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National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004

Version
v2
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series
Publication Date
2006-05-12
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies
Language
English
Free Keywords
addiction; alcohol; alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; controlled drugs; crack cocaine; demographic characteristics; depression (psychology); drinking behavior; drug abuse; drug dependence; drug treatment; drug use; drugs; hallucinogens; heroin; households; income; inhalants; marijuana; mental health; mental health services; methamphetamine; prescription drugs; sedatives; smoking; stimulants; substance abuse; substance abuse treatment; tobacco use; tranquilizers; youths
Description
  • Abstract

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information is provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 and older. Questions included age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drug classes: marijuana, cocaine (and crack), hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs, including pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. The survey covered substance abuse treatment history and perceived need for treatment, and included questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders that allow diagnostic criteria to be applied. The survey included questions concerning treatment for both substance abuse and mental health related disorders. Respondents were also asked about personal and family income sources and amounts, health care access and coverage, illegal activities and arrest record, problems resulting from the use of drugs, and needle-sharing. Questions introduced in previous administrations were retained in the 2004 survey, including questions asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17. These "youth experiences" items covered a variety of topics, such as neighborhood environment, illegal activities, drug use by friends, social support, extracurricular activities, exposure to substance abuse prevention and education programs, and perceived adult attitudes toward drug use and activities such as school work. Several measures focused on prevention-related themes in this section. Also retained were questions on mental health and access to care, perceived risk of using drugs, perceived availability of drugs, driving and personal behavior, and cigar smoking. Questions on the tobacco brand used most often were introduced with the 1999 survey and retained through the 2003 survey. Background information includes gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, veteran status, and current household composition. In addition, in 2004 Adult and Adolescent Mental Health modules were added.
  • Methods

    The "basic sampling weights" are equal to the inverse of the probabilities of selection of sample respondents. To obtain "final NSDUH weights," the basic weights were adjusted to take into account dwelling unit-level and individual-level nonresponse and then further adjusted to ensure consistency with intercensal population projections from the United States Bureau of the Census. In the 2004 NSDUH, a split-sample design for respondents aged 18 or older was implemented. Thus in 2004, two additional person-level analysis weights other than ANALWT_C were created. They are SPDWT_C and DEPWT_C. These weights were created for specific types of person-level analyses. Depending on the section(s) of the 2004 survey from which the variable(s) originated, one of the three sampling weights must be selected and applied. Please refer to the Processor Notes in the codebook for details on determining the appropriate weight to use when analyzing a specific variable or combination of variables.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The study yielded a weighted screening response rate of 91 percent and a weighted interview response rate for the Computer Assisted Interview (CAI) of 77 percent.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS1: National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2004
  • Collection date: 2004
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.
Sampling
A multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia was used since 1999. The 2004 sample design is a continuation of the coordinated five-year sample design that was implemented for the 1999 through 2003 surveys. Although there is no overlap with the 1998 sample, the design facilitates overlap in the first-stage units (area segments) between each two successive years in the five-year design. The 2004 NSDUH continued the 50 percent overlap by retaining approximately half of the first-stage sampling units from the 2003 survey. This design increases the precision of estimates in year-to-year trend analysis. The sample is stratified on multiple levels, beginning with states. Eight states are considered large sample states and contribute approximately 3,600 respondents per state. The remaining states are sampled to yield 900 respondents per state. The second level of stratification divides states into Field Interviewer (FI) Regions. For the first stage of sampling, each FI region was partitioned into small geographic areas composed of adjacent Census blocks. These geographic clusters of blocks are referred to as segments, but were actually the primary sampling units (PSUs) for the coordinated five-year sample design. In advance of the survey period, specially trained listers had visited each area segment and listed all addresses for housing units and eligible group quarters units in a prescribed order. Systematic sampling was used to select the allocated sample of addresses from each segment. Each respondent who completed a full interview was given a $30 cash payment. Persons were selected from the address roster using a handheld computer. To improve the precision of estimates, the sample allocation process targeted five age groups: 12-17, 18-25, 26-34, 35-49, and 50 and older. The size measures used in selecting the area segments were coordinated with the dwelling unit and person selection process so that a nearly self-weighting sample could be achieved in each of the five age groups. The sample design included approximately equal numbers of persons in the 12-17, 18-25, and 26 and older age groups. The achieved sample for the 2004 NSDUH was 67,760 persons. The public use file contains 55,602 records due to a subsampling step used in the disclosure protection procedures. Minimum item response requirements were defined for cases to be retained for weighting and further analysis (i.e., "usable" cases). These requirements, as well as full sampling methodology, are detailed in the codebook.
