National Jail Census, 1999

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Jail Census Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
census data; correctional facilities; correctional system; corrections management; demographic characteristics; inmate populations; inmate programs; inmates; jail inmates; jails
  • Abstract

    The 1999 Census of Jails is the seventh in a series of data collection efforts aimed at studying the nation's locally administered jails. Previous censuses were conducted in 1970, 1972, 1978, 1983, 1988, and 1993. The 1999 census enumerated 3,365 locally administered confinement facilities that held inmates beyond arraignment and were staffed by municipal or county employees. Among these were 47 privately operated jails under contract for local governments and 42 regional jails that were operated for two or more jail authorities. In addition, the census identified 11 facilities maintained by the Federal Bureau of Prisons that functioned as jails. The nationwide total of the number of jails in operation on June 30, 1999, was 3,376. For purposes of this data collection, a local jail was defined as a locally operated adult detention facility that receives individuals pending arraignment and holds them awaiting trial, conviction, or sentencing, readmits probation, parole, and bail-bond violators and absconders, temporarily detains juveniles pending transfer to juvenile authorities, holds mentally ill persons pending their movement to appropriate health facilities, holds individuals for the military, for protective custody, for contempt, and for the courts as witnesses, releases convicted inmates to the community upon completion of sentence, transfers inmates to federal, state, or other authorities, houses inmates for federal, state, or other authorities because of crowding of their facilities, relinquishes custody of temporary detainees to juvenile and medical authorities, operates community-based programs with day-reporting, home detention, electronic monitoring, or other types of supervision, and holds inmates sentenced to short terms. Variables include information on jail population by legal status, age and sex of prisoners, maximum sentence, admissions and releases, available services and programs, structure and capacity, facility age and use of space, expenditure, employment, staff information, and health issues, which include statistics on drugs, AIDS, and tuberculosis.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • 1998-07-01 / 1999-06-30
    Time period: 1998-07-01--1999-06-30
  • Collection date: 1999-06-30
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All locally administered jails in the United States.
2009-07-09 Data modifications for disclosure risk have been made. The following variables were masked using -1 as the code and "Masked" as the value label: V333 MALE ILLNESS/NATURAL CAUSES, V335 FEMALE ILLNESS/NATURAL CAUSES, V337 MALE AIDS, V339 FEMALE AIDS, V341 MALE SUICIDE, V343 FEMALE SUICIDE,V345 MALE HOMICIDE BY OTHER INMATE,V347 FEMALE HOMICIDE BY OTHER INMATE, V349 MALE OTHER HOMICIDE,V351 FEMALE OTHER HOMICIDE, V354 MALE OTHER CAUSES OF INMATE DEATH, and V356 FEMALE OTHER CAUSES OF INMATE DEATH. The following variable was masked using MASKED as the value: V353 OTHER CAUSES OF INMATE DEATH SPECIFY. The following variables were masked by assigning a blank (" ") for all cases: V16p NAME OF THE ENTITY THAT OWNS THIS FACILI and V17p NAME OF THE ENTITY THAT OPERATES THIS FA.2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.2003-12-02 The principal investigator supplied a revised dataset, which was fully processed and released as the second edition of the collection. Corresponding changes were made to the codebook and data definition statements.2002-08-16 The first part of Appendix A, a statistical program, was deleted from the codebook. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions; consult the study documentation to learn more on how to obtain the data.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3318 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03318.v3
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03318.v1
  • Helms, Ronald, Gutierrez, Ricky S., Reeves-Gutierrez, Debra. Jail mental health resourcing: A conceptual and empirical study of social determinants. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.2015.
    • ID: 10.1177/0306624X15572864 (DOI)
  • Schlanger, Margo. How prisoners' rights lawyers are preserving the role of the courts. University of Miami Law Review.2015.
  • Schlanger, Margo. Trends in prisoner litigation, as the PLRA enters adulthood. UC Irvine Law Review.2015.
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    • ID: 10.1177/0734016813478822 (DOI)
  • Wang, Xia, Mears, Daniel P.. Examining the direct and interactive effects of changes and ethnic threat on sentencing decisions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.47, (4), 522-557.2010.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022427810375576 (DOI)
  • Applegate, Brandon K., Sitren, Alicia H.. The jail and the community: Comparing jails in rural and urban contexts. Prison Journal.88, (2), 252-269.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/0032885508319207 (DOI)
  • Wang, Xia. Criminal Justice Sentencing in Context: The Effect of Social Environment on Courtroom Decision-Making. Dissertation, Florida State University. 2008.
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    • ID: (URL)
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    • ID: (URL)
  • Piehl, Anne M., Schlanger, Margo. Determinants of civil rights filings in federal district court by jail and prison inmates. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies.1, (1), 79-109.2004.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1740-1461.2004.00003.x (DOI)
  • Maruschak, Laura M.. HIV in Prisons and Jails, 1999. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.NCJ 187456, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Stephan, James J.. Census of Jails, 1999. NCJ 186633, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2001.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Beck, Allen J.. Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 1999. NCJ 173414, United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 2000.
  • Bishop, Donna M.. Juvenile offenders in the adult criminal jusstice system. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. 2000.
  • Snyder, Howard N., Sickmund, Melissa. Juvenile Offenders and Victims. 1999 National Report.NCJ 178257, Washington, DC: United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 1999.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30