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Chinese Household Income Project, 1988

Version
v1
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Griffin, Keith
  • Renwei, Zhao
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Chinese Household Income Project Series
Publication Date
1993-04-09
Funding Reference
  • Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
  • Ford Foundation
  • City University of New York
  • Leverhulme Trust (United Kingdom)
  • Columbia University. Weatherhead East Asian Institute
  • University of California-Riverside
Language
English
Free Keywords
agriculture; cash payments; child care; debt; demographic characteristics; educational background; electric utilities; employers; employment; farms; financial assets; food; food production; home ownership; household income; housing construction; income; income distribution; interest (finance); livestock; living conditions; medical care; occupations; pensions; rental housing; retirement income; rural areas; sanitation; taxes; transportation; urban areas; wages and salaries
Description
  • Abstract

    The purpose of this project was to measure and estimate the distribution of income in both rural and urban areas of the People's Republic of China. The principal investigators based their definition of income on cash payments and on a broad range of additional components: payments in kind valued at market prices, agricultural output produced for self-consumption valued at market prices, the value of ration coupons and other direct subsidies, and the imputed value of housing. The rural component of this collection consists of two data files, one in which the individual is the unit of analysis and a second in which the household is the unit of analysis. Individual rural respondents reported on their employment status, level of education, Communist Party membership, type of employer (e.g., public, private, or foreign), type of economic sector in which employed, occupation, whether they held a second job, retirement status, monthly pension, monthly wage, and other sources of income. Demographic variables include relationship to householder, gender, age, and student status. Rural households reported extensively on the character of the household and residence. Information was elicited on type of terrain surrounding the house, geographic position, type of house, and availability of electricity. Also reported were sources of household income (e.g., farming, industry, government, rents, and interest), taxes paid, value of farm, total amount and type of cultivated land, financial assets and debts, quantity and value of various crops (e.g., grains, cotton, flax, sugar, tobacco, fruits and vegetables, tea, seeds, nuts, lumber, livestock and poultry, eggs, fish and shrimp, wool, honey, and silkworm cocoons), amount of grain purchased or provided by a collective, use of chemical fertilizers, gasoline, and oil, quantity and value of agricultural machinery, and all household expenditures (e.g., food, fuel, medicine, education, transportation, and electricity). The urban component of this collection also consists of two data files, one in which the individual is the unit of analysis and a second in which the household is the unit of analysis. Individual urban respondents reported on their economic status within the household, Communist Party membership, sex, age, nature of employment, and relationship to the household head. Information was collected on all types and sources of income from each member of the household whether working, nonworking, or retired, all revenue received by owners of private or individual enterprises, and all in-kind payments (e.g., food and durable and non-durable goods). Urban households reported total income (including salaries, interest on savings and bonds, dividends, rent, leases, alimony, gifts, and boarding fees), all types and values of food rations received, and total debt. Information was also gathered on household accommodations and living conditions, including number of rooms, total living area in square meters, availability and cost of running water, sanitary facilities, heating and air-conditioning equipment, kitchen availability, location of residence, ownership of home, and availability of electricity and telephone. Households reported on all of their expenditures including amounts spent on food items such as wheat, rice, edible oils, pork, beef and mutton, poultry, fish and seafood, sugar, and vegetables by means of both coupons in state-owned stores and at free market prices. Information was also collected on rents paid by the households, fuel available, type of transportation used, and availability and use of medical and child care. The Chinese Household Income Project collected data in 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007. ICPSR holds data from the first three collections, and information about these can be found on the series description page. Data collected in 2007 are available through the China Institute for Income Distribution.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Performed consistency checks.; Created variable labels and/or value labels.; Standardized missing values.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Rural Individual Data
    • DS2: Rural Household Data
    • DS3: Urban Individual Data
    • DS4: Urban Household Data
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1988
  • 1989-03 / 1989-06
    Collection date: 1989-03--1989-06
Geographic Coverage
  • China (Peoples Republic)
  • Global
Sampled Universe
Resident population of the People's Republic of China.
Sampling
The data collection consists of two distinct samples of the urban and rural population of the People's Republic of China which were selected from significantly larger samples (67,186 rural households and 34,945 urban households) drawn by the State Statistical Bureau. For a complete description of sampling procedures used, refer to Part 14 of this collection.
Collection Mode
  • paper and pencil interview (PAPI)

    Users may disaggregate the data down to the county level through use of the Codes for the Administrative Divisions of the People's Republic of China (in Chinese) issued by the State Statistical Bureau, which are included in the hardcopy documentation for this collection.

