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ANES 1986 Time Series Study

Version
v4
Resource Type
Dataset : administrative records data, survey data
Creator
  • Miller, Warren E. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies.)
  • University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies
Other Title
  • Version 4 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • American National Election Study (ANES) Series
Publication Date
1987-05-19
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
candidates; congressional elections; domestic policy; economic conditions; foreign policy; government performance; information sources; national elections; political affiliation; political attitudes; political campaigns; political efficacy; political issues; political participation; presidential elections; public approval; public opinion; public policy; racial attitudes; Reagan Administration (1981-1989); social networks; social values; special interest groups; trust in government; voter expectations; voter history; voting behavior
Description
  • Abstract

    This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. In addition to core items, new content includes questions on values, political knowledge, and attitudes on racial policy, as well as more general attitudes conceptualized as antecedent to these opinions on racial issues. The Main Data File also contains vote validation data that were expanded to include information from the appropriate election office and were attached to the records of each of the respondents in the post-election survey. The expanded data consist of the respondent's post case ID, vote validation ID, and two variables to clarify the distinction between the office of registration and the office associated with the respondent's sample address. The second data file, Bias Nonresponse Data File, contains respondent-level field administration variables. Of 3,833 lines of sample that were originally issued for the 1990 Study, 2,176 resulted in completed interviews, others were nonsample, and others were noninterviews for a variety of reasons. For each line of sample, the Bias Nonresponse Data File includes sampling data, result codes, control variables, and interviewer variables. Detailed geocode data are blanked but available under conditions of confidential access (contact the American National Election Studies at the Center for Political Studies, University of Michigan, for further details). This is a specialized file, of particular interest to those who are interested in survey nonresponse. Demographic variables include age, party affiliation, marital status, education, employment status, occupation, religious preference, and ethnicity.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The response rate for this study is 67.7 percent. The study was in the field until January 31, although 67 percent of the interviews were taken by November 25, 80 percent by December 7, and 93 percent by December 31.
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Main Data File
    • DS2: Bias Data File
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1986
  • Collection date: 1986
  • Collection date: 1987
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All United States households in the 50 states.
Sampling
National multistage area probability sample.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview

    There was significantly more content in this post-election survey than in previous surveys, two forms for the survey were used. About three-quarters of each form contained common material. Form A contained unique material on evaluation of the president. Form B contained questions on racial attitudes. The two forms were combined into one questionnaire with routing for Form A and B respondents taking place by means of checkpoints. Sample addresses for each segment were randomly assigned to Form A or Form B.

    Variable V860009 contains a value of 11-XX-86 which was left unaltered.

    This data was produced by the University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies.

    Further information about this and other National Election Studies is available on the American National Election Studies Web site.

Note
2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.2009-01-09 YYYY-MM-DD Part 1, the Main Data File, incorporates errata that were posted separately under the Fourth ICPSR Edition. Part 2, the Bias Nonresponse Data File, has been added to the data collection, along with corresponding SAS, SPSS, and Stata setup files and documentation. The codebook has been updated by adding a technical memorandum on the sampling design of the study previously missing from the codebook. The nonresponse file contains respondent-level field administration variables for those interested in survey nonresponse. The collection now includes files in ASCII, SPSS portable, SAS transport (CPORT), and Stata system formats.2000-02-21 The data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) year prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables have also been added. Additionally, the Voter Validation Office Administration Interview File (Expanded Version) has been merged with the main data file, and the codebook and SPSS setup files have been replaced. Also, SAS setup files have been added to the collection, and the data collection instrument is now provided as a PDF file. Two files are no longer being released with this collection: the Voter Validation Office Administration Interview File (Unexpanded Version) and the Results of First Contact With Respondent file. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SOC77-08885 and SES-8341310).
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 8678 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08678.v5
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR08678.v3
Publications
  • D'Ambrosio, Lisa Anne. An exploration of people's emotional reactions to presidential candidates during the campaign. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2008.
