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National Survey of Children: Wave I, 1976, Wave II, 1981, and Wave III, 1987

Resource Type
Dataset : event/transaction data, survey data
  • Zill, Nicholas
  • Furstenberg, Frank Jr.
  • Peterson, James
  • Moore, Kristin
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
  • Foundation for Child Development
  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Free Keywords
child development; children; divorce; families; family structure; mental health; single parent families; youths
  • Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physical, social, and psychological well-being of American children, to develop a national profile of the way children in the United States live, to permit analysis of the relationships between the conditions of children's lives and measures of child development, and to examine the effects of marital disruption on the development of children and on the operation of single and multi-parent families. Information is provided on the child's well-being, family, experiences with family disruption, behavior, physical health, and mental health.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Merged 1976 and 1981 Data
    • DS2: 1976 Data
    • DS3: Merged 1976, 1981, and 1987 Data
    • DS4: Merged 1976, 1981, and 1987 SPSSx Column Locations
    • DS5: Merged 1976, 1981, and 1987 SPSSx Variable Labels
    • DS6: Merged 1976, 1981, and 1987 SPSSx Value Labels
    • DS7: Codebook, Volume I
    • DS8: Codebook, Volume II
Temporal Coverage
  • 1976 / 1987
    Collection date: 1976--1987
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Children between the ages of seven and eleven, or born between September 1, 1964 and December 31, 1969, living in households in the 48 contiguous states.
Collection Mode
  • The first file, which contains data from both the 1976 and 1981 surveys, includes several derived variables. The second file, containing only 1976 data, is logical record length data but has 27 records per case. The third file contains original responses from the 1976, 1981, and 1987 waves plus additional created variables. This third wave is logical record length data but has 106 records per case.

This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8670 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08670.v3
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08670.v1
  • De Coster, Stacy, Cornell Zito, Rena. Maternal roles and adolescent depression: Conditions and processes of influence. Sociological Perspectives.56, (1), 1-23.2013.
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  • Rowland, Meghan W., Schwartz, Joseph A., Nedelec, Joseph L., Beaver, Kevin M.. Social bias and the development of self-control: Results from a longitudinal study of children and adolescents. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.57, (5), 557-577.2013.
    • ID: 10.1177/0306624X12438045 (DOI)
  • De Coster, Stacy. Mothers' work and family roles, gender ideologies, distress, and parenting: Consequences for juvenile delinquency. Sociological Quarterly.53, (4), 585-609.2012.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1533-8525.2012.01253.x (DOI)
  • Jang, Sung Joon, Johnson, Byron R.. The effects of childhood exposure to drug users and religion on drug use in adolescence and young adulthood. Youth and Society.43, (4), 1220-1245.2011.
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  • Amato, Paul R., Meyers, Catherine E., Emery, Robert E.. Changes in nonresident father-child contact from 1976 to 2002. Family Relations.58, (1), 41-53.2009.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00533.x (DOI)
  • Cazzell, Mary. College Student Risk Behavior: The Implications of Religiosity and Impulsivity. University of Texas at Arlington. 2009.
  • Hollist, Dusten R., Hughes, Lorine A., Schaible, Lonnie M.. Adolescent maltreatment, negative emotion, and delinquency: An assessment of general strain theory and family-based strain. Journal of Criminal Justice.37, (4), 379-387.2009.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2009.06.005 (DOI)
  • Wheaton, Blari, Clarke, Philippa. Space Meets Time: Integrating Temporal and Contextual Influences on Mental Health in Early Adulthood. American Sociological Review.68, (5), 680-706.2003.
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  • Agnew, Robert, Brezina, Timothy, Wright, John Paul, Cullen, Francis T.. Strain, personality traits, and delinquency: Extending general strain theory. Criminology.40, (1), 43-71.2002.
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  • Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner, Moore, Kristin A.. Predictors of religiosity among youth aged 17–22: A longitudinal study of the National Survey of Children. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.41, (4), 613-622.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/1468-5906.00141 (DOI)
  • Baumer, Eric P., South, Scott J.. Community effects on youth and sexual activity. Journal of Marriage and Family.63, (2), 540-554.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00540.x (DOI)
  • Schvaneveldt, Paul L., Miller, Brent C., Berry, E. Helen, Lee, Thomas R.. Academic goals, achievement, and age at first sexual intercourse: Longitudinal, bidirectional influences. Adolescence.36, (144), 767-787.2001.
