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metadata language: English

Direction of Trade

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, aggregate data, event/transaction data, program source code, survey data
Creator
  • International Monetary Fund
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Direction of Trade Series
Publication Date
1984-05-11
Language
English
Free Keywords
balance of trade; developing nations; economic behavior; economic indicators; exports; financial policy; foreign affairs; government expenditures; Gross National Product; imports; industrial nations; international economics; international trade; markets; nations
Description
  • Abstract

    These time series data supply detailed information on imports and exports for various countries and geographical areas of the world. Countries are grouped into three main categories: (1) Industrial Countries, (2) Developing Countries, and (3) USSR, Eastern Europe, etc. Along with data from reporting countries, estimates are provided by partner countries for nonreporting countries or for those that are slow to report. A subset of these data (Part 4), containing annual data from 1948 to 1978, is available as well.
  • Methods

    Data for Parts 1, 4, 6, 7 and 8 are not weighted. The data do not contain a weight variable.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Original IMF File, 1948 Through April-May 1998. Includes COBOL Programs.
    • DS4: Annual Data: 1948-1978: Processed Data
    • DS6: Yearly Records Extracted from Original IMF Data File [additional data]
    • DS7: Quarterly Records Extracted from Original IMF Data File [additional data]
    • DS8: Monthly Records Extracted from Original IMF Data File [additional data]
Temporal Coverage
  • 1948 / 1998
    Time period: 1948--1998
  • 1948 / 1998
    Collection date: 1948--1998
Geographic Coverage
  • Afghanistan
  • Africa
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • American Samoa
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Aruba
  • Asia
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahamas
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Belize
  • Benin
  • Bermuda Islands
  • Bhutan
  • Bolivia
  • Bosnia-Hercegovina
  • Botswana
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Brunei
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Burundi
  • Cambodia
  • Cameroon
  • Canada
  • Cape Verde
  • Cayman Islands
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Chile
  • China (Peoples Republic)
  • Colombia
  • Comoros
  • Cook Islands
  • Costa Rica
  • Croatia
  • Cuba
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Denmark
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • East Timor
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • El Salvador
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Eritrea
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Europe
  • Falkland Islands
  • Faroe Islands
  • Fiji
  • Finland
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia
  • Gabon
  • Gambia
  • Gaza Strip
  • Georgia (Republic)
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gibralter
  • Global
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grenada
  • Guadeloupe
  • Guam
  • Guatemala
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Ivory Coast
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kiribati
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Laos
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macao
  • Macedonia
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Maldives
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Marshall Islands
  • Martinique
  • Mauritania
  • Mauritius
  • Mexico
  • Micronesia (Federated States)
  • Moldova
  • Mongolia
  • Montserrat
  • Morocco
  • Mozambique
  • Myanmar
  • Namibia
  • Nauru
  • Nepal
  • Netherlands
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • New Caledonia
  • New Zealand
  • Nicaragua
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • North America
  • North Korea
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Pakistan
  • Palau
  • Palestine
  • Panama
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Pitcairn Island
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Qatar
  • Reunion
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Rwanda
  • Saint Helena
  • Saint Kitts-Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • San Marino
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Solomon Islands
  • Somalia
  • South Africa
  • South America
  • South Korea
  • Soviet Union
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sudan
  • Suriname
  • Swaziland
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Tanzania
  • Thailand
  • Togo
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Tuvalu
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vanuatu
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam (Socialist Republic)
  • Wake Island
  • Wallis and Futuna
  • Western Samoa
  • Yemen
  • Yugoslavia
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
Sampled Universe
Approximately 180 countries and geographical areas. Smallest Geographic Unit: Country
Collection Mode
  • record abstracts

    Due to an agreement between ICPSR and the IMF, this study is available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Those who wish to use the study and are at non-member institutions should contact the IMF directly.

    ICPSR's subscription with the the IMF for monthly updates of the DIRECTION OF TRADE (ICPSR 7628) series expired with the July 1998 tapes.

