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Chinese Household Income Project, 1995

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Riskin, Carl
  • Renwei, Zhao
  • Shi, Li
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Chinese Household Income Project Series
Publication Date
2000-11-10
Language
English
Free Keywords
economic conditions; employment; household income; households; housing conditions; occupations; rural areas; urban areas
Description
  • Abstract

    The purpose of this project was to measure and estimate the distribution of personal income in both rural and urban areas of the People's Republic of China. The principal investigators based their definition of income on cash payments and on a broad range of additional components: payments in kind valued at market prices, agricultural output produced for self-consumption valued at market prices, the value of food and other direct subsidies, and the imputed value of housing services. The rural component of this collection consists of two data files, one in which the individual is the unit of analysis (Part 1) and a second in which the household is the unit of analysis (Part 2). Individual rural respondents reported on their employment status, level of education, Communist Party membership, type of employer (e.g., public, private, or foreign), type of economic sector in which they were employed, occupation, whether they held a second job, retirement status, monthly pension, monthly wage, and other sources of income. Demographic variables include relationship to householder, gender, age, and student status. Rural households reported extensively on the character of the household and residence. Information was elicited on type of terrain surrounding the house, geographic position, type of house, and availability of electricity. Also reported were sources of household income (e.g., farming, industry, government, rents, and interest), taxes paid, value of farm, total amount and type of cultivated land, financial assets and debts, quantity and value of various crops, amount of grain purchased or provided by a collective, use of chemical fertilizers, gasoline, and oil, quantity and value of agricultural machinery, and all household expenditures (e.g., food, fuel, medicine, education, transportation, and electricity). The urban component of this collection also consists of two data files, one in which the individual is the unit of analysis (Part 3) and a second in which the household is the unit of analysis (Part 4). Individual urban respondents reported on their economic status within the household, Communist Party membership, sex, age, nature of employment, and relationship to the household head. Information was collected on all types and sources of income from each member of the household whether working, nonworking, or retired, all revenue received by owners of private or individual enterprises, and all in-kind payments (e.g., food, durable goods, and nondurable goods). Urban households reported total income (including salaries, interest on savings and bonds, dividends, rent, leases, alimony, gifts, and boarding fees), all types and values of food subsidies received, and total debt. Information was also gathered on household accommodations and living conditions, including number of rooms, total living area in square meters, availability and cost of running water, sanitary facilities, heating and air-conditioning equipment, kitchen availability, location of residence, ownership of home, and availability of electricity and telephone. Households reported on all their expenditures including amounts spent on food items such as wheat, rice, edible oils, pork, beef and mutton, poultry, fish and seafood, sugar, and vegetables by means of coupons in state-owned stores and at free market prices. Information was also collected on rents paid by the households, fuel available, type of transportation used, and availability and use of medical and child care. The Chinese Household Income Project collected data in 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007. ICPSR holds data from the first three collections, and information about these can be found on the series description page. Data collected in 2007 are available through the China Institute for Income Distribution.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Rural Individual Data
    • DS2: Rural Household Data
    • DS3: Urban Individual Data
    • DS4: Urban Household Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1995
  • Collection date: 1995
Geographic Coverage
  • China (Peoples Republic)
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Resident population of the People's Republic of China.
Sampling
The data collection consists of two distinct samples of the urban and rural populations of the People's Republic of China, which were selected from significantly larger samples (approximately 65,000 rural households and 35,000 urban households) drawn by the State Statistical Bureau.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview

    The data are provided as SAS transport files that were created using the SAS XPORT engine.

    Users may disaggregate the data down to the county level through use of the Codes for the Administrative Divisions of the People's Republic of China (in Chinese) issued by the State Statistical Bureau.

    The Chinese Household Income Project is a joint research effort sponsored by the Institute of Economics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Asian Development Bank, and the Ford Foundation. Additional support was provided by the East Asian Institute, Columbia University.

    This collection has not been processed by ICPSR staff. ICPSR is distributing the data and documentation for this collection in essentially the same form in which they were received. When appropriate, documentation has been converted to Portable Document Format (PDF), data files have been converted to non-platform-specific formats, and variables have been recoded to ensure respondents' anonymity.