  • Fischer, Elaine. A Gendered Calculus of Voter Turnout. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Fischer, Elaine. A Gendered Calculus of Voting. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Gilbert, Craig. Keys to the Oval Office. McClatchy - Tribune Business News.2008.
  • Kam, Cindy. Reaching out or pulling back: Macroeconomic conditions and public support for social welfare spending . Political Behavior.30, (2), 223-258.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11109-007-9048-3 (DOI)
  • Killian, Mitchell, Wilcox, Clyde. Do Abortion Attidudes Lead to Party Switching?. Poltical Research Quarterly.61, (4), 561-573.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1065912907312981 (DOI)
  • Leighley, Jan, Nagler, Jonathan. Measuring and Modeling Alienation, Indifference and Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Parker-Stephen, Evan. Updating Dynamics in Micro-Macro Perspective. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Shani, Danielle. Born in the USA: Doubts about the Role of Formative Events in Developing Political Interest. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Bittner, Amanda. Survey Structure, Measurement Effects, and the Evaluation of Party Leaders. Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • D'Ambrosio, Lisa Anne. An exploration of people's emotional reactions to presidential candidates during the campaign. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2007.
  • DeWitt, Jeff. Considering Congressional Candidates and Incumbency Advantage in U.S. House Elections, 1980-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Enns, Peter. The Micro Foundations of Macro Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Hill, Seth, Lo, James, Vavreck, Lynn, Zaller, John. The Opt-in Internet Panel: Survey Mode, Sampling Methodology and the Implications for Political Research. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Kershaw, David. Conditional Nature of Vote Recruitment. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Killian, Mitchell. Moments of doubt and reassessment: An examination of why individuals switch political parties. Dissertation, George Washington University. 2007.
  • King, James D.. Voting in U.S. Senate Midterm Elections: Does Focusing on the President Matter?. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Lacy, Dean, Christenson, Dino. The Effects of Information on Economic Voting. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Leighley, Jan, Nagler, Jonathan. Who Votes Now? And Does It Matter?. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • McAdams, John. The Rise of the New Class: 1956-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Reed, Daniel. Parties, Interest Groups, and the Effectiveness of Voter Contacting: 1956 to 2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Berinsky, Adam. Group Attachments and Public Support for War. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Carmines, Edward, Ensley, Michael, Wagner, Michael. Issue Preferences and Political Participation in American Politics, 1972-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Lau, Richard. Changing Patterns of the Presidential Vote Choice, 1980-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Valentino, Nicholas, Hutchings, Vincent, Gregorowicz, Krysha, Groenendyk, Eric W., Brader, Ted. Election Night's All Right for Fighting: The Role of Anger versus Anxiety in Political Participation. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Winter, Nicholas J. G.. Beyond Welfare: Framing and the Radicalization of White Opinion on Social Security. American Journal of Political Science.50, (2), 400-420.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00191.x (DOI)
  • Elder, Laurel, Greene, Steven. The Politics of Parenthood, 1972-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2005.
  • Fitzgerald, Mary. The Triggering Effects of Alternative Voting Methods on U.S. Political Campaigns and Elections. annual meeting of the American National Election Studies.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Gold, Howard, Baumer, Donald. Party Images and Partisan Resurgence. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Griffin, John, Newman, Brian. Are Voters Better Represented?. Journal of Politics.67, (4), 12062005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1468-2508.2005.00357.x (DOI)
  • Keane, Michael, Griffin, John. Descriptive Representation and the Composition of African-American Turnout. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Kilburn, H. Whitt. Does the Candidate Really Matter?. American Politics Research.33, (3), 335-356.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04269417 (DOI)
  • Knuckey, Jonathan. A New Front in the Culture War?: Moral Traditionalism and Voting Behavior in U.S. House Elections. American Politics Research.33, (5), 645-671.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04270517 (DOI)
  • Lewis, Carol W., Gilman, Stuart C.. The Ethics Challenge in Public Service: A Problem-Solving Guide. SanFrancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 2005.
  • MacKuen, Michael, Parker-Stephen, Evan. Affect, Accuray, and the Left Shift in American Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Assocation.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. Democracy in Immigrant America. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. 2005.
