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National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2001

Version
v3
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Other Title
  • Version 3 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series
Publication Date
2003-02-06
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Language
English
Free Keywords
addiction; alcohol; alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; controlled drugs; drinking behavior; drug abuse; drug dependence; drug treatment; drug use; drugs; hallucinogens; heroin; households; inhalants; marijuana; mental health; mental health services; methamphetamine; prescription drugs; sedatives; smoking; stimulants; substance abuse; substance abuse treatment; tranquilizers
Description
  • Abstract

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information is provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 and older. Questions include age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drug classes: marijuana, cocaine (and crack), hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs, including pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. The survey covers substance abuse treatment history and perceived need for treatment, and includes questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders that allow diagnostic criteria to be applied. Respondents are also asked about personal and family income sources and amounts, health care access and coverage, illegal activities and arrest record, problems resulting from the use of drugs, and needle-sharing. Questions introduced in previous NHSDA administrations were retained in the 2001 survey, including questions asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17. These "youth experiences" items covered a variety of topics, such as neighborhood environment, illegal activities, gang involvement, drug use by friends, social support, extracurricular activities, exposure to substance abuse prevention and education programs, and perceived adult attitudes toward drug use and activities such as school work. Also retained were questions on mental health and access to care, perceived risk of using drugs, perceived availability of drugs, driving behavior and personal behavior, and cigar smoking. Questions on the tobacco brand used most often were introduced with the 1999 survey and have been retained through the 2001 survey. Demographic data include gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, veteran status, and current household composition. In addition, in 2001 questions on purchase of marijuana were added.
  • Methods

    Due to unequal selection probabilities at multiple stages of sample selection and various adjustments, such as those for nonresponse and poststratification, the 2001 NHSDA sample is not self-weighting. Analysts are advised to use the sample weight when attempting to use the NHSDA data to draw inferences about the target population or any subdomain of the target population. All estimates published in SAMHSA reports (such as the Results from the 2001 NHSDA: Volumes I, II, and III) are weighted using the final analysis weight for the full sample (ANALWT). For the public use file, the corresponding final sample weight is denoted as ANALWT_C, with the "C" denoting confidentiality protection. This sample weight represents the total number of target population persons each record on the file represents. Note that the sum of ANALWT_C, over all records on the data file, represents an estimate of the total number of people in the target population.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The study yielded a weighted screening response rate of 92 percent and a weighted interview response rate for the Computer Assisted Interview (CAI) of 73 percent.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2001
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2001
  • Collection date: 2001
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.
Sampling
A multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia was used since 1999. A coordinated five-year sample design was developed for 1999 through 2003. Although there is no overlap with the 1998 sample, the design facilitates overlap in the first-stage units (area segments) between each two successive years in the five-year design. This design increases the precision of estimates in year-to-year trend analysis. The sample is stratified on multiple levels, beginning with states. Eight states are considered large sample states and contribute approximately 3,600 respondents per state. The remaining states are sampled to yield 900 respondents per state. The second level of stratification divides states into Field Interviewer (FI) Regions. The third level of stratification divides FI regions into area segments consisting of adjacent Census blocks. These area segments were used as the primary sampling units. Dwelling units in area segments were listed in a standardized order and were selected by systematic sampling. Field interviewers visited each sample address to determine dwelling unit eligibility, to list all eligible persons at the address, and to conduct interviews. Persons were selected from the address roster using a handheld computer. To improve the precision of estimates, the sample allocation process targeted five age groups: 12-17, 18-25, 26-34, 35-49, and 50 and older. The size measures used in selecting the area segments were coordinated with the dwelling unit and person selection process so that a nearly self-weighting sample could be achieved in each of the five age groups. The sample design included approximately equal numbers of persons in the 12-17, 18-25, and 26 and older age groups. The 2001 file also includes a boosted sample for New York City and the surrounding area to provider greater precision in analysis of the effects of the events of September 11, 2001. The achieved sample for the 2001 NHSDA was 68,929 persons. The public use file has 55,561 records due to a subsampling step used in the disclosure protection procedures. Minimum item response requirements were defined for cases to be retained for weighting and further analysis (i.e., "usable" cases). These requirements, as well as full sampling methodology, are detailed in the codebook.