Note
2010-07-28 Added variable and value labels, coded missing values, and reorganized data documentation and files. Made data available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, ASCII with setup files, and tab-delimited ASCII.2006-01-18 File QU3012.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.2006-01-18 File CB3012.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3012 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03012.v2
Publications
  • Atella, V., Brugiavini, A., Pace, N.. The health care system reform in China: Effects on out-of-pocket expenses and saving. China Economic Review.2015.
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  • Cui, Yuling, Nahm, Dauhoon, Tani, Massimiliano. The Determinants of Rural Migrants' Employment Choice in China: Results from a Joint Estimation. Discussion Paper Series, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, No. 6968.Leibniz, Germany: Leibniz Information Centre for Economics; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 2012.
    • ID: http://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/67238/1/729304302.pdf (URL)
  • Faigen, Benjamin. The Returns to Education: An Empirical Study of Urban China, 1988-2007. Thesis, Lund University. 2012.
  • He, Xiaobin, Huang, Zhuo. Ownership restructuring, marketization and wealth inequality in urban China: 1995 and 2002. China and World Economy.20, (5), 37-62.2012.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1749-124X.2012.01301.x (DOI)
  • Kamal, Fariha, Lovely, Mary E., Ouyang, Puman. Does deeper integration enhance spatial advantages? Market access and wage growth in China. International Review of Economics and Finance.23, 59-74.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.iref.2011.10.006 (DOI)
  • Liu, Qian. Unemployment and labor force participation in urban China. China Economic Review.23, (1), 18-33.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.chieco.2011.07.008 (DOI)
  • Mercado, Maira T. Changes in the Effects of Determinants of Earnings Inequality and Their Labor Implications in Urban China, 1988-2002. Thesis, Claremont McKenna College. 2012.
  • Pan, Yao. Understanding the Rural and Urban Household Saving Rise in China. . 2012.
    • ID: http://home.gwu.edu/~panyao/files/Yao%20sav.pdf (URL)
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    • ID: 10.3968/j.mse.1913035X20120604.619 (DOI)
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    • ID: 10.1108/17561371211196766 (DOI)
  • Chen, Hao. Three Essays in Chinese Reforms and Household Savings. Dissertation, Universita Ca' Foscari Venezia. 2011.
  • Hou, Zhaoyang. Access to Markets, Poverty, and Inequality: Evidence from Rural China. National University of Singapore, . 2011.
    • ID: http://www.fas.nus.edu.sg/ecs/events/seminar/seminar-papers/17Jan12.pdf (URL)
  • Liu, Wenjun. Regional technical efficiency and technology gaps in rural China: Evidence from CHIP surveys. China Economic Journal.4, (2-3), 125-144.2011.
    • ID: 10.1080/17538963.2011.666058 (DOI)
  • Yang, Juan, Li, Shi. The impact of rustication on sent-down cohorts' income. Frontiers of Economics in China.6, (2), 290-310.2011.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11459-011-0133-5 (DOI)
  • Zheng, Shuang. The trend of the returns to education in urban China during 1988 to 2002. Thesis, Clemson University. 2011.
  • Almas, Ingvild, Johnsen, Auglaend. China's Growth Miracle - Still Awaiting the Real Great Leap Forward?. 31st General Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth.St. Gallen, Switzerland. 2010.
    • ID: http://www.iariw.org/papers/2010/poster2Johnsen.pdf (URL)
  • Appleton, Simon, Song, Lina, Xia, Qingjie. Growing out of poverty: Trends and patterns of urban poverty in China 1988-2002. World Development.38, (5), 665-678.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.11.016 (DOI)
  • Chen, Zhao, Lu, Ming, Wan, Guanghua. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials: An Increasingly Important Contributor to Urban China Income Inequality. Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series.No. 130, Tokyo, Japan: Hitotsubashi University. 2010.
    • ID: http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/18367/1/gd09-130.pdf (URL)
  • He, Xiaobin. Property Transformation, Marketization and Wealth Inequality in Urban China 1988, 1995 and 2002. Dissertation, Stanford University. 2010.
  • Hering, Laura, Poncet, Sandra. Market access and individual wages: Evidence from China. Review of Economics and Statistics.92, (1), 145-159.2010.
    • ID: 10.1162/rest.2009.11418 (DOI)
  • Khor, Niny, Pencavel, John. Evolution of Income Mobility in the People's Republic of China: 1991-2002. Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series.204, Asian Development Bank. 2010.
    • ID: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1639322 (URL)
  • Pan, Xi. The Labor Market, Political Capital, and Ownership Sector in Urban China. Dissertation, University of Kentucky. 2010.
  • Sai, Ding, Myers, Samuel L., Jr.. Inter-temporal Changes in Ethnic Urban Earnings Inequality in China. National School of Development Working Paper.Beijing, China: National School of Development, Peking University. 2010.
    • ID: http://ftp.ccer.cn/download/11034-1.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Xi, Zhang, Xiaobo. The Distribution of Income and Well-Being in Rural China: A Survey of Panel Data Sets, Studies and New Directions. . 2009.
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  • Chuliang, Luo. Economic Restructuring, Informal Jobs and Pro-poor Growth in Urban China. Fukino Project Discussion Paper Series.Hitosubashi University, . 2009.
    • ID: http://www.ijrc.hit-u.ac.jp/pdf/files/Fukino_DP_10_uQS6SQ.pdf (URL)
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  • Fan, Lida. Measuring interprovincial flows of human capital in China: 1995-2000. Population Research and Policy Review.28, (3), 367-387.2009.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11113-008-9103-8 (DOI)