  • Shaw, Daron R., McKenzie, Mark J., Underwood, Jeffrey. Strategic Voting in the California Recall Election. American Politics Research.33, (2), 216-245.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04272230 (DOI)
  • Stanley, Harold W., Niemi, Richard G.. Partisanship, Party Coalitions, and Group Support, 1952-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Tarman, Christopher, Sears, David O.. The Conceptualization and Measurement of Symbolic Racism. Journal of Politics.67, (3), 731-761.2005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1468-2508.2005.00337.x (DOI)
  • Wong, Cara, Cho, Grace E.. Two-Headed Coins or Kandinskys: White Racial Identification. Political Psychology.26, (5), 6992005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1467-9221.2005.00440.x (DOI)
  • Zanna, Mark P.. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press. 2005.
  • Benoit, William L., Hansen, Glenn J.. Issue Ownership in Primary and General Presidential Debates. Argumentation and Advocacy.40, (3), 143-155.2004.
  • Brace, Paul, Arceneaux, Kevin, Johnson, Martin, Ulbig, Stacy G.. Does state political ideology change over time?. Political Research Quarterly.57, (4), 529-540.2004.
  • Endersby, James W., Bough, Brian, Gooch, Donald, Hall, Steven, Klimek, Monika. The Polarizing American Voter Issues, Partisanship, and Vote Choice in Presidential Elections, 1984-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Goolsby, Delia. Realignment of White Southerners: The Generational Replacement Hypothesis Revisited. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Goolsby, Delia. Regional Realignments? Sub-national Trends in Partisan Identification in the Northeast. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Goren, Paul. Political Sophistication and Policy Reasoning: A Reconsideration. American Journal of Political Science.48, (3), 4622004.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00081.x (DOI)
  • Howell, Susan E., Perry, Huey L.. Black Mayors/White Mayors: Explaining Their Approval . Public Opinion Quarterly.68, (1), 32-56.2004.
    • ID: 10.1093/poq/nfh003 (DOI)
  • Knuckey, Jonathan. Moral Traditionalism and Recent Partisan Change in the American Electorate. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association .New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Knuckey, Jonathan. The Culture War and Voting Behavior in U.S. House Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Lawless, Jennifer. Politics of Prescence? Congresswomen and Symbolic Representation. Political Research Quarterly.57, 81-89.2004.
  • Lefkowitz, Joel K.. Mobilization Matters: The Changing Impact of Mobilization on Vote Choice in Congressional Elections, 1978-2002. Congress and the Presidency .31, (2), 119-131.2004.
    • ID: 10.1080/07343460409507701 (DOI)
  • Parker, Glenn R.. Self-Policing in Politics: The Political Economy of Reputational Controls on Politicians. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2004.
  • Persily, Nathaniel, Lammie, Kelli. Symposium: The Law of Democracy: Campaign Finance After McCain-Feingold: Perceptions of Corruption and Campaign Finance: When Public Opinion Determines Constitutional Law. University of Pennsylvania Law Review.153, 1192004.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4150623 (URL)
  • Peterson, David A.M.. Voters' Response to Changes in American Politics, 1952-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Alexander, Brad. The 2002 Midterm Election and the Future of American Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Herrera, Richard, Shafer, Karen. The Influence of Party on Congressional Decision Making: Bringing Back Constituents. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Hughes, Michael, Tuch, Steven A.. Gender Differences in Whites' Racial Attitudes: Are Women's Attitudes Really More Favorable?. Social Psychology Quarterly.66, (4), 384-401.2003.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1519836 (URL)
  • Lawless, Jennifer. Political Ideology in the United States: Liberalism and Convervatism in the 19080s and 1990s. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Levy, Dena, Tien, Charles, Aved, Rachelle. Do Differences Matter? Women Members of Congress and the Hyde Amendment. Women and Congress: Running, Winning, and Ruling.New York, NY: Haworth Press. 2003.