Collection Mode
  • audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI), computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

    Users are advised to review the errata file prior to conducting any analyses.

    Data were collected and prepared for release by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse survey administration and sample design changed with the implementation of the 1999 survey. Since 1999, the survey sample has employed a 50-State design with an independent, multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Therefore, estimates produced from the 1999, 2000, and 2001 surveys are not comparable to those produced from the 1998 and earlier surveys.

    For selected variables, statistical imputation was performed following logical inference to replace missing responses. These variables are identified in the codebook as "...LOGICALLY ASSIGNED" for the logical procedure, or by the designation "IMPUTATION-REVISED" in the variable label when the statistical procedure was also performed. The names of statistically imputed variables begin with the letters "IR". For each imputation-revised variable there is a corresponding imputation indicator variable that indicates whether a case's value on the variable resulted from an interview response or was imputed. Missing values for some demographic variables were imputed by the unweighted hot-deck technique used in previous NHSDAs. Beginning in 1999, imputation of missing values for many other variables was accomplished using predictive mean neighborhoods (PMN), a new procedure developed specifically for the NHSDA. Both the hot-deck and PMN imputation procedures are described in the codebook.

    To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. To further ensure respondent confidentiality, the data producer used data substitution and deletion of state identifiers and a subsample of records in the creation of the public use file.

    Previously published estimates may not be exactly reproducible from the variables in the public use file due to the disclosure protection procedures that were implemented.

    The data definition and dictionary files for Stata are designed to be compatible with StataSE, Version 8. This is a large data file requiring that approximately 250 megabytes of Random Access Memory be allocated to Stata. Operations within Stata, including conversion of the ASCII data to Stata format, are likely to be slow. Analysts may wish to download subsets of data from the SAMHDA Data Analysis System (DAS) for use with Stata.

Note
2013-06-25 Released Methodological Resources documentation and updated xml file to include variable groupings.2006-12-07 On 2006-05-18, the data producer resupplied the data file and codebook documentation. 20 variables were modified, 11 variables were dropped, and 10 new variables were added. Some of these changes were to correct for data errors, but most of these changes were done to provide consistency with the 2004 NSDUH study. Of these changes, the most important change to note is that two study design variables (VEREP and VESTR) were revised to provide consistency with the 2004 study, which collapsed the strata in order to maximize the number of people in each replicate.2004-03-25 Data producer resupplied data and documentation. There were 38 new variables, the INCOME variable was dropped, and the following variables had either data and/or documentation changes: OTDGNDLA, II2HALRC, IIHALFY, II2HALFY, IIHALFM, II2HALFM, CIGCRAVE, CIGCRAGP, YSPED, YSCHL, CIGINET, CIGFRND, CIGVEND, CIGMAIL, CIGCKOUT, CIGCLERK, CIGSMKT, CIGDSTO, CIGCONV, CIGINDIV, YTHBGHT, IILSDRC, II2LSDRC, IIPCPRC, II2PCPRC, IIECSRC, II2ECSRC, IIMTHRC, II2MTHRC, IIMTHFY, II2MTHFY, NRCH17_2, IISLTYFU, MTHYR, MTHMON, DRIVALC, DRIVDRG, and DRIVALD. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (283-98-9008).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 3580 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03580.v4
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR03580.v2
Publications
  • Caulkins, Jonathan P., Kilmer, Beau, Reuter, Peter H., Midgette, Greg. Cocaine's fall and marijuana's rise: Questions and insights based on new estimates of consumption and expenditures in US drug markets. Addiction.110, (5), 728-736.2015.
    • ID: 10.1111/add.12628 (DOI)
  • Mojtabai, Ramin, Jorm, Anthony F.. Trends in psychological distress, depressive episodes and mental health treatment-seeking in the United States: 2001–-2012. Journal of Affective Disorders.174, (15), 556-561.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.039 (DOI)
  • Rough, Kathryn, Tassiopoulos, Katherine, Kacanek, Deborah, Griner, Raymond, Yogev, Ram, Rich, Kenneth, Seage, George, III. Dramatic decline in substance use by HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. AIDS.29, 117-123.2015.
