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Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, 1992-1994: [Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, and Los Angeles]

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Bobo, Lawrence (Harvard University)
  • Johnson, James (University of North Carolina)
  • Oliver, Melvin (Ford Foundation)
  • Farley, Reynolds (Russell Sage Foundation)
  • Bluestone, Barry (University of Massachusetts-Boston)
  • Browne, Irene (Emory University)
  • Danziger, Sheldon (University of Michigan)
  • Green, Gary (University of Wisconsin)
  • Holzer, Harry (Michigan State University)
  • Krysan, Maria (Pennsylvania State University)
  • Massagli, Michael (University of Massachusetts-Boston)
  • Charles, Camille Zubrinsky (University of Pennsylvania)
  • Kirschenman, Joleen
  • Moss, Philip
  • Tilly, Chris
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
1998-08-28
Funding Reference
  • Russell Sage Foundation
  • Ford Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
demographic characteristics; discrimination; employers; household income; households; labor markets; neighborhoods; race relations; racial attitudes; racial discrimination; racial segregation; residential segregation; urban areas
Description
  • Abstract

    The Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality was designed to broaden the understanding of how changing labor market dynamics, racial attitudes and stereotypes, and racial residential segregation act singly and in concert to foster contemporary urban inequality. This data collection comprises data for two surveys: a survey of households and a survey of employers. Multistage area probability sampling of adult residents took place in four metropolitan areas: Atlanta (April 1992-September 1992), Boston (May 1993-November 1994), Detroit (April-September 1992), and Los Angeles (September 1993-August 1994). The combined four-city data file in Part 1 contains data on survey questions that were asked in households in at least two of the four survey cities. Questions on labor market dynamics included industry, hours worked per week, length of time on job, earnings before taxes, size of employer, benefits provided, instances of harassment and discrimination, and searching for work within particular areas of the metropolis in which the respondent resided. Questions covering racial attitudes and attitudes about inequality centered on the attitudes and beliefs that whites, Blacks, Latinos, and Asians hold about one another, including amount of discrimination, perceptions about wealth and intelligence, ability to be self-supporting, ability to speak English, involvement with drugs and gangs, the fairness of job training and educational assistance policies, and the fairness of hiring and promotion preferences. Residential segregation issues were studied through measures of neighborhood quality and satisfaction, and preferences regarding the racial/ethnic mix of neighborhoods. Other topics included residence and housing, neighborhood characteristics, family income structure, networks and social functioning, and interviewer observations. Demographic information on household respondents was also elicited, including length of residence, education, housing status, monthly rent or mortgage payment, marital status, gender, age, race, household composition, citizenship status, language spoken in the home, ability to read and speak English, political affiliation, and religion. The data in Part 2 represent a telephone survey of current business establishments in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, and Los Angeles carried out between spring 1992 and spring 1995 to learn about hiring and vacancies, particularly for jobs requiring just a high school education. An employer size-weighted, stratified, probability sample (approximately two-thirds of the cases) was drawn from regional employment directories, and a probability sample (the other third of the cases) was drawn from the current or most recent employer reported by respondents to the household survey in Part 1. Employers were queried about characteristics of their firms, including composition of the firm's labor force, vacant positions, the person most recently hired and his or her salary, hours worked per week, educational qualifications, promotions, the firm's recruiting and hiring methods, and demographic information for the respondent, job applicants, the firm's customers, and the firm's labor force, including age, education, race, and gender.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Created online analysis version with question text..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Household Survey Data File
    • DS2: Employer Telephone Survey Data File
Temporal Coverage
  • 1992 / 1994
    Time period: 1992--1994
  • 1992 / 1994
    Collection date: 1992--1994
Geographic Coverage
  • Atlanta
  • Boston
  • California
  • Detroit
  • Georgia
  • Los Angeles
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Part 1: Adult residents in four selected metropolitan areas in the United States (Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles), Part 2: Active business establishments in the same four areas.
Sampling
Part 1: Multistage area probability sample. Part 2: Size-weighted, stratified, probability sample.