Collection Mode
  • audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI), computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

    Data were collected and prepared for release by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

    Prior to the 2002 survey, this series was titled National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse.

    Although the design of the 2004 survey is similar to the design of the 1999 through 2001 surveys, there are important methodological differences since 2002 that affect the 2004 estimates. Each NSDUH respondent since 2002 has been given an incentive payment of $30. This change resulted in an improvement in the survey response rate. In addition, in 2002 new population data from the 2000 decennial Census became available for use in NSDUH sample weighting procedures. Therefore the data from 2002 and later should not be compared with data collected in 2001 or earlier to assess changes over time.

    For selected variables, statistical imputation was performed following logical inference to replace missing responses. These variables are identified in the codebook as "...LOGICALLY ASSIGNED" for the logical procedure, or by the designation "IMPUTATION-REVISED" in the variable label when the statistical procedure was also performed. The names of statistically imputed variables begin with the letters "IR." For each imputation-revised variable, a corresponding imputation indicator variable indicates whether a case's value on the variable resulted from an interview response or was imputed. Missing values for some demographic variables were imputed by the unweighted hot-deck technique used in previous surveys. Beginning in 1999, imputation of missing values for most variables was accomplished using predictive mean neighborhoods (PMN), a new procedure developed specifically for this survey. Both the hot-deck and PMN imputation procedures are described in the codebook.

    To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. To further ensure respondent confidentiality, the data producer used data substitution and deletion of state identifiers and a subsample of records in the creation of the public use file.

    Previously published estimates may not be exactly reproducible from the variables in the public use file due to the disclosure protection procedures that were implemented.

    The data definition and dictionary files for Stata are designed to be compatible with StataSE, Version 8. This is a large data file requiring that approximately 250 megabytes of Random Access Memory be allocated to Stata. Operations within Stata, including conversion of the ASCII data to Stata format, are likely to be slow. Analysts may wish to download subsets of data from the SAMHDA Data Analysis System (DAS) for use with Stata.

    Since 1999, the survey sample has employed a 50-State design with an independent, multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Note
2015-11-23 Covers for the PDF documentation were revised.2013-06-21 Released Methodological Resources documentation and updated xml file to include variable groupings.2013-02-06 The 2004 NSDUH public-use data file has been updated to include 26 new variables related to respondent drug use, mental health, and geography. Please view Table 4 of the codebook for more information on these variables. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (283-98-9008).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 4373 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR04373.v3
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR04373.v1
Publications
  • Agaku, Israel T., Alpert, Hillel R.. Trends in annual sales and current use of cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco among US adults, 2002-2012. Tobacco Control.2015.
    • ID: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052125 (DOI)
  • Austic, E.A.. Peak ages of risk for starting nonmedical use of prescription stimulants. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.034 (DOI)
  • Bush, D.M., Lipari, R.N.. Substance Use and Substance Use Disorder, by Industry. CBHSQ Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2015.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/report_1959/ShortReport-1959.pdf (URL)
  • Caulkins, Jonathan P., Kilmer, Beau, Reuter, Peter H., Midgette, Greg. Cocaine's fall and marijuana's rise: Questions and insights based on new estimates of consumption and expenditures in US drug markets. Addiction.110, (5), 728-736.2015.
    • ID: 10.1111/add.12628 (DOI)
  • Collins, Catherine Fisher. Black Girls and Adolescents: Facing the Challenges. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger . 2015.
  • Giovino, Gary A., Villanti, Andrea C., Mowery, Paul D., Sevilimedu, Varadan, Niaura, Raymond S., Vallone, Donna M., Abrams, David B.. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: Is menthol slowing progress?. Tobacco Control.24, 28-37.2015.
