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Behavioral Correlates of War, 1816-1979

Resource Type
Dataset : event/transaction data, and program source code
  • Leng, Russell J.
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
  • Abstract

    The behavior of various states involved in 45 interstate crises over the past 164 years is the focus of this data collection. More specifically, these data follow the attempts of these states to influence others and the responses generated over the course of the crises. The sample reflects a broad historical range of crises and includes those that involve war as well as those that do not. Each data file contains information on a crisis or set of crises. Within each data file the cases represent actions taken during the crisis period. The data allow for a micro level of analysis with measures that distinguish a wide range of cooperative and conflictive interstate actions. In addition, measures are included that are sensitive to the mix of different behaviors and that record the tempo of the action within given time intervals. There are two computer programs provided with this data collection. Part 32, the Crisis Program, allows for the counting and scaling of events. Part 43, the Demand Program, searches for demands, and describes and categorizes actions resulting from the demands.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Pastry.dat (Pastry War)
    • DS2: Schles.dat (2nd Schleswig-Holstein War)
    • DS3: Rustrk.dat (Russo-Turkish War and Britain-Russian Crisis)
    • DS4: Brprt.dat (British-Portugal Crisis)
    • DS5: Spam.dat (Spanish-American War)
    • DS6: Fashod.dat (Fashoda Crisis)
    • DS7: 1stmor.dat (1st Moroccan Crisis)
    • DS8: Cenam.dat (2nd Central American War)
    • DS9: Bosnia.dat (Bosnia Crisis)
    • DS10: 2ndmor.dat (2nd Moroccan Crisis)
    • DS11: Balkan.dat (1st and 2nd Balkan Wars)
    • DS12: Preww1.dat (Pre-World War I)
    • DS13: Teshen.dat (Teschen Crisis)
    • DS14: Chaco.dat (Chaco Dispute)
    • DS15: Italet.dat (Italian-Ethiopian War)
    • DS16: Rhine.dat (Rhineland Crisis)
    • DS17: Anschl.dat (Anschluss Crisis)
    • DS18: Munich.dat (Munich Crisis)
    • DS19: Pollit.dat (Polish-Lithuanian Crisis)
    • DS20: Preww2.dat (Pre-World War II and Italian-French Crisis)
    • DS21: Kash1.dat (1st Kashmir War)
    • DS22: Palest.dat (Palestine War)
    • DS23: Berair.dat (Berlin Blockade)
    • DS24: Triest.dat (Trieste Crisis)
    • DS25: Suez.dat (Suez Crisis)
    • DS26: Berwal.dat (Berlin Wall Crisis)
    • DS27: Cuban.dat (Cuban Missile Crisis)
    • DS28: Cyprus.dat (Cyprus Crisis)
    • DS29: Kash2.dat (2nd Kashmir War and Rann of Kutch)
    • DS30: Sixday.dat (Six-Day War)
    • DS31: Bangla.dat (Bangladesh War)
    • DS32: Crisis.pas (Crisis Program)
    • DS33: Both.sco (Categorization and Weighting Scheme)
    • DS34: Crimean.dat (Crimean War)
    • DS35: Manchu.dat (Manchurian Conflict)
    • DS36: Hondur.dat (Honduran Border Crisis)
    • DS37: Sinind.dat (Sino-Indian Crisis)
    • DS38: Bizerte.dat (Bizerte Crisis)
    • DS39: Yomkip.dat (Yom Kippur War)
    • DS40: Codwar.dat (Cod War)
    • DS41: Beagle.dat (Beagle Channel Dispute)
    • DS42: Chinam.dat (China-Vietnam War)
    • DS43: Demand.pas (Analyzing Influence Attempt-Response Sequences)
    • DS44: Demand.list (Category Lists Accompanying Demand.pas)
Temporal Coverage
  • 1816 / 1979
    Time period: 1816--1979
  • 1974 / 1991
    Collection date: 1974--1991
Geographic Coverage
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Identified population of interstate crises, 1816-1980.
Stratified sample of interstate crises.
Collection Mode
  • Part 32 is the Crisis Program, an interactive program written in VAX-11 PASCAL, which contains subroutines for counting and scaling actions. This program was written for use on a Digital VAX mini-computer. Part 33 is a categorization and weight scheme used by the Crisis Program. This scheme is necessary to run the Crisis Program. This scheme may be modified by users to their own specifications. It also should be noted that in order to use the Crisis Program, the names of the crisis files and of the categorization/weight scheme file MUST match the part names provided below, excluding the sections in parentheses. Part 43, the Demand Program, searches the selected data file for a demand directed by one state on another and describes any inducements that accompany the demand. It also then searches, describes, and categorizes any actions resulting from these demands. Part 44 is a listing of categories that must accompany Part 43.

