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Experiments in Question Wording, Form, and Context in Attitude Surveys, 1971-1980

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Schuman, Howard (University of Michigan. Survey Research Center)
  • Presser, Stanley (University of Michigan. Survey Research Center)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
Free Keywords
social attitudes; social indicators
  • Abstract

    Data from over 200 experiments conducted in 34 different surveys are supplied in this collection. The experiments were designed to evaluate systematically the effects of question form, wording, and context. Experimental questions were constructed to explore the following topics: open vs. closed questions, "don't know" responses, response order, unbalanced questions vs. balancing attempts, agree-disagree items, attitude strength, attitude crystallization, tone of wording, question content, and question order.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: SRC75FEB
    • DS2: SRC76FEB
    • DS3: SRC76SPR
    • DS4: SRC77FEB
    • DS5: SRC77AUG
    • DS6: SRC78MAR
    • DS7: SRC78MAY
    • DS8: SRC78AUG
    • DS9: SRC79JAN
    • DS10: SRC79MAR
    • DS11: SRC79JUL
    • DS12: SRC79AUG
    • DS13: SRC79SEP
    • DS14: SRC79NOV
    • DS15: SRC80MAR
    • DS16: SRC80MAY
    • DS17: SRC80JUN
    • DS18: SRC80JUL
    • DS19: SRC80SEP
    • DS20: APRLOC79
    • DS21: THREEMRG
    • DS22: JUNSEP80
    • DS23: UM80
    • DS24: SRC79APR
    • DS25: NORC7280
    • DS26: SRC74FALL
    • DS27: SRC78FEB
    • DS28: SRC78FALL
    • DS29: SRC79JUN
    • DS30: SRC80FEB
    • DS31: DAS76
    • DS32: DAS71
Temporal Coverage
  • 1971 / 1980
    Time period: 1971--1980
  • 1974 / 1981
    Collection date: 1974--1981
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Parts 1-22, 24-30: Noninstitutionalized population 18 years and over living in households in the 48 coterminous United States. Part 23: students at the University of Michigan listed in the student directory. Parts 31, 32: Adults aged 21 and over residing in dwelling units located within the Detroit Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Parts 1-22, 24, 26-32: Households selected using multistage area probability sampling, respondents randomly selected from each sampled household. Part 23: Systematic random sampling. Part 25: Block quota sampling in 1974, full probability sampling in 1978 and 1980.
2006-03-17 ICPSR-created SAS, SPSS, and Stata setup files, SAS and Stata supplementary setup files, SAS transport file, SPSS portable file, and Stata system file have been added to the collection. ICPSR-produced codebooks for each of the parts were added. The original codebook was updated by removing OSIRIS-specific dataset listings. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (Soc76-15040, and Soc78-04021). United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (MH-24266).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 7940 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR07940.v2
  • Knauper, Barbel. The impact of age and education on response order effects in attitude measurement. Public Opinion Quarterly.63, (3), 347-370.1999.
    • ID: 10.1086/297724 (DOI)
  • Narayan, Sowmya, Krosnick, Jon A.. Education moderates some response effects in attitude measurement. Public Opinion Quarterly.60, (1), 58-88.1996.
    • ID: 10.1086/297739 (DOI)
  • Schuman, Howard, Presser, Stanley. Questions and Answers in Attitude Surveys: Experiments on Question Form, Wording and Context. New York: Academic Press. 1981.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Schuman, Howard; Presser, Stanley (1984): Experiments in Question Wording, Form, and Context in Attitude Surveys, 1971-1980. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.