  • Feng, Jin, He, Lixin, Sato, Hiroshi. Public Pension and Household Saving: Evidence from Urban China. Fukino Project Discussion Paper Series.No. 009, Tokyo, Japan: Hitotsubashi University. 2009.
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  • Meng, Lei. Bride Drain: Rising Female Migration and Declining Marriage Rates in Rural China. Institute for Advanced Research Working Paper.Shanghai, China: Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. 2009.
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  • Thunghong, Lin, Xiaogang, Wu. The transformation of the Chinese class structure, 1978-2005. Social Stratification in Chinese Societies.Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. 2009.
  • Wang, Xiaobing, Piesse, Jennifer. Welfare Effects of Regressive Taxation and Subsidies in China. BWPI Working Paper.No. 108, Manchester, UK: University of Manchester. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.bwpi.manchester.ac.uk/resources/Working-Papers/bwpi-wp-10809.pdf (URL)
  • Wang, Xiaojun, Fleisher, Belton M., Li, Haizheng, Li, Shi. Access to Higher Education and Inequality: The Chinese Experiment. Institute for the Study of Labor Discussion Paper.No. 4030, Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 2009.
  • Xia, Qingjie. The Pattern and Evolution of Poverty in Rural Poverty. China Institute for Employment Research Working Paper.Beijing, China: China Institute for Employment Research. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.cier.org.cn/upload/Database/20095647154517.pdf (URL)
  • Ye, Hua. Earnings Returns to Tertiary Education and Gender Earnings Gap in Urban China, 1988-2005. Thesis, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. 2009.
    • ID: http://repository.ust.hk/dspace/handle/1783.1/7189 (URL)
  • An, Di. Multiple Imputation Methods for Statistical Disclosure Control. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2008.
  • Asuyama, Yoko. Changes in the Causes of Earnings Inequality in Urban China from 1988 to 2002. Institute of Developing Economies Discussion Paper.No. 176, Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developing Economies. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/pdf/176.pdf (URL)
  • Asuyama, Yoko. The Contribution of Supply and Demand Shifts to Earnings Inequality in Urban China. Institute of Developing Economies Discussion Paper.No. 177, Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developing Economies. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.ide-jetro.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/pdf/177.pdf (URL)
  • Athukorala, Prema-chnadra, Fukao, Kyoji, Yuan, Tangjun. Economic Transition and Labour Market Adjustment in China: An Exploratory Essay. . 2008.
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  • Hou, Zhaoyang. Local versus Global: The Impact of Domestic and International Market Access on Household Income in Rural China. Job Market Paper.Washington, DC: George Washington University. 2008.
    • ID: http://home.gwu.edu/~houz/JobMarketPaper.pdf (URL)
  • Khor, Niny, Pencavel, John. Measuring Income Mobility, Income Inequality, and Social Welfare for Households of the People's Republic of China. ADB Economics Working Paper Series.No. 145, Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. 2008.
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  • Liu, Zhiqiang. Human capital externalities and rural-urban migration: Evidence from rural China. China Economic Review.19, (3), 521-535.2008.
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  • Osberg, Lars, Xu, Kuan. How should we measure poverty in a changing world? Methodological issues and Chinese case study. Review of Development Economics.12, (2), 419-441.2008.
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  • Khor, Niny, Pencavel, John. The Dynamics of Urban Poverty in China. Stanford Center for International Development Working Paper.Working Paper 342, Stanford, CA: Stanford University. 2007.
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  • Li, Haizheng, Urmanbetova, Aselia. The effect of education and wage determination in China's rural industry. Private Enterprises and China's Economic Development.New York, NY: Routledge. 2007.
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  • Chen, Yuanyuan. Two Essays on Selection Models and One Essay on Income Inequality in Rural China. Dissertation, Boston College. 2005.
  • Fleisher, Belton M., Li, Haizheng, Li, Shi. Job Choices, Sectoral Attachment, and Educational Attainment in China's Transition Economy. Department of Economics Working Paper.Columbus, OH: Ohio State University. 2005.
    • ID: http://economics.sbs.ohio-state.edu/Fleisher/working_papers/SectoralChoice1_14.doc (URL)
  • Hauser, Seth M., Xie, Yu. Temporal and regional variation in earnings inequality: Urban China in transition between 1988 and 1995. Social Science Research.34, (1), 44-79.2005.
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  • Khor, Niny, Pencavel, John. Income Mobility of Individuals in China and the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California-Berkeley. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.econ.berkeley.edu/users/webfac/qian/e261_s06/pencavel.pdf (URL)
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  • Osberg, Lars, Xu, Kuan. How Should We Measure Poverty in a Changing World?. 2004 International Conference on Official Poverty Statistics.Mandaluyong City, Philippines. 2005.
  • Qian, Fang. Earnings Benefit and Party Membership in Urban China. Thesis, East Carolina University. 2005.
  • Shu, Xiaoling. Market transition and gender segregation in urban China. Social Science Quarterly.86, (s1), 1299-1323.2005.
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  • Uchimura, Hiroko. Influence of Social Institutions on Inequality in China. Institute of Developing Economies Discussion Paper.No. 26, Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developming Economies. 2005.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

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