    • ID: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2013-051159 (DOI)
  • Han, B., Compton, W.M., Jones, C.M., Cai, R.. Nonmedical prescription opioid use and use disorders among adults aged 18 through 64 years in the United States, 2003-2013. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association.314, (14), 1468-1478.2015.
    • ID: 10.1001/jama.2015.11859 (DOI)
  • Hatzenbuehler, Mark L., Jun, Hee-Jin, Corliss, Heather L., Bryn Austin, S.. Structural stigma and sexual orientation disparities in adolescent drug use. Addictive Behaviors.46, 14-18.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.02.017 (DOI)
  • Krauss, Melissa J., Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A., Agrawal, Arpana, Bierut, Laura J., Grucza, Richard A.. Long-term effects of minimum legal drinking age laws on marijuana and other illicit drug use in adulthood. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.043 (DOI)
  • Lipari, Rachel N.. Monthly Variation in Substance Use Initiation among Full-time College Students. CBHSQ Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavior Health Statistics and Quality. 2015.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/report_2049/ShortReport-2049.pdf (URL)
  • Lipari, Rachel N., Hughes, Arthur. Trends in Heroin Use in the United States: 2002 to 2013. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2015.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/report_1943/ShortReport-1943.pdf (URL)
  • Martins, S.S., Santaella-Tenorio, J., Marshall, B.D.L., Maldonado, A., Cerda, M.. Racial/ethnic differences in trends in heroin use and heroin-related risk behaviors among nonmedical prescription opioid users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.020 (DOI)
  • Messer, K., White, M.M., Strong, D.R., Wang, B., Shi,Y., Conway, Kevin P., Pierce, J.P.. Trends in use of little cigars or cigarillos and cigarettes among US males, 2002-2011. Nicotine and Tobacco Research.17, (5), 515-523.2015.
    • ID: 10.1093/ntr/ntu179 (DOI)
  • Miller, T., Novak, S.P., Galvin, D.M., Spicer, R.S., Cluff, L., Kasat, S.. School and work status, drug-free workplace protections, and prescription drug misuse among Americans ages 15-25. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.76, (2), 195-203.2015.
  • Mojtabai, Ramin, Jorm, Anthony F.. Trends in psychological distress, depressive episodes and mental health treatment-seeking in the United States: 2001–-2012. Journal of Affective Disorders.174, (15), 556-561.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.039 (DOI)
  • Okaneku, J., Vearrier, D., McKeever, R.G., LaSala, G.S., Greenberg, M.I.. Change in perceived risk associated with marijuana use in the United States from 2002 to 2012. Clinical Toxicology.53, (3), 151-155.2015.
  • Pacek, Lauren R., Mauro, Pia M., Martins, Silvia S.. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: Differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.149, 232-244.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.009 (DOI)
  • Rough, Kathryn, Tassiopoulos, Katherine, Kacanek, Deborah, Griner, Raymond, Yogev, Ram, Rich, Kenneth, Seage, George, III. Dramatic decline in substance use by HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. AIDS.29, 117-123.2015.
    • ID: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000503 (DOI)
  • Salas-Wright, Christopher P., Vaughn, Michael G., Ugalde, Jenny, Todic, Jelena. Substance use and teen pregnancy in the United States: Evidence from the NSDUH 2002–-2012. Addictive Behaviors.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.01.039 (DOI)
  • Stringer, Kristi L., Baker, Elizabeth H.. Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse treatment among those with unmet need: An analysis of parenthood and marital status. Journal of Family Issues.2015.
    • ID: 10.1177/0192513X15581659 (DOI)
  • Sullivan, Roger J., Hagen, Edward H.. Passive vulnerability or active agency? An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human drug use. Impact of Addictive Substances and Behaviours on Individual and Societal Well-being.Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2015.