Collection Mode
  • Two weights are provided in Part 1: a post-stratified nonresponse adjusted household weight and a person weight. Four weights are provided in Part 2.

    The data files in Parts 1 and 2 can be linked.

    This collection has not been processed by ICPSR staff. ICPSR is distributing the data and documentation for this collection in essentially the same form in which they were received. When appropriate, hardcopy documentation has been converted to machine-readable form and variables have been recoded to ensure respondents' anonymity.

Note
2000-03-21 Logical record length versions of both datasets are now available, in addition to the SPSS portable files previously released. In addition, a STATA version of Part 1, Household Survey, is provided. Also, SAS and SPSS data definition statements for both datasets have been created.1998-10-15 Part 1 data have been revised to correct rounding errors in integer variables, and Part 2 has been added to the collection. Funding insitution(s): Russell Sage Foundation. Ford Foundation.
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2535 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02535.v2
Publications
  • Akee, Randall K. Q., Yuksel, Mutlu. Skin tone's decreasing importance on employment: Evidence from a longitudinal dataset, 1985-2000. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5120 .Bonn, Germany: Leibniz Information Centre for Economics; Institute for the Study of Labor. 2010.
    • ID: https://www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/44175/1/64452880X.pdf (URL)
  • Hirsh, Elizabeth, Lyons, Christopher J.. Perceiving discrimination on the job consciousness, workplace context, and the construction of race discrimination. Law and Society Review.44, (2), 269-298.2010.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-5893.2010.00403.x (DOI)
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Gender and Occupation: A Data-Driven Learning Guide. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. 2009.
    • ID: 10.3886/genderoccupation (DOI)
  • Kmec, Julie A., Trimble, Lindsey B.. Does it pay to have a network contact? Social network ties, workplace racial context, and pay outcomes. Social Science Research.38, (2), 266-278.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.003 (DOI)
  • Morales, Maria Cristina. Ethnic-controlled economy or segregation? Exploring inequality in Latina/o co-ethnic jobsites. Sociological Forum.24, (3), 589-610.2009.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1573-7861.2009.01121.x (DOI)
  • Fairchild, Gregory B., Robinson, Jeffrey A.. Unlearned lessons from letter from Birmingham jail: The work begun, the progress made, and the task ahead. Business and Society.47, (4), 484-522.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/0007650308323696 (DOI)
  • Gay, Claudine. Seeing difference: The effect of economic disparity on Black attitudes toward Latinos. American Journal of Political Science.50, (4), 982-997.2006.
    • ID: 10.2307/4122928 (DOI)
  • Hersch, Joni. Skin-tone effects among African Americans: Perceptions and reality. American Economic Review.96, (2), 2512006.
    • ID: 10.1257/000282806777212071 (DOI)
  • Adelman, Robert M.. The Roles of Race, Class, and Residential Preferences in the Neighborhood Racial Composition of Middle-Class Blacks and Whites. Social Science Quarterly.86, (1), 209-228.2005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00299.x (DOI)
  • Sorensen, Jesper B.. Organizational Demography of Racial Employment Segregation. American Journal of Sociology.110, (3), 626-671.2004.
    • ID: 10.1086/426464 (DOI)
  • Kmec, Julie A.. Minority job concentration and wages. Social Problems.50, (1), 38-59.2003.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.2003.50.1.38 (DOI)
  • Oliver, J. Eric, Wong, Janelle. Intergroup prejudice in multiethnic settings. American Journal of Political Science.47, (4), 567-582.2003.
  • Clark, W.A.V.. Ethnic preferences and ethnic perceptions in multi-ethnic settings. Urban Geography.23, (3), 237-256.2002.
    • ID: 10.2747/0272-3638.23.3.237 (DOI)
  • DeVaro, Jed Lawrence. The Effect of Employer Recruitment Strategies on Job Placements and Match Quality. Dissertation, Stanford University. 2002.
  • Einaudi, Peter B.. Structured Isolation at Work and Beyond: The Effects of Non-Standard Employment Arrangements on Social Network Composition and Resources. Southern Sociological Society. 2002.
