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National Sample from the 1880 Census of Manufacturing

Resource Type
Dataset : aggregate data
  • Atack, Jeremy
  • Bateman, Fred
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Free Keywords
census data; historical data; industrialization; manufacturing; nineteenth century; wages and salaries; workers
  • Abstract

    This collection presents information from the 1880 census of manufacturing in 36 states and the District of Columbia. It was originally collected to paint a quantitative picture of industrialization in the United States. The data describe states and counties in terms of urban or rural, amount of capital invested, and numbers of male, female, and child workers employed. Additional information includes daily wage for skilled and unskilled labor, annual wage bill, hours in ordinary day's labor, number of waterwheels and steam engines, and horsepower by water or steam.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Dataset
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1880
  • Collection date: 1986
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
United States and territories for which records were extant. Smallest Geographic Unit: city
Random samples from the U.S. Census.
Collection Mode
  • (1) These data can be analyzed at the national and/or regional level, but not the state level. For state-level analyses, use the data available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE 1880 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING (ICPSR 9384). (2) State data for other nineteenth century censuses are available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4071). (3) National data for other nineteenth century census are available as NATIONAL SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4048). (4) The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

2004-10-08 The data and documentation were updated by Jeremy Atack and resupplied to ICPSR in 2004. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-86-05637, and SES-86-09392).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9385 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09385.v2
  • Atack, Jeremy, Bateman, Fred. Nineteenth-Century U.S. Industrial Development through the Eyes of the Census of Manufactures. Historical Methods.32, (4), 177-188.1999.
    • ID: 10.1080/01615449909598939 (DOI)
  • Atack, Jeremy, Bateman, Fred. How Long Was the Workday in 1880?. Journal of Economic History.52, (1), 129-160.1992.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0022050700010299 (DOI)
  • Bateman, Fred, Weiss, Thomas Joseph. A Deplorable Scarcity: The Failure of Industrialization in the Slave Economy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. 1981.

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Atack, Jeremy; Bateman, Fred (1990): National Sample from the 1880 Census of Manufacturing. Version 1. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.