  • South, Scott J., Baumer, Eric P.. Community effects on the resolution of adolescent premarital pregnancy. Journal of Family Issues.22, (8), 1025-1043.2001.
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  • De Coster, Stacy Marie. Family Types, Disadvantaged Structural Positions, and Adolescent Problems. Dissertation, University of Iowa. 2000.
  • Rappaport, Melissa Ilene. The Consequences of Being Reared by Older Parents: A Study of 6 to 12 Year Old Children. Dissertation, University of California, Irvine. 2000.
  • South, Scott J., Baumer, Eric P.. Deciphering Community and Race Effects on Adolescent Premarital Childbearing. Social Forces.78, (4), 1379-1408.2000.
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  • Starrels, Marjorie E., Holm, Kristin E.. Adolescents' plans for family formation: Is parental socialization important?. Journal of Marriage and Family.62, (2), 416-429.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00416.x (DOI)
  • Bruce, Carol. Analytic Strategies for Data with Nonindependent Observations: Data Transformation, Structural Equation Modeling, and Information-Theoretic Criteria. Dissertation, University of Tennessee. 1999.
  • Baumer, Eric Paul. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Neighborhood Instability, and Adolescent Behavior: Premarital Childbearing, Dropping out of School, and Delinquency. Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany. 1998.
  • Harris, Kathleen Mullan, Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Marmer, Jeremy K.. Paternal involvement with adolescents in intact families: The influence of fathers over the life course. Demography.35, (2), 201-216.1998.
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  • Jeglum Bartusch, Dawn R.. Family Interactions and Delinquency: A Cross-Gender Analysis of Parent-Child Relationships and Delinquent Behavior. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison. 1998.
  • Bianchi, Suzanne M., Robinson, John. What did you do today? Children's use of time, family composition, and the acquisition of social capital. Journal of Marriage and Family.59, (2), 332-344.1997.
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  • Golding, Jacqueline M., Cooper, M. Lynne, George, Linda K.. Sexual Assault History and Health Perceptions: Seven General Population Studies. Health Psychology.16, (5), 417-425.1997.
    • ID: 10.1037/0278-6133.16.5.417 (DOI)
  • Miller, Brent C., Norton, Maria C., Curtis, Thom, Hill, E. Jeffrey, Schvaneveldt, Paul, Young, Margaret H.. The timing of sexual intercourse among adolescents: Family, peer, and other antecedents. Youth and Society.29, (1), 55-83.1997.
    • ID: 10.1177/0044118X97029001003 (DOI)
  • Remez, Lisa. In intact poor families, parents affect teenagers' well-being unequally. Family Planning Perspectives.29, (2), 94-95.1997.
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  • Sahr, Timothy Robert. Family Process Variables and Juvenile Delinquency. Thesis, Michigan State University. 1997.
  • Dobrin, Adam, Wiersma, Brian, Loftin, Colin, McDowall, David. Statistical Handbook on Violence in America. Phoenix: Oryx Press. 1996.
  • Harris, Kathleen Mullan, Marmer, Jeremy K.. Poverty, paternal involvement, and adolescent well-being. Journal of Family Issues.17, (5), 614-640.1996.
    • ID: 10.1177/019251396017005003 (DOI)
  • Mahler, K.. Women with a history of forced sex initiate voluntary sex earlier. Family Planning Perspectives.28, (3), 130-131.1996.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Walls, Sandra H.. Effects of residential mobility on adolescent self-efficacy and educational success. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 1996.
  • Whitehead, Barbara Dafoe. The Divorce Culture: Rethinking Our Commitments to Marriage and Family. New York: Vintage. 1996.
  • Allison, Dorothy Tennant Gayle. Resiliency in Children at Risk: A Multivariate Profile Analysis of Protective Factors for Children of Adolescent Mothers. Dissertation, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 1995.
  • Miller, Brent C., Monson, Bruce H., Norton, Maria C.. The effect of forced sexual intercourse on white female adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect.19, (10), 1289 -1995.
    • ID: 10.1016/0145-2134(95)00081-I (DOI)
  • Moore, Kristin A., Glei, Dana. Taking the plunge: An examination of positive youth development. Journal of Adolescent Research.10, (1), 15-40.1995.