    • ID: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000503 (DOI)
  • Busch, Susan H., Golberstein, Ezra, Meara, Ellen. The FDA and ABCs: Unintended consequences of antidepressant warnings on human capital. Journal of Human Resources.49, (3), 540-571.2014.
  • Curtin, Geoffrey M., Sulsky, Sandra I., Van Landingham, Cynthia, Marano, Kristin M., Graves, Monica J., Ogden, Michael W., Swauger, James E.. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.70, (2), 446-456.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.08.001 (DOI)
  • Curtin, Geoffrey M., Sulsky, Sandra I., Van Landingham, Cynthia, Marano, Kristin M., Graves, Monica J., Ogden, Michael W., Swauger, James E.. Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.70, (1), 189-196.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.06.018 (DOI)
  • Curtin, Geoffrey M., Sulsky, Sandra I., Van Landingham, Cynthia, Marano, Kristin M., Graves, Monica J., Ogden, Michael W., Swauger, James E.. Primary measures of dependence among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers in the United States. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.69, (3), 451-466.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.05.011 (DOI)
  • Galenianos, Manolis, Gavazza, Alessandro. A Quantitative Analysis of the Retail Market for Illicit Drugs. . 2014.
    • ID: http://www.cemfi.org/ftp/pdf/papers/Seminar/qdrugs.pdf (URL)
  • Imtiaz, S., Shield, K.D., Fischer, B., Rehm, J.. Harms of prescription opioid use in the United States. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy.9, (1), 432014.
    • ID: 10.1186/1747-597X-9-43 (DOI)
  • Kilmer, Beau, Everingham, Susan S., Caulkins, Jonathan P., Midgette, Gregory, Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo, Reuter, Peter H., Burns, Rachel M., Han, Bing, Lundberg, Russell. What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs: 2000-2010. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. 2014.
    • ID: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ondcp/policy-and-research/wausid_results_report.pdf (URL)
  • Prue, Bob. Prevalence of reported peyote use 1985-2010 effects of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1994. American Journal on Addictions.23, (2), 156-161.2014.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12083.x (DOI)
  • Caulkins, Jonathan P.. Can We Treat Our Way Out of Incarcerating Drug-Involved Offenders?. National Bureau of Economic Research, . 2013.
    • ID: http://www.nber.org/chapters/c12099.pdf (URL)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of welfare reform on illicit drug use of adult women. Economic Inquiry.51, (1), 653-674.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00459.x (DOI)
  • Keyes, Katherine M., Miech, Richard. Age, period, and cohort effects in heavy episodic drinking in the US from 1985 to 2009. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.132, (1-2), 140-148.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.01.019 (DOI)
  • Krebs, Teri S., Johansen, Pal-Orjan. Psychedelics and mental health: A population study. PLoS One.8, (8), e639722013.
  • Miech, Richard A., London, Andrew S., Wilmoth, Janet M., Koester, Stephen. The effects of the military's antidrug policies over the life course: The case of past-year hallucinogen use. Substance Use and Misuse.48, (10), 837-853.2013.
    • ID: 10.3109/10826084.2013.800120 (DOI)
  • Miech, Richard, Bohnert, Amy, Heard, Kennon, Boardman, Jason. Increasing use of nonmedical analgesics among younger cohorts in the United States: A birth cohort effect. Journal of Adolescent Health.52, (1), 35-41.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.07.016 (DOI)
  • Nielsen, Alexandra, Wakeland, Wayne, Schmidt, Teresa. Simulating health policy interventions to reduce nonmedical use of pharmaceutical opioids. 141st APHA Annual Meeting and Expo.Boston, MA. 2013.
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng. Estimating transitional probabilities with cross-sectional data to assess smoking behavior progression: A validation analysis. Journal of Biometrics and Biostatistics.2012.