2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 45 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 45 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-8818927 and SES-9025130).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8606 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08606.v2
  • Leng, Russell J.. Bargaining and Learning in Recurring Crises: The Soviet-American, Egyptian-Israeli, and Indo-Pakistani Rivalries. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 2000.
  • Dassel, Kurt, Reinhart, Erik. Domestic Strife and the Initiation of Violence at Home and Abroad. American Journal of Political Science.43, (1), 56-85.1999.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Gerner, Deborah J., Schrodt, Philip A.. The Effects of Media Coverage on Crisis Assessment and Early Warning in the Middle East. Early Warning and Early Response.New York: Columbia International Affairs Online. 1998.
  • Mousseau, Michael. Democracy and Militarized Interstate Disputes. Journal of Peace Research.34, (1), 73-87.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343397034001006 (DOI)
  • Raknerud, Arvid, Hegre, Havard. The Hazard of War: Reassessing the Evidence for the Democratic Peace. Journal of Peace Research.34, (4), 385-404.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343397034004002 (DOI)
  • Sample, Susan G.. Arms Races and Dispute Escalation: Resolving the Debate. Journal of Peace Research.34, (1), 7-22.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343397034001002 (DOI)
  • Wong, Kelvin Richard. Testing the Anarchy Tenet: An Empirical Analysis of the Anarchy-Cooperation and Anarchy-Conflict Relationships. Dissertation, University of British Columbia. 1997.
  • Barbieri, Katherine. Economic Interdependence: A Path to Peace or a Source of International Conflict?. Journal of Peace Research.33, (1), 29-49.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343396033001003 (DOI)
  • Reuveny, Rafael, Kang, Heejoon. International Trade, Political Conflict/Cooperation, and Granger Causality. American Journal of Political Science.40, (3), 943-970.1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Carlson, Lisa J.. The Theory of Escalation and International Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution.39, (3), 511-534.1995.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002795039003006 (DOI)
  • Miller, Ross A.. Domestic Structures and the Diversionary Use of Force. American Journal of Political Science.39, (3), 760-785.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Gerner, Deborah J., Schrodt, Philip A., Francisco, Ronald A., Weddle, Judith L.. Machine coding of event data using regional and international sources. International Studies Quarterly.38, (1), 91-119.1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Hensel, Paul R.. One Thing Leads to Another: Recurrent Militarized Disputes in Latin America, 1816-1986. Journal of Peace Research.31, (3), 281-297.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343394031003004 (DOI)
  • Hensel, Paul R., Diehl, Paul F.. It Takes Two to Tango: Nonmilitarized Response in Interstate Disputes. Journal of Conflict Resolution.38, (3), 479-506.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002794038003006 (DOI)
  • Oneal, John R., Diehl, Paul F.. The Theory of Collective Action and NATO Defense Burdens: New Empirical Tests. Political Research Quarterly.47, (2), 373-396.1994.
  • Oren, Ido. The Indo-Pakistani Arms Competition: A Deductive and Statistical Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution.38, (2), 185-214.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002794038002002 (DOI)
  • Geller, Daniel S.. Power Differentials and War in Rival Dyads. International Studies Quarterly.37, (2), 173-193.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Goertz, Gary, Diehl, Paul F.. Enduring Rivalries: Theoretical Constructs and Empirical Patterns. International Studies Quarterly.37, (2), 147-171.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Huth, Paul K., Russett, Bruce M.. General Deterrrence Between Enduring Rivals: Testing Three Competing Models. Journal of Conflict Resolution.87, (1), 61-73.1993.
  • Leng, Russell J.. Interstate Crisis Behavior, 1816-1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993.
  • Leng, Russell J.. Interstate Crisis Behavior, 1816-1980: Realism vs. Reciprocity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993.
