills: Sage. 1980.
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  • Shortridge, Ray M.. Voter turnout in the Midwest, 1840-1872: Democracy's golden age?. Social Science Quarterly.60, (4), 617-629.1980.
  • Allen, Howard W., Austin, Erik W.. From the Populist era to the New Deal: A study of partisan realignment in Washington State, 1889-1950. Social Science History.3, (2), 115-143.1979.
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  • Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System, 1853-1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1979.
  • McCarthy, John L., Tukey, John W.. Exploratory analysis of aggregate voting behavior: Presidential elections in New Hampshire, 1896-1972. Social Science History.2, (3), 292-331.1978.
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  • Shortridge, Ray M.. Voting for minor parties in the antebellum Midwest. Indiana Magazine of History.74, (2), 117-134.1978.
  • Kernell, Samuel. Toward Understanding 19th Century Congressional Careers: Ambition, Competition, and Rotation. American Journal of Political Science.21, (4), 669-693.1977.
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  • Hammond, John L.. Minor parties and electoral realignments. American Politics Quarterly.4, (1), 63-87.1976.
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  • Lichtman, Allan J.. Critical election theory and the reality of American presidential politics, 1916-1940. American Historical Review.81, (2), 317-351.1976.
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Update Metadata: 2016-01-20 | Issue Number: 6 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1984): United States Historical Election Returns, 1824-1968. Version 2. United States Historical Election Returns Series. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00001.v2