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National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series
Publication Date
1999-09-15
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Language
English
Free Keywords
alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; demographic characteristics; drug abuse; drug use; drugs; hallucinogens; health care; health insurance; heroin; households; inhalants; marijuana; mental health; mental health services; methamphetamine; offenses; prescriptions drugs; sedatives; smoking; stimulants; substance abuse; substance abuse treatment; tobacco use; tranquilizers; youths
Description
  • Abstract

    This series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information is provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 and older. Questions include age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drug classes: marijuana, cocaine (and crack), hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs, including psychotherapeutics. Respondents were also asked about substance abuse treatment history, illegal activities, problems resulting from the use of drugs, personal and family income sources and amounts, need for treatment for drug or alcohol use, criminal record, and needle-sharing. Questions on mental health and access to care, which were introduced in the 1994-B questionnaire (see NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, 1994 [ICPSR 6949]), were retained in this administration of the survey. In 1996, the section on risk/availability of drugs was reintroduced, and sections on driving behavior and personal behavior were added (see NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, 1996 [ICPSR 2391]). The 1997 questionnaire continued the risk/availability section along with new items about the use of cigars, people present when respondents used marijuana or cocaine for the first time (if applicable), reasons for using these two drugs the first time, reasons for using these two drugs in the past year, reasons for discontinuing use of these two drugs (for lifetime but not past-year users), and reasons respondents never used these two drugs. In addition, a new series of questions asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17 was introduced. These items covered a variety of topics that may be associated with substance use and related behaviors, such as exposure to substance abuse prevention and education programs, gang involvement, relationship with parents, and substance use by friends. Demographic data include gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, income level, veteran status, and current household composition.
  • Methods

    Data were weighted based on the five stages of sampling that were used. Adjustments were made to compensate for nonresponse and sampling error. Adjustments also included trimming sample weights to reduce excessive weight variation and a post-stratification to Census population estimates. The final weight variable to be used in analysis is ANALWT.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The interview response rates for the three racial/ethnic groups were: 75.5 percent for Whites/others, 81.8 percent for Blacks, and 82.5 percent for Hispanics. The overall unweighted interview response rate was 78.3 percent. A completed interview had to contain, at a minimum, data on the recency of use of marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1997
  • Collection date: 1997
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters, such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.
Sampling
Multistage area probability sample design involving five selection stages: (1) primary sampling unit (PSU) areas (e.g., counties), (2) subareas within primary areas (e.g., blocks or block groups), (3) listing units within subareas, (4) age domains within sampled listing units, and (5) eligible individuals within sampled age domains. The 1997 NHSDA used the same 115 PSUs as the 1995 and 1996 NHSDAs, plus a total of 18 supplemental PSUs from Arizona and California. The 115 PSUs were selected to represent the nation's total eligible population, including areas of high Hispanic concentration. These PSUs were defined as metropolitan areas, counties, groups of counties, Census tracts, and independent cities. Of the 115 PSUs, 43 were selected with certainty and 72 were randomly selected with probability proportional to size (PPS). The national sample was supplemented by a PPS selection of 14 noncertainty PSUs from Arizona plus 4 noncertainty PSUs from California. Because the national sample provided representation for certainty PSUs in each state, no additional certainty PSUs were added to either sample. Unlike NHSDAs prior to 1996, the 1996 and 1997 NHSDAs did not oversample cigarette smokers aged 18-34. Unlike the 1996 NHSDA, which reused about 95 percent of the sample segments used in 1995, the 1997 NHSDA basically surveyed a new segment sample. Only 96 segments in the 1997 NHSDA overlapped with 1996 segments. Beginning in quarter two of the 1997 NHSDA, residents of Arizona and California were oversampled to provide direct survey estimates for these states. Due to confidentiality concerns, there is no variable on the public use data file to indicate a state identifier. The five age groups were: ages 12-17, 18-25, 26-34, 35-49, and 50 and older. The three race/ethnic groups were: Whites/others, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanics. Blacks and Hispanics were oversampled. The study yielded an 85.0 percent eligibility rate for sample households and a 92.7 percent completion rate for screening eligible households.