Note
2010-07-06 Added variable and value labels, coded missing values, and reorganized data documentation and files. Made data available in SAS, SPSS, Stata, ASCII with setup files, and tab-delimited ASCII. Funding insitution(s): Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Ford Foundation. City University of New York. Leverhulme Trust (United Kingdom). Columbia University. Weatherhead East Asian Institute. University of California-Riverside.
Availability
Delivery
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (help@icpsr.umich.edu).
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9836 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09836.v2
Publications
  • Hu, A., Qian, Z.. Educational homogamy and earnings inequality of married couples: Urban China, 1988-2007. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility.40, 1-15.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.rssm.2015.01.004 (DOI)
  • Angelillo, Nicola. Vulnerability to poverty in China: A subjective poverty line approach. Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies.12, (4), 315-331.2014.
    • ID: 10.1080/14765284.2014.952512 (DOI)
  • Walder, Andrew G., He, Xiaobin. Public housing into private assets: Wealth creation in urban China. Social Science Research.46, 85-99.2014.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.02.008 (DOI)
  • Ma, Yuanyuan, Walsh, Patrick Paul. Party Membership and State Jobs in Urban China. Discussion Paper No. 7643.IZA DP No. 7643, Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor . 2013.
    • ID: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7643.pdf (URL)
  • Sun, Yan. Fate or Opportunity? Impact of Family Background on Household Welfare in Rural China. Dissertation, Georgetown University. 2013.
  • Zhigang, Yuan, Lin, Chen. The trend and mechanism of intergenerational income mobility in China: An analysis from the perspective of human capital, social capital and wealth. World Economy.2013.
    • ID: 10.1111/twec.12043 (DOI)
  • Chuliang, Luo. Income Growth, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in Rural China. Asian Historical Economics Conference.Tokyo. 2012.
    • ID: http://ahec2012.org/papers/S2B-2_Luo.pdf (URL)
  • Faigen, Benjamin. The Returns to Education: An Empirical Study of Urban China, 1988-2007. Thesis, Lund University. 2012.
  • Liu, Qian. Unemployment and labor force participation in urban China. China Economic Review.23, (1), 18-33.2012.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.chieco.2011.07.008 (DOI)
  • Mercado, Maira T. Changes in the Effects of Determinants of Earnings Inequality and Their Labor Implications in Urban China, 1988-2002. Thesis, Claremont McKenna College. 2012.
  • Yang, Yanjun, Huang, Dan. An empirical study on the determinants of labor entering monopoly industry in China's urban labor market. Management Science and Engineering.6, (4), 78-82.2012.
    • ID: 10.3968/j.mse.1913035X20120604.619 (DOI)
  • Zhang, Yuan, Wan, Guanghua, Khor, Niny. The rise of middle class in rural China. China Agricultural Economic Review.4, (1), 36-51.2012.
    • ID: 10.1108/17561371211196766 (DOI)
  • Emran, M. Shahe, Sun, Yan. Magical Transition? Intergenerational Educational and Occupational Mobility in Rural China: 1988-2002. . 2011.
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    • ID: 10.1080/17538963.2011.666058 (DOI)
  • Zheng, Shuang. The trend of the returns to education in urban China during 1988 to 2002. Thesis, Clemson University. 2011.
  • Appleton, Simon, Song, Lina, Xia, Qingjie. Growing out of poverty: Trends and patterns of urban poverty in China 1988-2002. World Development.38, (5), 665-678.2010.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.11.016 (DOI)
  • Chen, Zhao, Lu, Ming, Wan, Guanghua. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials: An Increasingly Important Contributor to Urban China Income Inequality. Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series.No. 130, Tokyo, Japan: Hitotsubashi University. 2010.
    • ID: http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/18367/1/gd09-130.pdf (URL)
  • He, Xiaobin. Property Transformation, Marketization and Wealth Inequality in Urban China 1988, 1995 and 2002. Dissertation, Stanford University. 2010.
  • Pan, Xi. The Labor Market, Political Capital, and Ownership Sector in Urban China. Dissertation, University of Kentucky. 2010.
  • Chen, Xi, Zhang, Xiaobo. The Distribution of Income and Well-Being in Rural China: A Survey of Panel Data Sets, Studies and New Directions. . 2009.
    • ID: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/20587/1/Income_Distribution_Wellbeing_Rural_China.pdf (URL)
  • Chuliang, Luo. Economic Restructuring, Informal Jobs and Pro-poor Growth in Urban China. Fukino Project Discussion Paper Series.Hitosubashi University, . 2009.
    • ID: http://www.ijrc.hit-u.ac.jp/pdf/files/Fukino_DP_10_uQS6SQ.pdf (URL)
  • Ding, Sai, Dong, Xiao-yuan, Li, Shi. Women's employment and family income inequality during China's economic transition. Feminist Economics.15, (3), 1632009.
