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Census of Population and Housing, 1990 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample: 1-Percent Sample

Resource Type
Dataset : census/enumeration data
  • United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census
Other Title
  • Version 2 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Census of Population and Housing, 1990 [United States] Series
Publication Date
Free Keywords
age; census data; demographic characteristics; employment; ethnicity; household composition; household income; housing; housing conditions; occupations; population; states (USA); unemployment; wages and salaries; working hours
  • Abstract

    The Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 1-Percent Sample contains household and person records for a sample of housing units that received the "long form" of the 1990 Census questionnaire. Data items include the full range of population and housing information collected in the 1990 Census, including 500 occupation categories, age by single years up to 90, and wages in dollars up to $140,000. Each person identified in the sample has an associated household record, containing information on household characteristics such as type of household and family income.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Alabama
    • DS2: Alaska
    • DS4: Arizona
    • DS5: Arkansas
    • DS6: California
    • DS8: Colorado
    • DS9: Connecticut
    • DS10: Delaware
    • DS11: District of Columbia
    • DS12: Florida
    • DS13: Georgia
    • DS15: Hawaii
    • DS16: Idaho
    • DS17: Illinois
    • DS18: Indiana
    • DS19: Iowa
    • DS20: Kansas
    • DS21: Kentucky
    • DS22: Louisiana
    • DS23: Maine
    • DS24: Maryland
    • DS25: Massachusetts
    • DS26: Michigan
    • DS27: Minnesota
    • DS28: Mississippi
    • DS29: Missouri
    • DS30: Montana
    • DS31: Nebraska
    • DS32: Nevada
    • DS33: New Hampshire
    • DS34: New Jersey
    • DS35: New Mexico
    • DS36: New York
    • DS37: North Carolina
    • DS38: North Dakota
    • DS39: Ohio
    • DS40: Oklahoma
    • DS41: Oregon
    • DS42: Pennsylvania
    • DS44: Rhode Island
    • DS45: South Carolina
    • DS46: South Dakota
    • DS47: Tennessee
    • DS48: Texas
    • DS49: Utah
    • DS50: Vermont
    • DS51: Virginia
    • DS53: Washington
    • DS54: West Virginia
    • DS55: Wisconsin
    • DS56: Wyoming
    • DS72: Puerto Rico
    • DS84: Geographic Equivalency File for the Entire Nation
    • DS86: Ancestry Code List
    • DS87: Place of Birth Code List
    • DS88: Industry Code List
    • DS89: Language Code List
    • DS90: Occupation Code List
    • DS91: Race Code List
    • DS99: Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAS) Crossing State Lines
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 1990
  • Collection date: 1990
Geographic Coverage
  • Alabama
  • Alaska
  • Arizona
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Colorado
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Idaho
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota
  • Mississippi
  • Missouri
  • Montana
  • Nebraska
  • Nevada
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New Mexico
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota
  • Ohio
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • Puerto Rico
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • United States
  • Utah
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • Washington
Sampled Universe
All persons and housing units in the United States.
A stratified sample, consisting of a subsample of the household units that received the 1990 Census "long-form" questionnaire (approximately 15.9 percent of all housing units).
Collection Mode
  • (1) Although all records are 231 characters in length, each file is hierarchical in structure, containing a housing unit record followed by a variable number of person records. Both record types contain approximately 120 variables. Two improvements over the 1980 PUMS files have been incorporated. First, the housing unit serial number is identified on both the housing unit record and on the person record, allowing the file to be processed as a rectangular file. In addition, each person record is assigned an individual weight, allowing users to more closely approximate published reports. Unlike previous years, the 1990 PUMS 1-Percent and 5-Percent Samples have not been released in separate geographic series (known as "A," "B," etc. records). Instead, each sample has its own set of geographies, known as "Public Use Microdata Areas" (PUMAs), established by the Census Bureau with assistance from each State Data Center. The PUMAs in the 1-Percent Sample are based on a distinction between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas encompass whole central cities, Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PMSAs), Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), or groups thereof, except where the city or metropolitan area contains more than 200,000 inhabitants. In that case, the city or metropolitan area is divided into several PUMAs. Nonmetropolitan PUMAs are based on areas or groups of areas outside the central city, PMSA, or MSA. PUMAs in this 1-Percent Sample may cross state lines. (2) The codebook is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided through the ICPSR Website on the Internet.