Collection Mode
  • Data were collected and prepared for release by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse questionnaire and estimation methodology changed with the implementation of the 1994-B survey. Therefore, estimates produced from the 1997 survey are not comparable to those produced from the 1994-A and earlier surveys.

    For selected variables, statistical imputation was performed following logical imputation to replace missing responses. These variables are identified in the codebook as "...LOGICALLY IMPUTED" and "...imputed" for the logical procedure or by the designation "IMPUTATION-REVISED" in the variable label when the statistical procedure was also performed. The names of statistically imputed variables begin with the letters "IR". For each imputation-revised variable there is a corresponding imputation indicator variable that indicates whether a case's value on the variable resulted from an interview response or was imputed by the hot-deck technique. Hot-deck imputation is described in the codebook.

    The "basic sampling weights" are equal to the inverse of the probabilities of selection of sample respondents. To obtain "final NHSDA weights," the basic weights were adjusted to take into account dwelling unit-level and individual-level nonresponse and then further adjusted to ensure consistency with intercensal population projections from the United States Bureau of the Census.

    To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use file.

    Users who wish to replicate results published in the NHSDA Main Findings Report or other SAMHSA reports should use the 1997 NHSDA imputed data for prevalence estimates rather than raw data from the questionnaire or drug answer sheets.

    For some drugs that have multiple names, questions regarding the use of that drug may be asked for each distinct name. For example, even though methamphetamine, methedrine and desoxyn are the same drug, their use was measured in three separate variables.

Note
2013-05-06 Data collection instrument released.2008-10-23 New files were added. These files included one or more of the following: Stata setup, SAS transport (CPORT), SPSS system, Stata system, SAS supplemental syntax, and Stata supplemental syntax files, and tab-delimited ASCII data file. Modified value labels and missing values for variable GQTYPE to correct previous errors. The variable CASEID was also added to the dataset.2000-08-04 Erroneous codes for missing values were deleted for the variable IRAGE in the SAS and SPSS setup files. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (283-96-0001).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 2755 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR02755.v2
Publications
  • Rough, Kathryn, Tassiopoulos, Katherine, Kacanek, Deborah, Griner, Raymond, Yogev, Ram, Rich, Kenneth, Seage, George, III. Dramatic decline in substance use by HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. AIDS.29, 117-123.2015.
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    • ID: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12083.x (DOI)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of welfare reform on illicit drug use of adult women. Economic Inquiry.51, (1), 653-674.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00459.x (DOI)
  • Keyes, Katherine M., Miech, Richard. Age, period, and cohort effects in heavy episodic drinking in the US from 1985 to 2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.132, (1-2), 140-148.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.019 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard A., London, Andrew S., Wilmoth, Janet M., Koester, Stephen. The effects of the military's antidrug policies over the life course: The case of past-year hallucinogen use. Substance Use and Misuse.48, (10), 837-853.2013.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826084.2013.800120 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard, Bohnert, Amy, Heard, Kennon, Boardman, Jason. Increasing use of nonmedical analgesics among younger cohorts in the United States: A birth cohort effect. Journal of Adolescent Health.52, (1), 35-41.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.016 (DOI)
  • Nielsen, Alexandra, Wakeland, Wayne, Schmidt, Teresa. Simulating health policy interventions to reduce nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. 141st APHA Annual Meeting and Expo.Boston, MA. 2013.
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng. Estimating transitional probabilities with cross-sectional data to assess smoking behavior progression: A validation analysis. Journal of Biometrics and Biostatistics.2012.
    • ID: 10.4172/2155-6180.S1-004 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard, Koester, Stephen. Trends in U.S., past-year marijuana use from 1985 to 2009: An age-period-cohort analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.124, (3), 259-267.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.020 (DOI)
  • Nguyen, Holly, Reuter, Peter. How risky is marijuana possession? Considering the role of age, race, and gender. Crime and Delinquency.58, (6), 879-910.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128712461122 (DOI)
  • Paddock, Susan M., Kilmer, Beau, Caulkins, Jonathan P., Booth, Marika J., Paculam, Rosalie L.. An epidemiological model for examining marijuana use over the life course. Epidemiology Research International.2012.