  • Herring, Cedric. Bleaching Out the Color Line?: The Skin Color Continuum and the Tripartite Model of Race. Association of Black Sociologists. 2002.
  • Hill, Mark E.. Race of the interviewer and perception of skin color: Evidence from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality. American Sociological Review.67, (1), 99-108.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088935 (URL)
  • Ihlanfeldt, Keith R., Scafidi, Benjamin P.. The neighbourhood contact hypothesis: Evidence from the Multicity Study of Urban Inequality. Urban Studies.39, (4), 619-641.2002.
    • ID: 10.1080/00420980220119499 (DOI)
  • Ihlanfeldt, Keith R., Scarfidi, Benjamin. Black self-segregation as a cause of housing segregation: Evidence from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality. Journal of Urban Economics.51, (2), 366-390.2002.
    • ID: 10.1006/juec.2001.2249 (DOI)
  • Kmec, Julie A.. Race in the Workplace and Labor Market Inequality. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 2002.
  • Krysan, Maria. Community undesirability in black and white: Examining racial residential preferences through community perceptions. Social Problems.49, (4), 521-543.2002.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.2002.49.4.521 (DOI)
  • Krysan, Maria. Whites who say they'd flee: Who are they, and why would they leave?. Demography.39, (4), 675-696.2002.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2002.0037 (DOI)
  • Krysan, Maria, Farley, Reynolds. The residential preferences of blacks: Do they explain persistent segregation?. Social Forces.80, (3), 937-980.2002.
    • ID: 10.1353/sof.2002.0011 (DOI)
  • Mouw, Ted. Are Black Workers Missing the Connection? The Effect of Spatial Distance and Employee Referrals on Interfirm Racial Segregation. Demography.39, (3), 507-528.2002.
    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2002.0030 (DOI)
  • Reid, Lesley Williams. Crime and the Labor Market: The Effect of Perceived Economic Returns to Crime. Southern Sociological Society. 2002.
  • Sirianni, C., Friedland, L.. A symposium on the Ford Foundation and the Russell Sage Foundation's Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality - Comment. Contemporary Sociology.31, (5), 628-628.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3090091 (URL)
  • Smith, Ryan Alan, Elliott, James Robert. Does ethnic concentration influence employees' access to authority? An examination of contemporary urban labor markets. Social Forces.81, (1), 255-279.2002.
    • ID: 10.1353/sof.2002.0062 (DOI)
  • Stoecker, R.. A symposium on the Ford Foundation and the Russell Sage Foundation's Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality - Reply. Contemporary Sociology.31, (5), 629-629.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3090092 (URL)
  • Bobo, Lawrence D., Massagli, Michael P.. Stereotyping and urban inequality. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Browne, Irene, Hewitt, Cynthia, Tigges, Leann, Green, Gary. Why does job segregation lead to wage inequality among African Americans? Person, place, sector, or skills?. Social Science Research.30, (3), 473-495.2001.
    • ID: 10.1006/ssre.2001.0708 (DOI)
  • Elliott, James R.. Referral hiring and ethnically homogenous jobs: How prevalent is the connection and for whom?. Social Science Research.30, (3), 401-425.2001.
    • ID: 10.1006/ssre.2001.0704 (DOI)
  • Elliott, James R., Sims, Mario. Ghettos and barrios: The impact of neighborhood poverty and race on job matching among blacks and Latinos. Social Problems.48, (3), 341-361.2001.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.2001.48.3.341 (DOI)
  • Elliott, James R., Smith, Ryan A.. Ethnic matching of supervisors to subordinate work groups: Findings on 'bottom-up' ascription and social closure. Social Problems.48, (2), 258-276.2001.
    • ID: 10.1525/sp.2001.48.2.258 (DOI)
  • Falcon, Luis M., Melendez, Edwin. Racial and ethnic differences in job searching in urban centers. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Farley, Reynolds. Metropolises of the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality: Social econoic, demographic, and racial issues in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, and Los Angeles. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Hertz, Tom, Tilly, Chris, Massagli, Michael P.. Linking the Multi-City Study's household and employer surveys to test for race and gender effects in hiring and wage setting. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Holzer, Harry J., Danziger, Sheldon. Are jobs available for disadvantaged workers in urban areas?. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Kluegel, James R., Bobo, Lawrence D.. Perceived group discrimination and policy attitudes: The sources and consequences of the race and gender gaps. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • McDermott, Monica. A Darker Shade of Pale: The Influence of Local Context and Racial Identity on White Attitudes towards Black Americans. Dissertation, Harvard University. 2001.