    • ID: 10.4172/2155-6180.S1-004 (DOI)
  • Chen, Xinguang, Ren, Yuanjing, Lin, Feng, MacDonell, Karen, Jiang, Yifan. Exposure to school and community based prevention programs and reductions in cigarette smoking among adolescents in the United States, 2000-08. Evaluation and Program Planning.35, (3), 321-328.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2011.12.001 (DOI)
  • Chung, Tammy, Smith, Gregory T., Donovan, John E., Windle, Michael, Faden, Vivian B., Chiung, M. Chen, Martin, Christopher S.. Drinking frequency as a brief screen for adolescent alcohol problems. Pediatrics.129, (2), 205-212.2012.
    • ID: 10.1542/peds.2011-1828 (DOI)
  • Jogerst, Gerald J., Daly, Jeanette M., Galloway, Lara J., Zheng, Shimin, Xu, Yinghui. Substance abuse associated with elder abuse in the United States. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.38, 63-69.2012.
    • ID: 10.3109/00952990.2011.600390 (DOI)
  • Manchikanti, L., Helm, S., II, Fellows, B., Janata, J.W., Pampati, V., Grider, J.S., Boswell, M.V.. Opioid epidemic in the United States. Pain Physician.15, (3S), ES9-ES38.2012.
  • Miech, Richard, Koester, Stephen. Trends in U.S., past-year marijuana use from 1985 to 2009: An age-period-cohort analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.124, (3), 259-267.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.01.020 (DOI)
  • Nguyen, Holly, Reuter, Peter. How risky is marijuana possession? Considering the role of age, race, and gender. Crime and Delinquency.58, (6), 879-910.2012.
    • ID: 10.1177/0011128712461122 (DOI)
  • Anderson, D. Mark, Rees, Daniel I.. Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption. IZA Discussion Paper No. 6112.Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 2011.
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Williams, Gerald D., Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the United States, 1991-2009. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2011.
    • ID: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/surveillance91/Underage09.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Xinguang, Lin, Feng, Stanton, Bonita, Zhang, Xun. APC modeling of smoking prevalence among US adolescents and young adults. American Journal of Health Behavior.35, (4), 416-427.2011.
    • ID: 10.5993/AJHB.35.4.4 (DOI)
  • Cummings, Janet R., Wen, Hefei, Druss, Benjamin G.. Racial/ethnic differences in treatment for substance use disorders among U.S. adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.50, (12), 165-1274.2011.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.09.006 (DOI)
  • Dave, Dhaval, Mukerjee, Swati. Mental health parity legislation, cost-sharing and substance-abuse treatment admissions. Health Economics.20, (2), 161-183.2011.
    • ID: 10.1002/hec.1577 (DOI)
  • Guydish, Joseph, Passalacqua, Emma, Tajima, Barbara, Chan, Mable, Chun, JongSerl, Bostrom, Alan. Smoking prevalence in addiction treatment: A review. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.13, (5), 2011.
    • ID: 10.1093/ntr/ntr048 (DOI)
  • Guyll, Max, Spoth, Richard, Crowley, D. Max. Economic analysis of methamphetamine prevention effects and employer costs. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.72, 577-585.2011.
  • MacCoun, Robert J.. What can we learn from the Dutch cannabis coffeeshop system?. Addiction.106, (11), 1899-1910.2011.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03572.x (DOI)
  • Bhati, Avinash Singh, Roman, John K.. Simulated evidence on the prospects of treating more drug-involved offenders. Journal of Experimental Criminology.6, (1), 1-113.2010.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11292-010-9088-2 (DOI)
  • Corman, Hope, Dave, Dhaval M., Reichman, Nancy E., Das, Dhiman. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use of Adult Women. NBER Working Paper No. 16072.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2010.
  • Manchikanti, Laxmaiah, Fellows, Bert, Ailinani, Hary, Pampati, Vidyasagar. Therapeutic use, abuse, and nonmedical use of opioids: A ten-year perspective. Pain Physician.13, (5), 401-435.2010.
  • Paschall, Mallie J., Ringwalt, Christopher L., Gitelman, Amy M.. The validity of state survey estimates of binge drinking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.39, (2), 179-183.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.03.018 (DOI)
  • Sakai, Joseph T., Wang, Cynthia, Price, Rumi Kato. Substance use and dependence among Native Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders, and Asian ethnic groups in the United States: Contrasting multiple-race and single-race prevalence rates from a national survey. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse.9, (3), 173-185.2010.