    Part 1 data are stored in the packed zoned decimal format as distributed by the IMF. A supplemental COBOL processing program is available for use with this data file in the zipped package file (pkg07628-0001.zip). Datasets 2, 3 and 5 are no longer distributed. Datasets 6, 7 and 8, respectively, comprise the yearly, quarterly, and monthly records as extracted from the IMF data file.

    The legacy documentation also documents the following IMF studies: DIRECTION OF TRADE (ICPSR S07628), INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL STATISTICS (ICPSR S07629), BALANCE OF PAYMENTS STATISTICS (ICPSR S08623), and GOVERNMENT FINANCE STATISTICS (ICPSR S08624). The original codebook is part of dataset 1 for all four studies. Dataset 4 was reprocessed and now includes the current suite of ICPSR distribution files. The legacy documentation now distributed with this collection was distributed as the codebook for dataset 4 in previous releases of this study.

    Each time series in Part 1 can contain a variable number of logical records. The exact number of records in any time series in this collection is dependent upon the availability of annual, quarterly, and monthly data for trading partners. Approximately 61,000 time series are included in this collection.

    The term "country," as used in this dataset, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis. Data are expressed in millions of United States dollars.

    All exports are valued "free on board" (f.o.b.) and all imports "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.).

    Three datasets have been added to the collection. The new datasets comprise the yearly, quarterly, and monthly records extracted from the IMF data file. The variable extraction was performed using SAS's PROC DATASOURCE. Data files generated by this extraction were subsequently processed using ICPSR's automated production routine. The new data files should be considered as minimally processed as no variable value checks or comparisons were performed. The layout and/or content of the new data files may not match those of the original data files. The codebooks for each new dataset document only the variables in that dataset's data file and should be used in conjunction with the legacy documentation.