  • Wu, Li-Tzy, Swartz, Marvin S., Brady, Kathleen T., Hoyle, Rick H.. Perceived cannabis use norms and cannabis use among adolescents in the United States. Journal of Psychiatric Research.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.02.022 (DOI)
  • van Hasselt, Martijn, Kruger, Judy, Han, Beth, Caraballo, Ralph S., Penne, Michael A., Loomis, Brett, Gfroerer, Joseph C.. The relation between tobacco taxes and youth and young adult smoking: What happened following the 2009 U.S. federal tax increase on cigarettes?. Addictive Behaviors.45, 104-109.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.01.023 (DOI)
  • Blazer, Dan. Independent research by early investigators: An underutilized option. JAMA Psychiatry.71, (4), 357-358.2014.
    • ID: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4370 (DOI)
  • Busch, Susan H., Golberstein, Ezra, Meara, Ellen. The FDA and ABCs: Unintended consequences of antidepressant warnings on human capital. Journal of Human Resources.49, (3), 540-571.2014.
  • Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Recent Declines in Adolescent Inhalant Use. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2014.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k14/NSDUH174/sr174-inhalants-2014.pdf (URL)
  • Compton, Wilson M., Gfroerer, Joe, Conway, Kevin P., Finger, Matthew S.. Unemployment and substance outcomes in the United States 2002--2010. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.142, 350-353.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.06.012 (DOI)
  • Curtin, Geoffrey M., Sulsky, Sandra I., Van Landingham, Cynthia, Marano, Kristin M., Graves, Monica J., Ogden, Michael W., Swauger, James E.. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.70, (2), 446-456.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.08.001 (DOI)
  • Curtin, Geoffrey M., Sulsky, Sandra I., Van Landingham, Cynthia, Marano, Kristin M., Graves, Monica J., Ogden, Michael W., Swauger, James E.. Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.70, (1), 189-196.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.06.018 (DOI)
  • Curtin, Geoffrey M., Sulsky, Sandra I., Van Landingham, Cynthia, Marano, Kristin M., Graves, Monica J., Ogden, Michael W., Swauger, James E.. Primary measures of dependence among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers in the United States. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.69, (3), 451-466.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.05.011 (DOI)
  • Fairman, Brian John. Contributions to the Epidemiology and Mental Health Consequences of Cannabis Smoking. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 2014.
  • Farrelly, M.C., Loomis, B.R., Kuiper, N., Han, B., Gfroerer, J., Caraballo, R.S., Pechacek, T.F., Couzens, G.L.. Are tobacco control policies effective in reducing young adult smoking?. Journal of Adolescent Health.54, (4), 481-486.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.09.015 (DOI)
  • Fix, Brian V., O'Connor, Richard J., Vogl, Lisa, Smith, Danielle, Bansal-Travers, Maansi, Conway, Kevin P., Ambrose, Bridget, Yang, Ling, Hyland, Andrew. Patterns and correlates of polytobacco use in the United States over a decade: NSDUH 2002-2011. Addictive Behaviors.39, (4), 768-781.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.12.015 (DOI)
  • Green-Hennessy, Sharon. Homeschooled adolescents in the United States: Developmental outcomes. Journal of Adolescence.37, (4), 441-449.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.03.007 (DOI)
  • Imtiaz, S., Shield, K.D., Fischer, B., Rehm, J.. Harms of prescription opioid use in the United States. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy.9, (1), 432014.
    • ID: 10.1186/1747-597X-9-43 (DOI)
  • Johnson, Kimberly A.. Mapping the Addiction Treatment Gap. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison. 2014.
  • Kilmer, Beau, Everingham, Susan S., Caulkins, Jonathan P., Midgette, Gregory, Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo, Reuter, Peter H., Burns, Rachel M., Han, Bing, Lundberg, Russell. What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs: 2000-2010. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. 2014.
    • ID: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/ondcp/policy-and-research/wausid_results_report.pdf (URL)
  • Kim, Tae-Suk, Kondo, Douglas G., Kim, Namkug, Renshaw, Perry F.. Altitude may contribute to regional variation in methamphetamine use in the United States: A population database study. Psychiatry Investigation.11, (4), 430-436.2014.