    • ID: 10.1080/13545700802526541 (DOI)
  • Imai, Katsushi, Wang, Xiaobing, Kang, Woojin. Poverty and Vulnerability in Rural China: Effects of Taxation. Economics Discussion Paper Series.University of Manchester, . 2009.
    • ID: http://www.socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk/disciplines/economics/research/discussionpapers/pdf/EDP-0913.pdf (URL)
  • Li, Bo, Zhong, Yang. How did China's transitions impact people's welfare benefits in the reform era?. Journal of Contemporary China.18, (62), 813-829.2009.
    • ID: 10.1080/10670560903174606 (DOI)
  • Thunghong, Lin, Xiaogang, Wu. The transformation of the Chinese class structure, 1978-2005. Social Stratification in Chinese Societies.Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. 2009.
  • Wang, Xiaobing, Piesse, Jennifer. Welfare Effects of Regressive Taxation and Subsidies in China. BWPI Working Paper.No. 108, Manchester, UK: University of Manchester. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.bwpi.manchester.ac.uk/resources/Working-Papers/bwpi-wp-10809.pdf (URL)
  • Wang, Xiaojun, Fleisher, Belton M., Li, Haizheng, Li, Shi. Access to Higher Education and Inequality: The Chinese Experiment. Institute for the Study of Labor Discussion Paper.No. 4030, Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 2009.
  • Xia, Qingjie. The Pattern and Evolution of Poverty in Rural Poverty. China Institute for Employment Research Working Paper.Beijing, China: China Institute for Employment Research. 2009.
    • ID: http://www.cier.org.cn/upload/Database/20095647154517.pdf (URL)
  • Ye, Hua. Earnings Returns to Tertiary Education and Gender Earnings Gap in Urban China, 1988-2005. Thesis, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. 2009.
    • ID: http://repository.ust.hk/dspace/handle/1783.1/7189 (URL)
  • Asuyama, Yoko. Changes in the Causes of Earnings Inequality in Urban China from 1988 to 2002. Institute of Developing Economies Discussion Paper.No. 176, Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developing Economies. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/pdf/176.pdf (URL)
  • Asuyama, Yoko. The Contribution of Supply and Demand Shifts to Earnings Inequality in Urban China. Institute of Developing Economies Discussion Paper.No. 177, Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developing Economies. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.ide-jetro.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/pdf/177.pdf (URL)
  • Athukorala, Prema-chnadra, Fukao, Kyoji, Yuan, Tangjun. Economic Transition and Labour Market Adjustment in China: An Exploratory Essay. . 2008.
    • ID: http://hi-stat.ier.hit-u.ac.jp/information/schedule/schedulelog/S093/PCA-KF-TY.pdf (URL)
  • Bishop, John A., Liu, Haiyong. Liberalization and rent-seeking in China's labor market. Public Choice.135, (3-4), 151-164.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11127-007-9251-0 (DOI)
  • Khor, Niny, Pencavel, John. Measuring Income Mobility, Income Inequality, and Social Welfare for Households of the People's Republic of China. ADB Economics Working Paper Series.No. 145, Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.adb.org/Documents/Working-Papers/2008/Economics-WP145.pdf (URL)
  • Sato, Hiroshi, Eto, Keiya. The changing structure of communist party membership in urban China, 1988-2002. Journal of Contemporary China.17, (57), 653-672.2008.
    • ID: 10.1080/10670560802253345 (DOI)
  • Smeeding, T., Gao, Q., Saunders, P., Wing, C.. Elder Poverty in an Ageing World: Conditions of Social Vulnerability and Low Income for Women in Rich and Middle-Income Nations. Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper Series.No. 497, New York, NY: Luxembourg Income Study. 2008.
    • ID: http://www.lisproject.org/publications/liswps/497.pdf (URL)
  • Demurger, Sylvie, Fournier, Martin, Chen, Yi. The evolution of gender earnings gaps and discrimination in urban China, 1988-95. Developing Economies.45, (1), 97-121.2007.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1746-1049.2007.00031.x (DOI)
  • Han, Li. Marketing Politics? Economic Reforms and the Selection of Political Elites in China. Department of Economics Job Market Paper.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. 2007.
  • Li, Bo. A Theory of Multi-Transitions and the Chinese Welfare State. Dissertation, University of Tennessee-Knoxville. 2007.
  • Liu, Zhiqiang. The external returns to education: Evidence from Chinese cities. Journal of Urban Economics.61, (3), 542-564.2007.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.jue.2006.08.007 (DOI)
  • Zax, Jeffrey S.. Housing Allocations and Inequality in Early and Mid-Reform Urban China. Department of Economics Working Paper.Hong Kong, China: Chinese University of Hong Kong. 2007.