    • ID: 10.1080/15332640.2010.500582 (DOI)
  • Wu, Ping, Liu, Xinhua, Pham, Trang Hoang, Jin, Jue, Fan, Bin, Jin, Zhezhen. Ecstasy use among US adolescents from 1999 to 2008. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.112, (1-2), 33-38.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.05.006 (DOI)
  • Chen, C.Y., Storr, C.L., Anthony, J.C.. Early-onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problems. Addictive Behaviors.34, (3), 319-322.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.10.021 (DOI)
  • Chen, Chiung M., Yi, Hsiao-ye, Faden, Vivian B.. Trends in Underage Drinking in the U.S., 1991-2007. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data System Surveillance Reports #86.Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 2009.
  • Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., Bierut, Laura J.. Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.48, (7), 692-702.2009.
    • ID: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a2b32f (DOI)
  • Maccoun, Robert, Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo, Chriqui, Jamie, Harris, Katherine, Reuter, Peter. Do citizens know whether their state has decriminalized marijuana? Assessing the perceptual component of deterrence theory. Review of Law and Economics.5, (1), 347-371.2009.
    • ID: 10.2202/1555-5879.1227 (DOI)
  • Rodu, B., Cole, P.. Smoking prevalence: A comparison of two American surveys. Public Health.123, (9), 598-601.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.puhe.2009.07.014 (DOI)
  • Stretesky, Paul B.. National case-control study of homicide offending and methamphetamine uses. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.24, (6), 911-924.2009.
    • ID: 10.1177/0886260508325011 (DOI)
  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy: Data Supplement 2009. NCJ 225448, Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs09/ndcs09_data_supl/09datasupplement.pdf (URL)
  • Arkes, Jeremy, Iguchi, Martin Y.. How predictors of prescription drug abuse vary by age. Journal of Drug Issues.38, (4), 1027-1043.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/002204260803800405 (DOI)
  • Karlin, Bradley E., Duffy, Michael, Gleaves, David H.. Patterns and predictors of mental health service use and mental illness among older and younger adults in the United States. Psychological Services.5, (3), 275-294.2008.
    • ID: 10.1037/1541-1559.5.3.275 (DOI)
  • Kotria, Kim. Predicting alcohol use during pregnancy: Analysis of national survey data and implications for practice and the Church. Social Work and Christianity.35, (1), 12-32.2008.
  • MacMaster, Samuel A., Tripp, Kelly, Argo, Sherri. Perceptions of HIV risks behaviors and service needs among methaphetamine users in rural Apalachian Tennessee. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse.7, (1), 115-129.2008.
    • ID: 10.1080/15332640802083329 (DOI)
  • Maxwell, Jane Carlisle. Are we becoming more alike? Comparison of substance use in Australia and the United States as seen in the 1995, 1998, 2001, and 2004 National Household Surveys. Drug and Alcohol Review.27, (5), 473-481.2008.
    • ID: 10.1080/09595230802090055 (DOI)
  • Nelson, Jon P.. How similar are youth and adult alcohol behaviors? Panel results for excise taxes and outlet density. Atlantic Economic Journal.36, (1), 89-104.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11293-007-9106-6 (DOI)
  • Stalans, Loretta J., Ritchie, Jennifer. Relationship of substance use/abuse with psychological and physical intimate partner violence: Variations across living situations. Journal of Family Violence.23, (1), 9-24.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10896-007-9125-8 (DOI)
  • Swartz, James. Using the K6 scale to screen for serious mental illness among criminal justice populations: Do psychiatric treatment indicators improve detection rates?. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.6, (1), 93-104.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11469-007-9107-3 (DOI)
  • Wisniewski, Angela M., Purdy, Christopher H., Blondell, Richard D.. The epidemiologic association between opioid prescribing, non-medical use, and emergency department visits. Journal of Addictive Diseases.27, (1), 1-11.2008.