    • ID: 10.4306/pi.2014.11.4.430 (DOI)
  • Lansky, Amy, Finlayson, Teresa, Johnson, Christopher, Holtzman, Deborah, Wejnert, Cyprian, Mitsch, Andrew, Gust, Deborah, Chen, Robert, Mizuno, Yuko, Crepaz, Nicole. Estimating the number of persons who inject drugs in the United States by meta-analysis to calculate national rates of HIV and Hepatitis C virus infections. PLoS One.9, (5), e975962014.
    • ID: 10.1371/journal.pone.009759 (DOI)
  • Lattimore, Pamela K., Steffey, Danielle M., Gfroerer, Joseph, Bose, Jonaki, Pemberton, Michael R., Penne, Michael A.. Arrestee Substance Use: Comparison of Estimates from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program. CBHSQ Data Review.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. 2014.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2K14/NSDUHDRADAM/NSDUH-DR-ADAM-2014.pdf (URL)
  • Lenardson, Jennifer D., Hartley, David, Gale, John A., Pearson, Karen B.. Substance use and abuse in rural America. Rural Public Health: Best Practices and Preventive Models.New York, NY: Springer. 2014.
  • Liu, Richard T., Case, Brady G., Spirito, Anthony. Injection drug use is associated with suicide attempts but not ideation or plans in a sample of adolescents with depressive symptoms. Journal of Psychiatric Research.56, 65-71.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.05.001 (DOI)
  • Parra-Cardona, José Rubén, DeAndrea, David C.. Latinos'’ access to online and formal mental health support. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research.2014.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11414-014-9420-0 (DOI)
  • Parsons, Nicholas L.. Meth Mania: A History of Methamphetamine. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 2014.
  • Polednak, Anthony P.. Persistent disparity in prevalence of current cigarette smoking between US adolescents with vs. without a past-year major depressive episode. Community Mental Health Journal.50, (2), 179-184.2014.
    • ID: 10.1007/s10597-013-9676-5 (DOI)
  • Prue, Bob. Prevalence of reported peyote use 1985-2010 effects of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1994. American Journal on Addictions.23, (2), 156-161.2014.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12083.x (DOI)
  • Schuermeyer, Joseph, Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy, Price, Rumi Kato, Balan, Sundari, Thurstone, Christian, Min, Sung-Joon, Sakai, Joseph T.. Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003-2011. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.140, 145-155.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.04.016 (DOI)
  • Seedall, Ryan B., Anthony, James C.. Monitoring by parents and hypothesized male-female differences in evidence from a nationally representative cohort re-sampled from age 12 to 17 years: An exploratory study using a 'mutoscope' approach. Prevention Science.2014.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11121-014-0517-8 (DOI)
  • Smith, Philip H., Rose, Jenifer S., Giovino,Gary A., Mazure, Carolyn M., McKee, Sherry A.. What Is the Evidence for 'Hardening'? Trends in Nicotine Dependence in the United States, 2002-2011 [poster]. Eleventh Annual Interdisciplinary Women's Health Research Symposium.Bethesda, MD. 2014.
  • Smith, Philip H., Rose, Jennifer S., Mazure, Carolyn M., Giovino, Gary A., McKee, Sherry A.. What is the evidence for hardening in the cigarette smoking population? Trends in nicotine dependence in the U.S., 2002-2012. Drug and Alcohol Dependence.142, 333-340.2014.
  • Wen, Hefei, Hockenberry, Jason M., Cummings, Janet R.. The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana, Alcohol, and Hard Drug Use. NBER Working Paper No. 20085.Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2014.
    • ID: http://www.nber.org/papers/w20085.pdf (URL)
  • Caulkins, Jonathan P.. Can We Treat Our Way Out of Incarcerating Drug-Involved Offenders?. National Bureau of Economic Research, . 2013.