    • ID: http://www.econ.cuhk.edu.hk/dept/seminar/07-08/1st-term/housingandinequality.pdf (URL)
  • Zhang, Qinghua, Zou, Heng-Fu. Returns to education, productivity, and economic growth in China. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis.9, (3), 293-308.2007.
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  • Bishop, John A., Luo, Feijun, Pan, Xi. Economic transition and subjective poverty in urban China. Review of Income and Wealth.52, (4), 625-641.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2006.00209.x (DOI)
  • Gao, Qin. Social Benefits in Urban China. World Institute for Development Economics Research Paper.2006/117, Helsinki, Finland: United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/working-papers/research-papers/2006/en_GB/ (URL)
  • Gao, Qin. The social benefit system in urban China: Reforms and trends from 1988 to 2002. Journal of East Asian Studies.6, (1), 31-67.2006.
  • Sato, Hiroshi, Eto, Keiya. Economic Transition and the Communist Party: An Empirical Study on the CPC Membership Using the 1988-2002 CASS CHIP Surveys. Graduate School of Economics Discussion Paper.Tokyo, Japan: Hitotsubashi University. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.econ.hit-u.ac.jp/~kenkyu/jpn/pub/2006/pdf/06-11sato.pdf (URL)
  • Yang, Dennis T.. Local Labor Markets in Urban China. School of Economics Working Paper.Shanghai, China: Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. 2006.
    • ID: http://www.econ.shufe.edu.cn/ces/paper/ces_pdf/3/3-4.pdf (URL)
  • Bishop, John A., Luo, Feijun, Wang, Fang. Economic transition, gender bias, and the distribution of earnings in China. Economics of Transition.13, (2), 239-259.2005.
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  • Chen, Yuanyuan. The Impact of Agricultural and Industrial Development on Income Inequality in Rural China. School of Economics Working Paper.Shanghai, China: Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. 2005.
    • ID: http://se.shufe.edu.cn/upload/htmleditor/File/090604043333.pdf (URL)
  • Chen, Yuanyuan. Two Essays on Selection Models and One Essay on Income Inequality in Rural China. Dissertation, Boston College. 2005.
  • Hannum, Emily. Market Transition, Educational Disparities, and Family Strategies in Rural China: New Evidence on Gender Stratification and Development. Demography.42, (2), 275-299.2005.
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  • Hauser, Seth M., Xie, Yu. Temporal and regional variation in earnings inequality: Urban China in transition between 1988 and 1995. Social Science Research.34, (1), 44-79.2005.
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  • Qian, Fang. Earnings Benefit and Party Membership in Urban China. Thesis, East Carolina University. 2005.
  • Uchimura, Hiroko. Impact of Changes in Social Institutions on Income Inequality in China. OECD Development Centre Working Paper.No. 243, Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. 2005.
    • ID: http://venus.unive.it/rizzid/Uchimura2005.pdf (URL)
  • Uchimura, Hiroko. Influence of Social Institutions on Inequality in China. Institute of Developing Economies Discussion Paper.No. 26, Chiba, Japan: Institute of Developming Economies. 2005.
    • ID: http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Dp/pdf/026.pdf (URL)
  • Yang, Dennis Tao. Determinants of schooling returns during transition: Evidence from Chinese cities. Journal of Comparative Economics.33, (2), 244-264.2005.
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  • Bishop, John A., Chiou, Jong-Rong. Economic transformation and earnings inequality in China and Taiwan. Journal of Asian Economics.15, (3), 549-562.2004.
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  • Fleisher, Belton M., Li, Haizheng, Li, Shi, Wang, Xiaojun. Sorting, Selection, and Transformation of the Return to College Education in China. Department of Economics Working Papers.Columbus, OH: Ohio State University. 2004.
    • ID: http://www.econ.ohio-state.edu/Fleisher/working_papers/FLLW%2012-17-04.pdf (URL)
  • Pan, Zhenfeng. Housing quality of communist party members in urban China: A comparative study. Housing Studies.19, (2), 193-205.2004.
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  • Li, Haizheng, Zax, Jeffrey. Economic Transition and the Labor Market in China. Atlanta, GA: Georgia Institute of Technology. 2003.
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  • Liu, Zhiqiang. The Economic Impact and Determinants of Investment in Human and Political Capital in China. Economic Development and Cultural Change.51, (4), 823-849.2003.
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  • Pan, Zhenfeng. Housing quality differentials in urban China 1988-1995. International Journal of Social Economics.30, (10), 1070-1083.2003.
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Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

Griffin, Keith; Renwei, Zhao (1993): Chinese Household Income Project, 1988. Version 1. Chinese Household Income Project Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09836.v1