    • ID: 10.1155/2012/520894 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Williams, Gerald D., Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991-2009. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2011.
    • ID: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/surveillance91/Underage09.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng, Stanton, Bonita, Zhang, Xun. APC modeling of smoking prevalence among US adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Health Behavior.35, (4), 416-427.2011.
    • ID: 10.5993/AJHB.35.4.4 (DOI)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use of Adult Women. NBER Working Paper No. 16072.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2010.
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the U.S., 1991-2007. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System Surveillance Reports #86.Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2009.
  • Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., Bierut, Laura J.. Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.48, (7), 692-702.2009.
    • ID: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a2b32f (DOI)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement 2009. NCJ 225448, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs09/ndcs09_data_supl/09datasupplement.pdf (URL)
  • Wisniewski, Angela M., Purdy, Christopher H., Blondell, Richard D.. The epidemiologic association between opioid prescribing, non-medical use, and emergency department visits. Journal of Addictive Diseases.27, (1), 1-11.2008.
    • ID: 10.1300/J069v27n01_01 (DOI)
  • Harder, Valerie S., Chilcoat, Howard D.. Cocaine use and educational achievement: Understanding a changing association over the past 2 decades. American Journal of Public Health.97, (10), 1790-1793.2007.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.091108 (DOI)
  • Shamblen, Stephen R., Springer, J. Fred. Improving the sensitivity of needs assessment for substance abuse prevention planning: the measurement of differential severity of consequences for individual substance types. Journal of Drug Education.37, (3), 295-316.2007.
    • ID: 10.2190/DE.37.3.e (DOI)
  • Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in initiation of alcohol use in the United States 1975 to 2003 . Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.30, (6), 1011-1022.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00115.x (DOI)
  • Pollack, Harold A., Reuter, Peter. Welfare receipt and substance-abuse treatment among low-income mothers: The impact of welfare reform. American Journal of Public Health.96, (11), 2024 -2006.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.061762 (DOI)
  • Sloboda, Zili. Chapter 12: Forging a relationship between drug abuse epidemiology and drug abuse prevention. Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention: Theory, Science, and Practice.New York: Springer. 2006.
    • ID: 10.1007/0-387-35408-5_12 (DOI)
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of Methodological Studies,1971-2005. Methodology Series M-6.SMA 06-4146, Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/methodsHY/NSmethods.pdf (URL)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D., Dunlap, Eloise. The growth in marijuana use among American youths during the 1990s and the extent of blunt smoking. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse.4, (3-4), 1-21.2005.
    • ID: 10.1300/J233v04n03_01 (DOI)
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy. The National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement. NCJ 213692, Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President of the United States. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs06_data_supl/ (URL)
  • Chen, Chuan-Yu, Anthony, James C.. Epidemiological estimates of risk in the process of becoming dependent upon cocaine: cocaine hydrochloride powder versus crack cocaine. Psychopharmacologia.172, (1), 78-86.2004.
    • ID: 10.1007/s00213-003-1624-6 (DOI)
  • Faden, Vivian B., Fay, Michael P.. Trends in drinking among Americans age 18 and younger: 1975-2002. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.28, (9), 1388-1395.2004.
    • ID: 10.1097/01.ALC.0000139820.04539.BD (DOI)
  • French, Michael T., Roebuck, M. Christopher, Alexandre, Pierre Kebreau. To test or not to test: Do workplace drug testing programs discourage employee drug use?. Social Science Research.33, (1), 45-63.2004.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0049-089X(03)00038-3 (DOI)
  • Roebuck, M. Christopher, French, Michael T., Dennis, Michael L.. Adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Economics of Education Review.23, (2), 133-141.2004.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00079-7 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Pilowsky, D., Wechsberg, W.M., Schlenger, W.E.. Injection drug use among stimulant users in a national sample. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.30, (1), 61-83.2004.
    • ID: 10.1081/ADA-120029866 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Schlenger, William E.. Private Health Insurance Coverage for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services, 1995 to 1998. Psychiatric Services.55, (2), 180-182.2004.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ps.55.2.180 (DOI)
  • Adelmann, Pamela K.. Mental and Substance Use Disorders Among Medicaid Recipients: Prevalence Estimates From Two National Surveys. Administration and Policy in Mental Health.31, (2), 111-129.2003.