  • Newman, Brian. Change and Stability in the Ingredients of Presidential Approval: Toward a General Model. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Newman, Brian Paul. Standards of judgment: The foundations of presidents' public support . Dissertation, Duke University. 2003.
  • Schreckhise, William D., Shields, Todd G.. Ideological realignment in the contemporary U.S. electorate revisited. Social Science Quarterly.84, (3), 596-612.2003.
    • ID: 10.1111/1540-6237.8403007 (DOI)
  • Stimson, James. Macro-Politics: The Dimensions and Dynamics of Public Opinion. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2003.
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Allen, Susan H., Knotts, Gibbs, Saunders, Kyle L.. Racial Attitudes, Ideology, and the Rise of Republican Identification Among Southern Whites, 1982-2000. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • Bennett, Stephen Earl. Another lesson about public opinion during the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal. Presidential Studies Quarterly.32, (2), 276-292.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0360-4918.2002.00221.x (DOI)
  • Brooks, Clem. Religious influence and the politics of family decline concern: Trends, sources, and U.S. political behavior. American Sociological Review.67, (2), 191-211.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088892 (URL)
  • Campbell, David E.. The young and the realigning: A test of the socialization theory of realignment. Public Opinion Quarterly.66, (2), 209-234.2002.
    • ID: 10.1086/339849 (DOI)
  • Cassel, Carol A.. Hispanic turnout: Estimates from validated voting data. Political Research Quarterly.55, (2), 391 -2002.
  • Claggett, William, Shafer, Byron E.. The Pure Politics of Policy Choice. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • Edlund, Lena, Pande, Rohini. Why Have Women Become Left-Wing? The Political Gender Gap and the Decline in Marriage. The Quarterly Journal of Economics.117, (3), 917-961.2002.
    • ID: 10.1162/003355302760193922 (DOI)
  • Federico, Christopher M., Sidanius, Jim. Sophistication and the antecedents of whites' racial policy attitudes: Racism, ideology, and affirmative action in America. Public Opinion Quarterly.66, (2), 145-176.2002.
    • ID: 10.1086/339848 (DOI)
  • Frederico, Christopher M.. Effects of Ideology, Education, and Sophistication on the Organization of Whites' Racial-Policy Attitudes. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • Frederico, Christopher M., Sidanius, James. Sophistication and the Antecedents of Whites' Racial Policy Attitudes: Racism, Ideology, and Affirmative Action in America. Public Opinion Quarterly.66, (2), 145-176.2002.
  • Gay, Claudine. Spirals of trust? The effect of descriptive representation on the relationship between citizens and their government. American Journal of Political Science.46, (4), 717-732.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088429 (URL)
  • Glaser, James M.. White Voters, Black Schools: Structuring Racial Choices With a Checklist Ballot. American Journal of Political Science.46, (1), 35-46.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088413 (URL)
  • Goren, Paul. Character Weakness, Partisan Bias, and Presidential Evaluation. American Journal of Political Science.46, (3), 627-641.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088404 (URL)
  • Hall, Wynton C.. Reflections of Yesterday: George H.W. Bush's Instrumental Use of Public Opinion Research in Presidential Discourse. Presidential Studies Quarterly.32, (3), 531-558.2002.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-5705.2002.tb00005.x (DOI)
  • Layman, Geoffrey C., Carsey, Thomas M.. Party Polarization and 'Conflict Extension' in the American Electorate. American Journal of Political Science.46, (4), 786-802.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088434 (URL)
  • Manza, Jeff, Brooks, Clem. The Changing Political Fortunes of Mainline Protestants. The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activism and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism.Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 2002.
  • Mebane, Walter R., Jr., Sekhon, Jasjeet S.. Coordination and policy moderation at midterm. American Political Science Review.96, (1), 141-157.2002.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0003055402004288 (DOI)
  • Nicholson, Stephen P., Segura, Gary M., Woods, Nathan D.. Presidential Approval and the Mixed Blessing of Divided Government. Journal of Politics.64, (3), 701-720.2002.