    • ID: 10.1177/0743554895101003 (DOI)
  • Moore, Kristin A., Morrison, Donna Ruane, Glei, Dana A.. Welfare and adolescent sex: The effects of family history, benefit levels, and community context. Journal of Family and Economic Issues.16, (2-3), 207-237.1995.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF02353709 (DOI)
  • Schvaneveldt, Paul L.. Academic Goals, Achievement, and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: Reciprocal Influences. Thesis, Utah State University. 1995.
  • Young, Margaret H., Miller, Brent C., Norton, Maria C., Hill, E. Jeffrey. The effect of parental supportive behaviors on life satisfaction of adolescent offspring. Journal of Marriage and Family.57, (3), 813-822.1995.
    • ID: (URL)
  • (author unknown). School-based programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors. Public Health Reports.109, (3), 339 -1994.
  • Brody, Gene H., Moore, Kris, Glei, Dana. Family processes during adolescence as predictors of parent-young adult attitude similarity: A six-year longitudinal analysis. Family Relations.43, (4), 369-373.1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Costello, Barbara Jean. Social Order and the Internalization of Norms. Dissertation, University of Arizona. 1994.
  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Teitler, Julien O.. Reconsidering the Effects of Marital Disruption: What Happens to Children of Divorce in Early Adulthood?. Journal of Family Issues.15, (2), 173-190.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/0192513X94015002002 (DOI)
  • Morrison, Donna Ruane, Moore, Kristin A., Blumenthal, Connie, Coiro, Mary Jo, Middleton, Spencer. Parent-Child Relationships and Investments of Parental Time in Children: Are Children in Stepfamilies at a Disadvantage?. Washington, DC: . 1994.
  • Smith, Herbert L., Morgan, S. Philip. Children's Closeness to Father as Reported by Mothers, Sons, and Daughters: Evaluating Subjective Assessments with the Rasch Model. Journal of Family Issues.15, (1), 3-29.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/019251394015001001 (DOI)
  • Starrels, Marjorie E.. Gender Differences in Parent-Child Relations. Journal of Family Issues.15, (1), 148-165.1994.
    • ID: 10.1177/019251394015001007 (DOI)
  • Starrels, Marjorie Ellen. Husbands' involvement in female gender-typed household chores. Sex Roles.31, (7-8), 473 -1994.
    • ID: 10.1007/BF01544202 (DOI)
  • Wenk, DeeAnn, Hardesty, Constance L., Morgan, Carolyn S., Blair, Sampson Lee. The influence of parental involvement on the well-being of sons and daughters. Journal of Marriage and Family.56, (1), 228-234.1994.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Anderson, Donna Marie. The Strategic Use of Child Support Payments and Visitation Rights. Dissertation, Michigan State University. 1993.
  • Moore, Kristin A.. Family Strengths and Youth Behavior Problems: Analyses of Three National Survey Data Bases. Summary. Washington, DC: Child Trends, Inc.. 1993.
  • Peterson, James L., Card, Josefina J.. Items and scales measuring adolescent pregnancy and its antecedents and consequences. Handbook of Adolescent Sexuality and Pregnancy: Research and Evaluation Instruments.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 1993.
  • Young, Margaret H.. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis. Dissertation, Utah State University. 1993.
  • Zill, Nicholas, Morrison, Donna Ruane, Coiro, Mary Jo. Long-term effects of parental divorce on parent-child relationships, adjustment, and achievement in young adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology.7, (1), 91-103.1993.
    • ID: 10.1037/0893-3200.7.1.91 (DOI)
  • Brayfield, April A.. Employment Resources and Housework in Canada. Journal of Marriage and Family.54, (1), 19-30.1992.
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  • Cherlin, Andrew J., Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.. The new American grandparent. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1992.
  • Costello, Barbara J.. The Role of Guilt Feelings in the Inhibition of Deviant Behavior. American Sociological Association. 1992.
  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Harris, Kathleen Mullan. The disappearing American father? Divorce and the waning significance of biological parenthood. The Changing American Family: Sociological and Demographic Perspectives.Boulder, CO: Westview. 1992.
  • Starrels, Marjorie E.. Attitude Similarity Between Mothers and Children Regarding Maternal Employment. Journal of Marriage and Family.54, (1), 91-103.1992.
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  • Yamoor, Catherine M.. The Influence of Maternal Employment on Adolescent Problem Behavior. Dissertation, University of Minnesota. 1992.
  • Cherlin, Andrew J., Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Chase-Linsdale, Lindsay, Kiernan, Kathleen E., Robins, Philip K., Morrison, Donna Ruane, Teitler, Julien O.. Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce on children in Great Britain and the United States. Science.252, (5011), 1386-1389.1991.