    • ID: 10.1300/J069v27n01_01 (DOI)
  • Carpenter, Christopher S.. Workplace drug testing and worker drug use. Health Services Research.42, (2), 795-810.2007.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00632.x (DOI)
  • Harder, Valerie S., Chilcoat, Howard D.. Cocaine use and educational achievement: Understanding a changing association over the past 2 decades. American Journal of Public Health.97, (10), 1790-1793.2007.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.091108 (DOI)
  • Harrison, Lana D., Martin, Steven S., Enev, Tihomir, Harrington, Deborah. Comparing Drug Testing and Self-Report of Drug Use among Youths and Young Adults in the General Population. OAS Methodology Series M-7.(SMA) 07-4249, Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 2007.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/validity/drugTest.pdf (URL)
  • Stone, Andrea L., O'Brien, Megan S., De La Torre, Alejandro, Anthony, James C.. Who is becoming hallucinogen dependent soon after hallucinogen use starts?. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.87, (2-3), 153-163.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.08.008 (DOI)
  • Swartz, James A., Lurigio, Arthur J.. Serious mental illness and arrest: The generalized mediating effect of substance use. Crime and Delinquency.53, (4), 581-604.2007.
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  • The White House. National Drug Control Strategy. NCJ 216431, Washington, DC: The White House. 2007.
    • ID: http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs07/ndcs07.pdf (URL)
  • Wagner, Todd H., Harris, Katherine M., Federman, Belle, Dai, Lanting, Luna, Yesenia, Humphreys, Keith. Prevalence of substance use disorders among veterans and comparable nonveterans from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Psychological Services.4, (3), 149-157.2007.
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  • Williams, G.D., Chen, C.M., Yi, H., Hilton, M.E., Shirley, M.C.. Age trends in drinking behaviors among adolescents and young adults by gender and race/ethnicity: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 1999–2005 [poster]. 135th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association.Washington, DC. 2007.
  • Caraballo, R.S., Yee, S.L., Gfroerer, J.C., Pechacek, T.F., Henson, R.. Tobacco use among racial and ethnic population subgroups of adolescents in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease.3, (2), 2006.
  • Caulkins Jonathan P., Pacula Rosalie L.. Marijuana markets: Inferences from reports by the household population. Journal of Drug Issues.36, (1), 173-200.2006.
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  • Chen, X.G., Stanton, B., Shankaran, S., Li, X.M.. Age of smoking onset as a predictor of smoking cessation during pregnancy. American Journal of Health Behavior.30, (3), 247-258.2006.
    • ID: 10.5993/AJHB.30.3.3 (DOI)
  • Colliver, James D., Compton, Wilson M., Gfroerer, Joseph C., Condon, Timothy. Projecting drug use among aging baby boomers in 2020. Annals of Epidemiology.16, (4), 257-265.2006.
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  • Barnett-Walker, Kortnee C., Chromy, James R., Davis, Teresa R., Emrich, Steven L., Odom, Dawn M., Packer, Lisa E.. 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Statistical Inference Report. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration [distributor]. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/2k1MRB/05StatisticalinferenceReport/2k1StatisticalInference.pdf (URL)
  • Bowman, Katherine R., Chromy, James R., Odom, Dawn M., Penne, Michael A.. 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Sample Design Report. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [distributor]. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/2k1MRB/02SampleDesignReport/2k1SampleDesign.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Patrick, Gordek, Harper, Murtha, Christine T., Singh, Avinash C., Yu, Di, Westlake, Matthew. Person-Level Sampling Weight Calibration for the 2001 NHSDA. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [distributor]. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/2k1MRB/03SamplingWeightCalibration/2k1SamplingWeightCalibration.pdf (URL)
  • Gfoerer, J.C., Hughes, A., Bray, R.M., Allpress, J., Barnett, K., Brown, J.M., Campbell, W.A., Caudill, D., Chromy, J.R., Davis, T., Feder, M., Harris, J.L., Herndon, N., Lambert, S.B., Marsden, M.E., Packer, L.E., Porter, B.K., Prevatt, P., Straw, R.S., . Impact of September 11, 2001 Events on Substance Use and Mental Health in the New York Area. SMA 02-3729, Rockville, MD: United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 2003.
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  • Gordek, Harper, Singh, Avinash C.. 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Sampling Error Report. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [distributor]. 2003.
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  • Grau, Eric A., Barnett-Walker, Kortnee, Copello, Elizabeth, Frechtel, Peter, Licata, Amy, Liu, Bing, Odom, Dawn M.. 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Imputation Report. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [distributor]. 2003.