  • Moss, Philip, Tilly, Chris. Hiring in urban labor markets: Shifting labor demands, persistent racial differences. Sourcebook of Labor Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes.New York, NY: Kluwer. 2001.
  • Moss, Philip, Tilly, Chris. Stories Employers Tell: Race, Skill, and Hiring in America. Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Series.New York: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Moss, Philip, Tilly, Chris. Why opportunity isn't knocking: Racial inequality and the demand for labor. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Norwood, Romney Simone. Social Capital and Employment Opportunities in Urban Areas. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. 2001.
  • O'Connor, Alice. Understanding inequality in the late twentieth-century metropolis: New perspectives on the enduring racial divide. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • O'Connor, Alice, Tilly, Chris, Bobo, Lawrence D.. Urban Inequality: Evidence From Four Cities. New York: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Reingold, David A., Van Ryzin, Gregg G., Ronda, Michelle. Does urban public housing diminish the labor force activity of its tennants?. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.20, (3), 485-504.2001.
    • ID: 10.1002/pam.1004 (DOI)
  • Smith, Ryan Alan. Particularism in control over monetary resources at work - An analysis of racioethnic differences in the authority outcomes of black, white, and Latino men. Work and Occupations.28, (4), 447-468.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/0730888401028004004 (DOI)
  • Stoll, Michael A.. Race, neighborhood poverty, and participation in voluntary associations. Sociological Forum.16, (3), 529-557.2001.
    • ID: 10.1023/A:1011956632018 (DOI)
  • Tilly, Chris, Moss, Philip, Kirtschenman, Joleen, Kennelly, Ivy. Space as a signal: How employers perceive neighborhoods in four metropolitan labor markets. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Wilson, Franklin D., Hammer, Roger B.. Ethnic residential segregation and its consequences. Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2001.
  • Bluestone, Barry, Stevenson, Mary Huff, Massagli, Michael, Moss, Philip, Tilly, Chris. The Boston Renaissance: Race, Space, and Economic Change in an American Metropolis. Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Series.New York: Russell Sage. 2000.
  • Bobo, Lawrence D., Oliver, Melvin L., Johnson, James H., Jr., Valenzuela, Abel, Jr.. Analyzing inequality in Los Angeles. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2000.
  • Bobo, Lawrence D., Oliver, Melvin L., Johnson, James H., Jr., Valenzuela, Abel, Jr.. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2000.
  • Elliott, James R.. Class, race, and job matching in contemporary urban labor markets. Social Science Quarterly.81, (4), 1036-1052.2000.
  • Farley, Reynolds, Danziger, Sheldon, Holzer, Harry J.. Detroit Divided: A Volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality. New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2000.
  • Irvin, Matthew. A Contextual Analysis of the Statistical Discrimination Process in Hiring: Evidence from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality. Southern Sociological Society. 2000.
  • Sjoquist, David L.. The Atlanta Paradox. Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality Series.New York, NY: Russell Sage. 2000.
  • Smith, Ryan A., Elliott, James R.. Does Ethnic Niching Influence Access to Supervisory Authority? An Examination by Race and Gender in Three Metro Areas. Southern Sociological Society. 2000.
  • Smith, Ryan Alan. Particularism in Control over Monetary Resources at Work: An Analysis of Racioethnic Differences in the Authority Outcomes of Black, White, Asian, and Latino Men. American Sociological Association. 2000.
  • Smith, Sandra S.. Mobilizing social resources: Race, ethnic, and gender differences in social capital and persisting wage inequalities. Sociological Quarterly.41, (4), 509-537.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.2000.tb00071.x (DOI)
  • Stoll, Michael A., Holzer, Harry J., Ihlanfeldt, Keith R.. Within cities and suburbs: Racial residential concentration and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities across sub-metropolitan areas. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.19, (2), 207-231.2000.