  • Persily, Nathaniel. In Defense of Foxes Guarding Henhouses: The Case for Judicial Acquiescence to Incumbent-Protecting Gerrymanders. Harvard Law Review.116, 6492002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1342612 (URL)
  • Rohde, David W.. American Fears: Change and Continuity. Fears in Post-Communist Societies: A Comparative Perspective.New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. 2002.
  • Rudolph, Thomas J., Grant, J.Tobin. An Attributional Model of Economic Voting: Evidence from the 2000 Presidential Election. Political Research Quarterly.55, (4), 805-823.2002.
  • Snyder, James M., Jr., Ting, Michael M.. An Informational Rationale for Political Parties. American Journal of Political Science.46, (1), 90-110.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088416 (URL)
  • Uggen, Christopher, Manza, Jeff. Democratic contraction? Political consequences of felon disfranchisement in the United States. American Sociological Review.67, (6), 777-803.2002.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3088970 (URL)
  • Wright, Gerald C., Morehouse, Jeanette L.. Verifying the Common Widsom: Nonvoters Would Be More Democratic. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2002.
  • Bartels, Larry M., Zaller, John. Presidential Vote Models: A Recount. PS: Political Science and Politics.34, 9-20.2001.
  • Belli, Robert F., Traugott, Michael W., Beckmann, Matthew N.. What Leads to Voting Overreports? Contrasts of Overreporters to Validated Voters and Admitted Nonvoters in the American National Election Studies. Journal of Official Statistics.17, (4), 479-498.2001.
  • Bond, Jon R., Fleisher, Richard. The polls: Partisanship and presidential performance evaluations. Presidential Studies Quarterly.31, (3), 529-540.2001.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0360-4918.2001.00186.x (DOI)
  • Brockington, David Patrick. The Determinants and Ramifications of Low Information Voting. Dissertation, University of Washington. 2001.
  • Campbell, David E.. And A Little Child Shall Lead Them: A Test of the Socialization Theory of Realignment. Political Psychology and Behavior Workshop.Cambridge, MA. 2001.
  • Citrin, Jack, Luks, Samantha. Revisiting Political Trust in an Angry Age. What is it about Government that Americans Dislike?.New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 2001.
  • Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Hoffman, Donna R.. Critical Events in Contemporary Southern Politics: Dynamic Growth and Partisan Percolations. Eye of the Storm: The South and Congress in and Era of Change.Westport, CT: Praeger. 2001.
  • Goren, Paul. Core Principles and Policy Reasoning in Mass Publics: A Test of Two Theories. British Journal of Political Science.31, (1), 159-177.2001.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0007123401000072 (DOI)
  • Hajnal, Zoltan L.. White residents, black incumbents, and a declining racial divide. American Political Science Review.95, (3), 603-617.2001.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0003055401003033 (DOI)
  • Harvey, Anna L.. Partisanship as a social convention. Rationality and Society.13, (4), 462-504.2001.
    • ID: 10.1177/104346301013004003 (DOI)
  • Hoffman, Donna Riddle. Realignment Theory in Social Perspective. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma. 2001.
  • Howell, Susan E., McLean, William P.. Performance and race in evaluating minority mayors. Public Opinion Quarterly.65, (3), 321-343.2001.
    • ID: 10.1086/322847 (DOI)
  • Jagemann, Jason F.. Feature: Bush v. Gore: An Exchange: Partisanship, Legitimacy, and the Law: A Response to Seth Steinzor's 'J'Accuse'. The Vermont Bar Journal & Law Digest.27, 512001.
  • Lauermann, Robin Marie. Evaluations of Responsiveness: The Constituent Perspective of Representation. Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo. 2001.
  • Lavine, Howard. The electoral consequences of ambivalence toward presidential candidates. American Journal of Political Science.45, (4), 915-929.2001.
    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2669332 (URL)
  • Manza, Jeff, Uggen, Christopher, Britton, Marcus. The Truly Disenfranchised: Felon Voting Rights and American Politics. Evanston, IL: Institute for Policy Research. 2001.
