United States Historical Election Returns, 1788-1823

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • United States Historical Election Returns Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Endowment for the Humanities
Free Keywords
congressional elections; eighteenth century; election returns; elections; gubernatorial elections; nineteenth century; political attitudes; political behavior; political parties; presidential elections
  • Abstract

    This data collection contains general election returns for the offices of president, governor, and United States representative in the period 1788-1823. These returns comprise an extension of the general election collection (see UNITED STATES HISTORICAL ELECTION RETURNS, 1824-1968--ICPSR 0001) back to the occurrence of the first elections held under the United States Constitution. The data are recorded chiefly at the county level, although town-level returns were collected and preserved as well for the New England states. This collection of Early National period election returns is much less complete than the body of returns available for the years from 1824 to the present. Fugitive and nonextant sources resulted in the recovery of only approximately half of the possible returns for elections in this period. The collection and processing of the pre-1824 election materials was supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Connecticut Election Returns, Town-level, 1801-1823
    • DS2: Connecticut Election Returns, County-level, 1801-1823
    • DS3: Maine Election Returns, Town-level, 1801-1823
    • DS4: Maine Election Returns, County-level, 1801-1823
    • DS5: New Hampshire Election Returns, Town-level, 1788-1823
    • DS6: New Hampshire Election Returns, County-level, 1788-1823
    • DS7: Rhode Island Election Returns, Town-level, 1790-1822
    • DS8: Rhode Island Election Returns, County-level, 1790-1822
    • DS9: Vermont Election Returns, Town-level, 1793-1821
    • DS10: Vermont Election Returns, County-level, 1793-1821
    • DS11: Delaware Election Returns, 1789-1823
    • DS12: New Jersey Election Returns, 1789-1822
    • DS13: New York Election Returns, Part 1, 1789-1801
    • DS14: New York Election Returns, Part 2, 1802-1805
    • DS15: New York Election Returns, Part 3, 1806
    • DS16: New York Election Returns, Part 4, 1808-1810
    • DS17: New York Election Returns, Part 5, 1812-1815
    • DS18: New York Election Returns, Part 6, 1816
    • DS19: New York Election Returns, Part 7, 1818-1821
    • DS20: New York Election Results, Part 8, 1821-1823
    • DS21: Pennsylvania Election Returns, Part 1, 1788-1799
    • DS22: Pennsylvania Election Returns, Part 2, 1800-1811
    • DS23: Pennsylvania Election Returns, Part 3, 1812-1823
    • DS24: Illinois Election Returns, 1818-1822
    • DS25: Indiana Election Returns, 1816-1822
    • DS26: Ohio Election Returns, 1803-1822
    • DS27: Missouri Election Returns, 1820-1822
    • DS28: Virginia Election Returns, 1789-1823
    • DS29: Alabama Election Returns, 1819-1823
    • DS30: Georgia Election Returns, 1790-1822
    • DS31: Mississippi Election Returns, 1817-1823
    • DS32: North Carolina Election Returns, Part 1, 1790-1815
    • DS33: North Carolina Election Returns, Part 2, 1815-1823
    • DS34: South Carolina Election Returns, 1796-1823
    • DS35: Kentucky Election Returns, 1797-1822
    • DS36: Maryland Election Returns, Part 1, 1790-1804
    • DS37: Maryland Election Returns, Part 2, 1806-1816
    • DS38: Maryland Election Returns, Part 3, 1816-1822
    • DS39: Tennessee Election Returns, 1799-1823
Temporal Coverage
  • 1788 / 1823
    Time period: 1788--1823
Geographic Coverage
  • Alabama
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Georgia
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Kentucky
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • New Jersey
  • New Hampshire
  • New York (state)
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • United States
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
Sampled Universe
Counties in 22 states, and towns in 5 New England states of the United States in the period 1788-1823.
Collection Mode
  • (1) See also the related collections, UNITED STATES HISTORICAL ELECTION RETURNS, 1788-1968 (ICPSR 0001), and CANDIDATE NAME AND CONSTITUENCY TOTALS, 1788-1990 (ICPSR 0002). (2) The documentation for the collection, CANDIDATE NAME AND CONSTITUENCY TOTALS, 1788-1990 (ICPSR 0002) is the same documentation for this study. The information provided in ICPSR 0002 further documents the data in ICPSR 0001, 0013 and 0079 and provides party codes for all elections. A listing of all parties, organized by party code number, is also found in dataset 0204 of ICPSR 0001.

This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 79 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR00079.v3
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR00079.v1
  • Jacobson, Gary. The Politics of Congressional Elections, 5th Edition. New York: Longman. 2001.
  • Jacobson, Gary. The Politics of Congressional Elections, 4th Edition. New York: Longman. 1997.
  • Garand, James C., Wink, Kenneth, Vincent, Bryan. Changing Meanings of Electoral Marginality in U.S. House Elections, 1824-1978. Political Research Quarterly.46, (1), 27-48.1993.
  • Jacobson, Gary. The Politics of Congressional Elections, 3rd Edition. New York: Harper Collins. 1992.
  • Jacobson, Gary. The Politics of Congressional Elections, 2nd Edition. Boston: Scott, Foresman. 1987.
  • Jacobson, Gary. The Politics of Congressional Elections. Boston: Little, Brown. 1983.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30