    • ID: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6688(200021)19:2<207::AID-PAM3>3.0.CO;2-H (DOI)
  • Elliott, James R.. Social isolation and labor market insulation: Network and neighborhood effects on less-educated urban workers. Sociological Quarterly.40, (2), 199-216.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1999.tb00545.x (DOI)
  • Freeman, Lance M.. Minority Proximity to Whites: A Test of Three Perspectives. American Sociological Association. 1999.
  • Green, Gary Paul, Tigges, Leann M., Diaz, Daniel. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Job-Search Strategies in Atlanta, Boston, and Los Angeles. Social Science Quarterly.80, (2), 263-278.1999.
  • Ihlanfeldt, Keith R.. Are poor people really excluded from jobs located in their own neighborhoods? Comments on Reingold and some additional evidence from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality. Economic Development Quarterly.13, (4), 307-314.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/089124249901300402 (DOI)
  • Johnson, J.H., Bienenstock, E.J., Farrell, W.C.. Bridging social networks and female labor-force participation in a multiethnic metropolis. Urban Geography.20, (1), 3-30.1999.
    • ID: 10.2747/0272-3638.20.1.3 (DOI)
  • Lichter, Michael Ira. Race, Space, and the Employment of Less-Educated Immigrants and Natives. Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. 1999.
  • Moss, Philip, Tilly, Chris. Big city labor markets, inner-city workers: An employer's eye view. Regional Review - Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.9, (2), 16-23.1999.
  • Neumark, david. Wage differentials by race and sex: The roles of taste discrimination and labor market information. Industrial Relations.38, (3), 414-445.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/0019-8676.00135 (DOI)
  • Finlay, Nikki McIntyre. The Relationship Between Job Search Strategy and Job Search Outcome. Dissertation, Georgia State University. 1998.
  • Smith, Sandra Susan. Employment Status and Outcomes as a Function of Social Capital: The Case of Whites, Blacks, and Latinos in the Greater Boston Area. Dissertation, University of Chicago. 1998.
  • Tigges, Leann M., Browne, Irene, Green, Gary P.. Social isolation of the urban poor: Race, class, and neighborhood effects on social resources. Sociological Quarterly.39, (1), 53-77.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1998.tb02349.x (DOI)
  • Hewitt, Cynthia M.. Job Segregation, Ethnic Hegemony and Earnings Among African-Americans in Atlanta. Dissertation, Emory University. 1997.
  • Johnson, James H.. Unraveling the paradox of deepening urban inequality: Theoretical underpinnings, research design, and preliminary findings from a multi-city study. Race and Public Policy.New York, NY: Routledge. 1997.
  • Wilson, Franklin D., Hammer, Roger B.. Ethnic Racial Segregation and Its Consequences. CDE Working Paper 97-18.Madison, WI: Center for Demography and Ecology. 1997.
    • ID: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/cdewp/97-18.pdf (URL)
  • Holzer, Harry J.. What Employers Want: Job Prospects for Less-Educated Workers. New York: Russell Sage. 1996.
  • Kennelly, Ivy. 'You've Got That Single Mother Element': How Atlanta Employers View African-American Women as Employees. Society for the Study of Social Problems. 1996.
  • Johnson, James H., Bienenstock, Elisa Jayne, Stoloff, Jennifer A.. An empirical test of the cultural capital hypothesis. Review of Black Political Economy.23, (4), 7-27.1995.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02689909 (DOI)
  • Johnson, J.H., Oliver, M.L., Bobo, L.D.. Understanding the contours of deepening urban inequality - Theoretical underpinnings and research design of a multi-city study. Urban Geography.15, (1), 77-89.1994.
    • ID: 10.2747/0272-3638.15.1.77 (DOI)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Bobo, Lawrence; Johnson, James; Oliver, Melvin; Farley, Reynolds; Bluestone, Barry et. al. (1998): Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality, 1992-1994: [Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, and Los Angeles]. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02535.v1