    • ID: 10.1023/B:APIH.0000003017.78877.56 (DOI)
  • Beebe, Timothy J., Harrison, Patricia A., McRae, James A., Jr.. Evaluating behavioral health services in Minnesota's Medicaid population using the Experience of Care and Health Outcomes (ECHO™) Survey. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved.14, (4), 608-621.2003.
    • ID: 10.1353/hpu.2010.0710 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chuan-Yu, Anthony, James C.. Possible age-associated bias in reporting of clinical features of drug dependence: Epidemiological evidence on adolescent-onset marijuana use. Addiction.98, (1), 71-82.2003.
    • ID: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00237.x (DOI)
  • Ebrahim, Shahul H., Gfroerer, Joseph. Pregnancy-related substance use in the United States during 1996-1998. Obstetrics and Gynecology.101, (2), 374-379.2003.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02588-7 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Ringwalt, Christopher L., Williams, Charles E.. Use of Substance Abuse Treatment Services by Persons With Mental Health and Substance Use Problems. Psychiatric Services.54, (3), 363-369.2003.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ps.54.3.363 (DOI)
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Schlenger, William E.. Psychostimulant dependence in a community sample. Substance Use and Misuse.38, (2), 221-248.2003.
    • ID: 10.1081/JA-120017246 (DOI)
  • Zhang, Zhiwei, Snizek, William E.. Occupation, job characteristics, and the use of alcohol and other drugs. Social Behavior and Personality.31, (4), 395-412.2003.
    • ID: 10.2224/sbp.2003.31.4.395 (DOI)
  • Chiou, Jeng-Yuan. Met and unmet need for substance abuse treatment among American adults with a self-reported dual diagnosis of substance abuse and mental disease. Dissertation, University of South Carolina. 2002.
  • Fendrich, Michael, Kim, Julia Yun Soo. The experience and acceptability of drug testing: Poll trends. Journal of Drug Issues.32, (1), 81-95.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260203200104 (DOI)
  • Garlow, Steven J.. Age, gender, and ethnic differences in patterns of cocaine and ethanol use preceding suicide. American Journal of Psychiatry.159, (4), 615-619.2002.
    • ID: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.4.615 (DOI)
  • James, Kirk E., Wagner, Fernando A., Anthony, James C.. Regional variation in drug purchase opportunity among youths in the United States, 1996-1997. Journal of Urban Health.79, (1), 104-112.2002.
    • ID: 10.1093/jurban/79.1.104 (DOI)
  • Johnson, Patrick B., Richter, Linda. The relationship between smoking, drinking, and adolescents' self-perceived health and frequency of hospitalization: Analyses from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Journal of Adolescent Health.30, (3), 175-183.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00317-2 (DOI)
  • McAuliffe, William E., LaBrie, Richard, Woodworth, Ryan, Zhang, Caroline. Estimates of potential bias in telephone substance abuse surveys due to exclusion of households without telephones. Journal of Drug Issues.32, (4), 1139-1154.2002.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260203200409 (DOI)
  • Pollack, Harold A., Danziger, Sheldon, Jayakody, Rukmalie, Seefeldt, Kristin S.. Drug testing welfare recipients--false positives, false negatives, unanticipated opportunities. Women's Health Issues.12, (1), 23-31.2002.
    • ID: 10.1016/S1049-3867(01)00139-6 (DOI)
  • Pollack, Harold A., Danziger, Sheldon, Seefeldt, Kristin S., Jayakody, Rukmalie. Substance use among welfare recipients. Social Service Review.76, (2), 256-274.2002.
    • ID: 10.1086/339669 (DOI)
  • Richter, Kimber Paschall, Ahluwalia, Harsohena K., Mosier, Michael C., Nazir, Niaman, Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.. A population-based study of cigarette smoking among illicit drug users in the United States. Addiction.97, (7), 861-869.2002.
    • ID: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00162.x (DOI)
  • Solowij, Nadia, Stephens, Robert S., Roffman, Roger A., Babor, Thomas, et al. Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.287, (9), 1123-1131.2002.