    • ID: http://www.nber.org/chapters/c12099.pdf (URL)
  • Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Need for and Receipt of Substance Use Treatment among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k13/NSDUH125/sr125-aapi-tx.htm (URL)
  • Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Need for and Receipt of Substance Use Treatment among Blacks. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k13/NSDUH124/sr124-african-american-treatment.pdf (URL)
  • Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Substance Use among 12th Grade Aged Youths by Dropout Status. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k13/NSDUH036/SR036SubstanceUseDropouts.pdf (URL)
  • Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Trends in Adolescent Substance Use and Perception of Risk from Substance Use. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k13/NSDUH099a/sr099a-risk-perception-trends.pdf (URL)
  • Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Trends in Exposure to Substance Use Prevention Messages among Adolescents. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2013.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k13/NSDUH099b/sr099b-trends-prevention-messages.htm (URL)
  • DeAndrea, D.C., Anthony, J.C.. Online peer support for mental health problems in the United States: 2004-2010. Psychological Medicine.43, (11), 2277-2288.2013.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0033291713000172 (DOI)
  • Deandrea, D.C., Troost, J.P., Anthony, J.C.. Toward primary prevention of extra-medical OxyContin use among young people. Preventive Medicine.57, (3), 244-246.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.05.004 (DOI)
  • DiCola, L.A., Gaydos, L.M., Druss, B.G., Cummings, J.R.. Health insurance and treatment of adolescents with co-occurring major depression and substance use disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.52, (9), 953-960.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.06.012 (DOI)
  • Farrelly, Matthew C., Loomis, Brett R., Han, Beth, Gfroerer, Joe, Kuiper, Nicole, Couzens, G. Lance, Dube, Shanta, Caraballo, Ralph S.. A comprehensive examination of the influence of state tobacco control programs and policies on youth smoking. American Journal of Public Health.103, (3), 549-555.2013.
    • ID: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300948 (DOI)
  • Glazier, Raymond E., Kling, Ryan N.. Recent trends in substance abuse among persons with disabilities compared to that of persons without disabilities . Disability and Health Journal.6, (2), 107-115.2013.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2013.01.007 (DOI)
  • Golub, Andrew, Vazan, Peter, Bennett, Alexander S., Liberty, Hilary J.. Unmet need for treatment of substance use disorders and serious psychological distress among veterans: A nationwide analysis using the NSDUH. Military Medicine.178, (1), 107-114.2013.
    • ID: 10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00131 (DOI)
  • Haibach, Jeffrey, Giovino, Gary A.. Unpacking differences among estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence in US adults as measured by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and National Survey on Drug use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2011. 141st Annual American Public Health Meeting.Boston, MA. 2013.
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  • Office of Applied Studies. Violent Behaviors among Adolescent Females. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2009.
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  • Colliver, James D., Kroutil, Larry A., Dai, Lanting, Gfroerer, Joseph C.. Misuse of Prescription Drugs: Data from the 2002, 2003, and 2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Analytic Series A-28.SMA 06-4192, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/prescription/toc.htm (URL)
  • Executive Office of the President. Girls and Drugs. A New Analysis: Recent Trends, Risk Factors and Consequences. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.mediacampaign.org/pdf/girls_and_drugs.pdf (URL)
  • Gfroerer, J., Caraballo, R.. Racial/ethnic differences among youths in cigarette smoking and susceptibility to start smoking--United States, 2002-2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.55, (47), 1275 -2006.
  • Grucza, Richard A., Bierut, Laura J.. Cigarette smoking and the risk for alcohol use disorders among adolescent drinkers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research.30, (12), 2046-2054.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00255.x (DOI)
  • Michigan Department of Community Health, Office of Drug Control Policy, Division of Substance Abuse and Gambling Services. Substance Abuse Data for Michigan 2002-2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Community Health. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdch/2004_National_Survey_on_Drug_Abuse_183451_7.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products. NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/infofacts/Tobacco06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Club Drugs. NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/infofacts/ClubDrugs06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Heroin. NIDA InfoFacts:.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/Infofacts/Heroin06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Inhalants. NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/Infofacts/Inhalants06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. LSD. NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/infofacts/LSD06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. MDMA (Ecstasy). NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.nida.nih.gov/PDF/Infofacts/MDMA06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Marijuana. NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/InfoFacts/Marijuana06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Methylphenidate (Ritalin). NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/pdf/infofacts/Ritalin06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. PCP (Phencyclidine). NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/Infofacts/PCP06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Prescription Pain and Other Medications. NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/Infofacts/PainMed06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute of Drug Abuse. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. NIDA InfoFacts.Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/InfoFacts/Treatment06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse. Crack and Cocaine. NIDA InfoFacts.United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Drug Abuse. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/infofacts/Cocaine06.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse. MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse. NIDA Research Report Series.NIH Pub No. 06-4728, Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRmdma.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Academic Performance and Substance Use among Students Aged 12 to 17: 2002, 2003, and 2004. NSDUH Report.18, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/academics/academics.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Alcohol Dependence or Abuse in Substate Areas. NSDUH Report.25, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/subStateAlc/subStateAlc.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Alcohol Dependence or Abuse: 2002, 2003, and 2004. NSDUH Report.16, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/AlcDepend/AlcDepend.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Characteristics of Recent Adolescent Inhalant Initiates. NSDUH Report.11, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/inhalants/inhalants.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. How and Where Young Adults Obtain Marijuana. NSDUH Report.20, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/MJsource/MJsource.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Nonmedical Users of Pain Relievers: Characteristics of Recent Initiates. NSDUH Report.22, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/pain/pain.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Past Month Cigarette Use among Racial and Ethnic Groups. NSDUH Report.30, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/raceCigs/raceCigs.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Serious Psychological Distress and Substance Use Among Young Adult Males. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration . 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/2k6/menMH/menMH.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Service Utilization for Mental Health Problems among Adults. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/mhTX/mhTX.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Sources of Payment for Substance Use Treatment. NSDUH Report.10, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/pay/pay.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. State Estimates of Past Year Methamphetamine Use. NSDUH Report.37, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/stateMeth/stateMeth.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. State Estimates of Underage Drinking. NSDUH Report.13, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/stateUnderageDrinking/underageDrinking.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Use Disorder and Serious Psychological Distress, by Employment Status. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/2k6/employDual/employDual.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Use Treatment Need Among Adolescents: 2003-2004. NSDUH Report.24, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/youthTXneed/youthTXneed.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Use and Employment among Youths Aged 15 to 17. NSDUH Report.8, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/employedYouth/employedYouth.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substate Estimates from the 2002-2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/substate2k6/substate.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Suicidal Thoughts among Youths Aged 12 to 17 with Major Depressive Episode. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/suicide/suicide.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Suicidal Thoughts, Suicide Attempts, Major Depressive Episode, and Substance Use Among Adults. OAS Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/2k6/suicide/suicide.htm (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Youth Violence and Illicit Drug Use. NSDUH Report.5, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2006.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/youthViolence/youthViolence.pdf (URL)
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of Methodological Studies,1971-2005. Methodology Series M-6.SMA 06-4146, Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/methodsHY/NSmethods.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse. Heroin Abuse and Addiction. NIDA Research Report Series.NIH Pub No. 05¿4165, Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRHeroin.pdf (URL)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse. Prescription Drugs Abuse and Addiction. NIDA Research Report Series.NIH Pub No. 05-4881, Bethesda, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRPrescription.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. College Enrollment Status and Past Year Illicit Drug Use among Young Adults: 2002, 2003, and 2004. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/College/college.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Depression Among Adolescents. The NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/2k5/youthDepression/youthDepression.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Depression among Adults. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/depression/depression.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Illicit Drug Use among Persons Arrested for Serious Crimes. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/arrests/arrests.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Methamphetamine Use, Abuse, and Dependence: 2002, 2003, and 2004. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/meth/meth.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Overview of Findings From the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-27.SMA 05-4061, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2k4NSDUH/2k4Overview/2k4Overview.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. NSDUH Series H-28.SMA 05-4062, Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k4nsduh/2k4results/2k4results.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Review of Findings From the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. NSDUH Series H-28.SMA 05-4062, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k4nsduh/2k4results/2k4results.pdf (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Substance Abuse or Dependence in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Areas: 2004 Update. NSDUH Report.Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/metro/metro.pdf (URL)
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. NSDUH 2004 Methodological Resource Book (MRB). Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/2k12/NSDUH2004MRB/Index.aspx (URL)
  • Office of Applied Studies. Development of computer-assisted interviewing procedures for the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Methodological Series M-3.(SMA) 01-3514, Rockville, MD: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/CompAssistInterview/toc.htm (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-11-23 | Issue Number: 4 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (2006): National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2004. Version 2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04373.v2