  • Leng, Russell J.. Reciprocating Influence Strategies in Interstate Crises Bargaining. Journal of Conflict Resolution.37, (1), 3-41.1993.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002793037001001 (DOI)
  • Maoz, Zeev, Russett, Bruce M.. Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace, 1946-1986. American Political Science Review.87, (3), 624-638.1993.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Diehl, Paul F.. What are They Fighting For? The Importance of Issues in International Conflict Research. Journal of Peace Research.29, (3), 333-344.1992.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343392029003008 (DOI)
  • Gleditsch, Nils Petter. Democracy and Peace. Journal of Peace Research.29, (4), 369-376.1992.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343392029004001 (DOI)
  • Greffenius, Steven, Gill, Jungil. Pure Coercion vs. Carrot-and-Stick Offers in Crisis Bargaining. Journal of Peace Research.29, (1), 39-52.1992.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343392029001004 (DOI)
  • Bercoritch, Jacob, Anagnoson, J. Thoedore, Wille, Donnette L.. Some Conceptual Issues and Empirical Trends in the Study of Successful Mediation in International Relations. Journal of Peace Research.28, (1), 7-17.1991.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343391028001003 (DOI)
  • Morgan, T. Clifton, Campbell, Sally Howard. Domestic Structure, Decisional Constraints, and War: Why Kant Democracies Fight?. Journal of Conflict Resolution.35, (2), 187-211.1991.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002791035002003 (DOI)
  • Greffenius, S.. Measure for measure: Patterns of reciprocity in militarized disputes, 1816-1975. International Interactions.16, (2), 137-155.1990.
    • ID: 10.1080/03050629008434750 (DOI)
  • Morrow, James D.. A Twist of Truth: A Reexamination of the Effects of Arms Races on the Occurrence of War. Journal of Conflict Resolution.33, (3), 500-529.1989.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002789033003007 (DOI)
  • Weede, Erich. Extended Deterrence, Superpower Control, and Militarized Interstate Disputes, 1962-1976. Journal of Peace Research.26, (1), 7-17.1989.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022343389026001002 (DOI)
  • Huth, Paul K.. Extended Deterrence and the Outbreak of War. American Political Science Review.82, (2), 423-443.1988.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Leng, Russell J., Singer, J. David. Militarized Interstate Disputes: The BCOW Typology and Its Applications. International Studies Quarterly.32, (2), 155-173.1988.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Lalman, David. Reason and war. American Political Science Review.80, (4), 1113-1129.1986.
  • Garnham, David. War-Proneness, War-Weariness, and Regime Type: 1816-1980. Journal of Peace Research.23, (3), 279-289.1986.
    • ID: 10.1177/002234338602300306 (DOI)
  • Kegley, Charles W., Jr., Raymond, Gergory A.. Normative Constraints on the Use of force Short of War. Journal of Peace Research.23, (3), 213-227.1986.
    • ID: 10.1177/002234338602300302 (DOI)
  • Diehl, Paul F.. Armaments without War: An Analysis of Some Underlying Effects. Journal of Peace Research.22, (3), 249-259.1985.
    • ID: 10.1177/002234338502200306 (DOI)
  • Maoz, Zeev. Paths to Conflict. Journal of Peace Research.21, (3), 227-241.1984.
    • ID: 10.1177/002234338402100303 (DOI)
  • Leng, Russell J., Gochman, Charles S.. Dangerous disputes: A study of conflict behavior and war. American Journal of Political Science.26, (4), 664-687.1982.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Leng, Russell J., Walker, Stephen G.. Comparing Two Studies of Crisis Bargaining: Confrontation, Coercion, and Reciprocity. Journal of Conflict Resolution.26, (4), 571-591.1982.
    • ID: 10.1177/0022002782026004001 (DOI)
  • Maoz, Zeev. Paths to Conflict: International Dispute Initiation. Boulder: Westview Press. 1982.
  • Leng, Russell J.. Influence strategies and interstate conflict. The Correlates of War II: Testing Some Realpolitik Models.New York: Free Press. 1980.
  • Leng, Russell J., Singer, J. David. Toward a multi-theoretical typology of international behavior. Mathematical Approaches to International Relations.Bucharest: Romanian Academy of Social and Politcal Sciences. 1977.
  • Leng, Russell J., Goodsell, Robert A.. Behavioral indicators of war proneness in bilateral conflicts. Sage International Yearbook of Foreign Policy Studies.Beverly Hills: Sage. 1974.
  • Neubert, Nancy M.. The major investigative team of Polk County. Police Services Study Fact Sheets.F-2, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis. .

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Leng, Russell J. (1987): Behavioral Correlates of War, 1816-1979. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.