    • ID: 10.1001/jama.287.9.1123 (DOI)
  • Brown, Nakia Chandra. Sociodemographic Correlates of Major Depression, Crack Use, and Dual Diagnosis. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2001.
  • Delva, J., Mathiesen, S.G., Kamata, A.. Use of illegal drugs among mothers across racial/ethnic groups in the United States: A multi-level analysis of individual and community level influences. Ethnicity and Disease.11, (4), 614-625.2001.
  • Fendrich, Michael, Johnson, Timothy P.. Examining prevalence differences in three national surveys of youth: Impact of consent procedures, mode, and editing rules. Journal of Drug Issues.31, (3), 615-642.2001.
  • Fowler, Floyd J., Jr., Stringfellow, Vickie L.. Learning from experience: Estimating teen uses of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana from three survey protocols. Journal of Drug Issues.31, (3), 643-664.2001.
  • French, Michael T., Roebuck, M. Christopher, Alexandre, Pierre Kebreau. Illicit drug use, employment, and labor force participation. Southern Economic Journal.68, (2), 349-368.2001.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1061598 (URL)
  • Golub, Andrew, Johnson, Bruce D.. Variation in youthful risks of progression from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and to hard drugs across generations. American Journal of Public Health.91, (2), 225-232.2001.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.91.2.225 (DOI)
  • Lane, Julie, Gerstein, Dean R., Huang, Lynn, Wright, Douglas. Risk and protective factors for adolescent drug use: Findings from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. (SMA)01-3499, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/NHSDA/NAC97/Table_of_Contents.htm (URL)
  • Obot, Isidore S., Wagner, F.A., Anthony, James C.. Early onset and recent drug use among children of parents with alcohol problems: Data from a national epidemiologic survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.65, (1), 1-8.2001.
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  • Sudman, Seymour. Examining substance abuse data collection methodologies. Journal of Drug Issues.31, (3), 695-616.2001.
  • (author unknown). Insights from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Underage Drinking and Binge Drinking. Rockville, MD: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. 2000.
  • Anonymous. Alcohol and Other Drug-Related Birth Defects. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.49, (17), 381-382.2000.
  • Anthony, James C., Echeagaray-Wagner, Fernando. Epidemiologic analysis of alcohol and tobacco use: Patterns of co-occurring consumption and dependence in the United States. Alcohol Health and Research World.24, (4), 201-208.2000.
  • Foster, S.E.. No place to hide: Substance abuse in mid-size cities and rural America. New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University. 2000.
  • Herrell, James M., Taylor, Jane A., Gallagher, Cheryl, Dawud-Noursi, Samia. A multisite study of the effectiveness of methamphetamine treatment: An initiative of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.32, (2), 143 -2000.
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  • Newshan, Gayle. Pain management in the addicted patient. Nurse Practitioner.25, (4), 14 -2000.
  • Reiber, Chris, Galloway, Gantt, Cohen, Judith, Hsu, Jeffrey C., Lord, Russell H.. A descriptive analysis of participant characteristics and patterns of substance use in the CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project: The first six months. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.32, (2), 183 -2000.
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  • Egan, Timothy. War on crack retreats, still taking prisoners. New York Times.1 -1999.
  • Kopstein, Andrea Nancy. Motivational and Personality Factors Associated with Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco and Marijuana Use. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University. 1999.
  • Office of Applied Studies. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings 1997. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Series.(SMA) 99-3295, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1999.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/nhsda/1997Main/nhsda1997mfWeb.htm (URL)
  • Zhang, Zhiwei, Huang, Lynn X., Brittingham, Angela M.. Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs: Results from the 1994 and 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 1999.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/A-11/WrkplcPlcy2.htm (URL)
  • (author unknown). Incidence of initiation of cigarette smoking--United States, 1965-1996. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.47, (39), 837-840.1998.
  • Office of Applied Studies. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates 1997. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Series.(SMA) 98-3250, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1998.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/nhsda/pe1997/toc.htm (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Preliminary Results from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Series.(SMA) 98-3251, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 1998.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/nhsda/nhsda97/toc1.htm (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (1999): National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 1997. Version 1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02755.v1