    • ID: 10.1126/science.2047851 (DOI)
  • Harris, Kathleen Mullan, Morgan, S. Philip. Fathers, Sons, and Daughters: Differential Paternal Involvement in Parenting. Journal of Marriage and Family.53, (3), 531-544.1991.
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  • Morash, Merry, Chesney-Lind, Meda. A reformulation and partial test of the power control theory of delinquency. Justice Quarterly.8, (3), 347-377.1991.
    • ID: 10.1080/07418829100091091 (DOI)
  • Takeuchi, David T., Williams, David R., Adair, Russell K.. Economic Stress in the Family and Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems. Journal of Marriage and Family.53, (4), 1031-1041.1991.
    • ID: (URL)
  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.. Divorce and the American family. Annual Review of Sociology.16, 379-403.1990.
    • ID: 10.1146/ (DOI)
  • Harris, Kathleen Mullan. Affective Mobility: The Course of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence. American Sociological Association. 1990.
  • Yamoor, Catherine M., Mortimer, Jeylan T.. Age and gender differences in the effects of employment on adolescent achievement and well-being. Youth and Society.22, (2), 225-240.1990.
    • ID: 10.1177/0044118X90022002006 (DOI)
  • Moore, Kristin Anderson, Nord, Christine Winquist, Peterson, James L.. Nonvoluntary sexual activity among adolescents. Family Planning Perspectives.21, (3), 110-114.1989.
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  • Morash, Merry, Rucker, Lila. An exploratory study of the connection of mother's age at childbearing to her children's delinquency in four data sets. Crime and Delinquency.35, (1), 45-93.1989.
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  • Starrels, Marjorie Ellen. Adolescents' Attitudes and Plans Regarding Employment, Family Formation, and Education: Familial and Extrafamilial Socialization. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 1989.
  • Baydar, Nazli. Effects of Parental Separation and Reentry into Union on the Emotional Well-Being of Children. Journal of Marriage and Family.50, (4), 967-981.1988.
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  • Ihinger-Tallman, Marilyn. Research on stepfamilies. Annual Review of Sociology.14, 25-48.1988.
    • ID: 10.1146/ (DOI)
  • Lau, Richard R., Klepper, Steven. The development of illness orientations in children aged 6 through 12. Journal of Health and Social Behavior.29, (2), 149-168.1988.
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  • Nord, Christine Winquist. Delayed Childbearing in the United States: An Exploration of the Implications for Women's and Children's Lives. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 1988.
  • Zill, Nicholas, Furstenberg, E., Peterson, J., Moore, K.. National Survey of Children: Wave I, 1976. Washington, DC: Child Trends. 1988.
  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Brooks-Gunn, J., Morgan, S. Philip. Adolescent mothers and their children in later life. Family Planning Perspectives.19, (4), 142-151.1987.
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  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Morgan, S. Philip, Allison, Paul D.. Paternal participation and children's well-being after marital dissolution. American Sociological Review.52, (5), 695-701.1987.
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  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Morgan, S. Philip, Moore, Kristin A., Peterson, James L.. Race differences in the timing of adolescent intercourse. American Sociological Review.52, (4), 511-518.1987.
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  • Moore, Kristin Anderson, Peterson, James L., Furstenberg, Frank F.. Parental attitudes and the occurrence of early sexual activity. Journal of Marriage and Family.48, (4), 777 -1986.
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  • Asp, Claude Elliott. The Relationship Between Family Environment, Children's Use of Out-of-School Time, and School Performance. Dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. 1985.
  • Furstenberg, F.F., Moore, K.A., Peterson, J.L.. Sex education and sexual experiences among adolescents. American Journal of Public Health.75, (11), 1331-1332.1985.
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  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Nord, Christine Winquist. Parenting Apart: Patterns of Childrearing After Marital Disruption. Journal of Marriage and Family.47, (4), 893-904.1985.
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  • Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Nord, Christine Winquist, Peterson, James L., Zill, Nicholas. The life course of children of divorce: Marital disruption and parental conflict. American Sociological Review.48, (5), 656-668.1983.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Zill, Nicholas; Furstenberg, Frank Jr.; Peterson, James; Moore, Kristin (1987): National Survey of Children: Wave I, 1976, Wave II, 1981, and Wave III, 1987. Version 2. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.