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  • Miller, Norman S., Lyon, David. Biology of opiates affects prevalence of addiction, options for treatment. Psychiatric Annals.33, (9), 558 -2003.
  • Nakashian, Mary. Talk and Trust: Identifying Substance Abuse Among Colorado Works Families. A Report of the Colorado Works Program and the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Division, Colorado Department of Human Services. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Alcohol Use by Persons under the Legal Drinking Age of 21. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Characteristics of New Marijuana Users. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Children Living with Substance Abusing or Substance Dependent Parents. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Cigarette Brand Preferences. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Comparison of Substance Use in Australia and the United States. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Instrumentation Protocol Changes. Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/2k1MRB/13Instrum_ProtocolChanges/2k1InstrumProtoChanges.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Nonmedical Use of Prescription-Type Drugs among Youths and Young Adults. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/prescription/prescription.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Youth Hallucinogen Use. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/youthHallucinogens/youthHallucinogens.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. School Experiences and Substance Use Among Youths . NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/school/school.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Abuse or Dependence in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Areas. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/Urban/Urban.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Abuse or Dependence in Metropolitan and Non¿Metropolitan Areas. The NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/Urban/Urban.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Use Among American Indians or Alaska Natives. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/AmIndians/AmIndians.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Use in the 10 Largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/Metro/Metro.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Summary Documention of Selected Activities from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Machine Editing, Imputation, Sampling Weight Calibration, Small Area Estimation, Table Production, Disclosure. Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k1CAI/2k1SelectSummary.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Treatment Among Adults with Serious Mental Illness. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k3/SMIadultTX/SMIadultTX.pdf (URL)
  • Phillips, Jeanne. Dear Abby: Americans can learn about alcohol, assess their drinking. Ann Arbor News.(E), 203 -2003.
  • RTI International. 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: General Principles and Procedures for Editing Drug Use Data in the 2001 NHSDA Computer-Assisted Interview. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [distributor]. 2003.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/2k1MRB/14MachineEditing/2k1CAICoreEdits.pdf (URL)
  • Wright, Douglas. State Estimates of Substance Use from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume 1. Findings. NHSDA Series H-19.SMA 03-3775, Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 2003.
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  • Barwick, J., Bowman, K., Carwile, R.C., Chromy, J., Eyerman, J., Frick, G.G., Kulka, R., McNeeley, M., Myers, S., Odom, D., Piper, L., Thomley, C., Vatalaro, K., Virag, T.. 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Incentive Experiment. Combined Quarter 1 and Quarter 2 Analysis. Rockville, MD: RTI [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [distributor]. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/methods/incentive.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Drugged Driving. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/DrugDriving/DrugDriving.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. How Youths Get Cigarettes. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/YouthCigs/YouthCigs.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Illicit Drug Use Among Hispanic Females. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/latinaDU/LatinaDU.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Illicit Drug Use Among Veterans (2000 and 2001). NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume 1. Summary of National Findings. NHSDA Series H-17.(SMA) 02-3758, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume II. Technical Appendices and Selected Data Tables. NHSDA Series H-18.(SMA) 02-3759, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/nhsda/2k1State/vol2/TOC.htm (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Serious Mental Illness Among Adults. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/SMI/SMI.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Abuse or Dependence. NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/dependence/dependence.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Youth violence and substance use: 2001 update . NHSDA Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/YouthViolence/YouthViolence.pdf (URL)
  • Snodgrass, Jeanne A., Grau, Eric A., Caspar, Rachel A.. 1999-2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Changes in Race and Ethnicity Questions. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI [producer], Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [distributor]. 2002.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/methods/RaceEthnicity.pdf (URL)
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. NHSDA 2001 Methodological Resource Book (MRB). Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2002.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Development of computer-assisted interviewing procedures for the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Methodological Series M-3.(SMA) 01-3514, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/CompAssistInterview/toc.htm (URL)
  • Males, Mike. 'Kids and Guns': How Politicians, Experts, and the Press Fabricate Fear of Youth. Monroe, MN: Common Courage Press. 2000.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (2003): National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2001. Version 3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series. Version: v3. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03580.v3