Note
2014-10-23 Three datasets have been added comprising yearly, quarterly, and monthly records extracted from the original IMF data file in part 1 of this collection using SAS's PROC DATASOURCE. The Annual Data: 1948-1978 data file and the yearly, quarterly, and monthly data files have been processed using ICPSR's automated production routine as Part 4, 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These four parts include SPSS, SAS, and Stata setup files, SAS transport (CPORT) file, tab-delimited ASCII data file, R data file, and Variable description and Frequencies. The legacy codebook in Part 4 is now being distributed as a Data Documentation File. The COBOL FUNPACK program previously distributed as part 5 is now included in the zipped package file (pkg07628-0001.zip).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7628 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR07628.v2
Publications
  • Travis, Rick, Zahariadis, Nikolaos. A multiple streams model of U.S. foreign aid policy. Policy Studies Journal.30, (4), 495-514.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2002.tb02160.x (DOI)
  • Gartzke, Erik, Li, Quan, Boehmer, Charles. Investing in the Peace: Economic Interdependence and International Conflict. International Organization.55, (2), 391-438.2001.
    • ID: 10.1162/00208180151140612 (DOI)
  • Gartzke, Erik. Preferences and the Democratic Peace. International Studies Quarterly.44, (2), 191-212.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00155 (DOI)
  • Hegre, Havard. Development and the Liberal Peace: What Does it Take to be a Trading State?. Journal of Peace Research.37, (1), 5-30.2000.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343300037001001 (DOI)
  • Apodaca, Clair, Stohl, Michael. United States Human Rights Policy and Foreign Assistance. International Studies Quarterly.43, (1), 185-198.1999.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00116 (DOI)
  • Barbieri, Katherine, Levy, Jack S.. Sleeping with the enemy: The impact of war on trade. Journal of Peace Research.36, (4), 463-479.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036004005 (DOI)
  • Oneal, John R., Russett, Bruce M.. Assessing the Liberal Peace with Alternative Specifications: Trade Still Reduces Conflict. Journal of Peace Research.36, (4), 423-442.1999.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343399036004003 (DOI)
  • Tuman, John P., Emmert, Craig F.. Explaining Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America, 1979-1992. Social Science Quarterly.80, (3), 539-555.1999.
  • Bliss, Harry, Russett, Bruce. Democratic trading partners: The liberal connection, 1962-1989. Journal of Politics.60, (4), 1126-1147.1998.
  • Kimura, Masato, Welch, David A.. Specifying 'Interests': Japan's Claim to the Northern Territories and Its Implications for International Relations Theory. International Studies Quarterly.42, (2), 213-244.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/1468-2478.00080 (DOI)
  • Remmer, Karen L.. Does Democracy Promote Interstate Cooperation? Lessons from the Mercosur Region. International Studies Quarterly.42, (1), 25-52.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00068 (DOI)
  • Russett, Bruce M., Oneal, John R., Davis, David R.. The third leg of the Kantian tripod for peace: international organizations and militarized disputes, 1950-1985. International Organization.52, (3), 441 -1998.
    • ID: 10.1162/002081898550626 (DOI)
  • Verdier, Daniel. Democratic Convergence and Free Trade. International Studies Quarterly.42, (1), 1-24.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/0020-8833.00067 (DOI)
  • Oneal, John R., Ray, James Lee. New tests of the democratic peace: Controlling for economic interdependence, 1950-85. Political Research Quarterly.50, (4), 751-775.1997.
  • Oneal, John R., Oneal, Frances H., Maoz, Zeev, Russett, Bruce M.. The Liberal Peace: Interdependence, Democracy, and International Conflict, 1950-1985. Journal of Peace Research.33, (1), 11-28.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343396033001002 (DOI)
  • Reuveny, Rafael, Kang, Heejoon. International Trade, Political Conflict/Cooperation, and Granger Causality. American Journal of Political Science.40, (3), 943-970.1996.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2111801 (URL)
  • Van Rossem, Ronan. The world system paradigm as general theory of development: A cross-national test. American Sociological Review.61, (3), 508 -1996.
  • Kherallah, Mylene W., Beghin, John C., Peterson, E. Wesley F., Ruppel, Fred J.. Impacts of official development assistance on agricultural growth, savings and agricultural imports. Agricultural Economics.11, (2-3), 99-110.1994.
    • ID: 10.1016/0169-5150(94)00008-5 (DOI)
  • Poe, Steven C.. Human Rights and Economic Aid Allocation under Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter. American Journal of Political Science.36, (1), 147-167.1992.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2111428 (URL)
  • McKeown, Timothy J.. A Liberal Trade Order? The Long-Run Pattern of Imports to the Advanced Capitalist States. International Studies Quarterly.35, (2), 151-172.1991.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2600468 (URL)
  • Poe, Steven C.. Human Rights and the Allocation of US Military Assistance. Journal of Peace Research.28, (2), 205-216.1991.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343391028002006 (DOI)
  • Lebovic, James H.. National Interests and US Foreign Aid: The Carter and Reagan Years. Journal of Peace Research.25, (2), 115-135.1988.
    • ID: 10.1177/002234338802500202 (DOI)
  • Nincic, Miroslav. Determinants of Third World Hostility Toward the United States: An Exploratory Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution.19, (4), 620-642.1975.
    • ID: 10.1177/002200277501900404 (DOI)
  • Beer, Francis A., Wyner, Elliot Z.. Drift and pluralization in international trade. International Organization.28, (1), 119-125.1974.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0020818300004380 (DOI)
  • Skjelsbaek, Kjell. Peace and the Structure of the International Organization Network. Journal of Peace Research.9, (4), 315-330.1972.
    • ID: 10.1177/002234337200900403 (DOI)
  • Hellmann, Donald C.. The Emergence of an East Asian International Subsystem. International Studies Quarterly.13, (4), 421-434.1969.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3013603 (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

International Monetary Fund (1984): Direction of Trade. Version 1. Direction of Trade Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07628.v1