    • ID: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/papers/2000/disfranchise.pdf (URL)
  • Mouw, Ted, Sobel, Michael E.. Culture wars and opinion polarization: The case of abortion. American Journal of Sociology.106, (4), 913-943.2001.
    • ID: 10.1086/320294 (DOI)
  • Pantoja, Adrian D.. The Dynamics of Political Knowledge. Dissertation, Claremont Graduate University. 2001.
  • Pantoja, Adrian D.. The dynamics of political knowledge . Dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University. 2001.
  • Radcliff, Benjamin. Organized labor and electoral participation in American national elections. Journal of Labor Research.22, (2), 405-414.2001.
    • ID: 10.1007/s12122-001-1042-7 (DOI)
  • Roscoe, Douglas D.. Ticket Splitting in American Elections: Voters, Candidates and the Political Environment. Dissertation, Loyola University, Chicago. 2001.
  • Sato, Kyoko. Does Business Still Divide the Left and the Right?: Re-examining Americans' Political Identification and Their Attitudes toward Big Business. annual meeting of the American Sociological Association.Chicago, IL. 2001.
  • Schwartz, Douglas Jay. Congressional Campaign Spending and Electoral Success. Dissertation, University of Connecticut. 2001.
  • Schwartz, Douglas Jay. Congressional campaign spending and electoral success . Dissertation, University of Connecticut. 2001.
  • Sears, David O., Valentino, Nicholas A.. Race, Religion, and Sectional Conflict in Contemporary Partisanship. annual meeting of the American Political Science Assocation.San Francisco, CA. 2001.
  • The National Commision on Federal Election Reform. To Assure Pride and Confidence in the Electoral Process. The National Commision on Federal Election Reform. 2001.
  • Abramowitz, Alan I., Saunders, Kyle L.. Ideological Realignment and US Congressional Elections. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2000.
  • Brockington, David Patrick. The determinants and ramifications of low information voting . Dissertation, University of Washington. 2000.
  • Busch, Beverly G.. A Retreat of the Christian Right? The Evangelical Vote in Midterm Congressional Elections 1986-1998. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2000.
  • Campbell, James E.. The American Campaign: U.S. Presidential Campaigns and the National Vote. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. 2000.
  • Capeheart, Loretta Jun. Non-Voting in United States Presidential Elections: Reflections on Pluralism and Elitism. Dissertation, Texas Woman's University. 2000.
  • Capeheart, Loretta June. Non-Voting in United States Presidential Elections: Reflections on Pluralism and Elitism . Dissertation, Texas Woman's University. 2000.
  • Eldersveld, Samuel J., Walton, Hanes, Jr.. Political Parties in American Society. New York, NY: Bedford/St. Martin's. 2000.
  • Frederico, Christopher M., Sidanius, James. Sophistication and the antecedents of whites' racial policy attitudes - Racism, ideology, and affirmative action in America. annual meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology.Seattle, WA. 2000.
  • Goren, Paul. Character weakness, partisan bias, and presidential evaluation. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.. 2000.
  • Gronke, Paul. The Electorate, the Campaign, and the Office: A Unified Approach to Senate and House Elections. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. 2000.
  • Herek, Gregory M.. Sexual Prejudice and Gender: Do Heterosexuals' Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Differ?. Journal of Social Issues.56, (2), 251-266.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/0022-4537.00164 (DOI)
  • Jackson, Robert A.. Differential Influences on Participation in Midterm Versus Presidential Elections. Social Science Journal.37, (3), 385-402.2000.
    • ID: 10.1016/S0362-3319(00)00076-8 (DOI)
  • Jankowski, Thomas B.. A comprehensive model of aging and voting participation. Dissertation, Wayne State University. 2000.
  • Jones, Bradford S., Sobel, Michael E.. Modeling direction and intensity in semantically balanced ordinal scales: An assessment of congressional incumbent approval. American Journal of Political Science.44, (1), 174-185.2000.
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Update Metadata: 2015-11-10 | Issue Number: 4 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Miller, Warren E.; University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies (1987): ANES 1986 Time Series Study. Version 4. American National Election Study (ANES) Series. Version: v4. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08678.v4