2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 85 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 83 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 82 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 81 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 80 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.1998-08-28 The following data files were replaced by the Census Bureau: the state files (Parts 1-56), Puerto Rico (Part 72), Geographic Equivalency File (Part 84), and Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAS) Crossing State Lines (Part 99). These files now incorporate revised group quarters data. Parts 201-256, which were separate revised group quarters files for each state, have been removed from the collection. The data fields affected by the group quarters data revisions were POWSTATE, POWPUMA, MIGSTATE and MIGPUMA. As a result of the revisions, the Maine file (Part 23) gained 763 records and Part 99 lost 763 records. In addition, the following files have been added to the collection: Ancestry Code List, Place of Birth Code List, Industry Code List, Language Code List, Occupation Code List, and Race Code List (Parts 86-91). Also, the codebook is now available as a PDF file.
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 9951 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09951.v3
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR09951.v1
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  • Kritz, Mary M., Gurak, Douglas T.. Immigration and a Changing America. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. 2004.
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    • ID: 10.1177/000312240406900201 (DOI)
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    • ID: 10.1353/dem.2004.0038 (DOI)
  • Hughes, Mary Elizabeth. Home economics: Metropolitan labor and housing markets and domestic arrangements in young adulthood. Social Forces.81, (4), 1399 -2003.
    • ID: 10.1353/sof.2003.0059 (DOI)
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    • ID: 10.1023/A:1021029507937 (DOI)
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  • Black, Dan, Gates, Gary, Sanders, Seth, Taylor, Lowell. Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. Demography.37, (2), 139-154.2000.
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  • Chandra, Amitabh. Labor-market dropouts and hte racial wage gap: 1940-1990. American Economic Review.90, (2), 333-338.2000.
    • ID: 10.1257/aer.90.2.333 (DOI)
  • Davila, Alberto, Mora, Marie T.. The English-Skill Acquisition of Hispanic Americans during the 1980s. Social Science Quarterly.81, (1), 261-275.2000.
  • Savolainen, Jukka. Relative cohort size and age-specific arrest rates: A conditional interpretation of the Easterlin effect. Criminology.38, (1), 117-136.2000.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00885.x (DOI)
  • Camarota, Steven A.. Importing Poverty: Immigration's Impact on the Size and Growth of the Poor Population in the United States. Center for Immigration Studies, Washington, D.C.. 1999.
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    • ID: 10.1017/S0047404599004030 (DOI)
  • Van Hook, Jennifer, Bean, Frank D.. The growth in noncitizen SSI caseloads 1979-1996: Aging versus new immigrant effects. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences.54B, (1), S16-S23.1999.
  • Mora, Marie T.. Did the English Deficiency Earnings Penalty change for Hispanic Men between 1979 and 1989?. Social Science Quarterly.79, (3), 581-594.1998.
  • Mora, Marie T., Davila, Alberto. Gender, earnings, and the English skill acquisition of Hispanic workers in the United States. Economic Inquiry.36, (4), 631-644.1998.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1465-7295.1998.tb01741.x (DOI)
  • Pencavel, John. Assortative mating by schooling and the work behavior of wives and husbands. American Economic Review.88, (2), 326-329.1998.
  • Bean, Frank D., Van Hook, Jennifer V. W., Glick, Jennifer E.. Country of Origin, Type of Public Assistance, and Patterns of Welfare Recipiency among U.S. Immigrants and Natives. Social Science Quarterly.78, (2), 432-451.1997.
  • Cutler, David M., Glaeser, Edward L.. Are ghettos good or bad?. Quarterly Journal of Economics.112, (3), 827-872.1997.
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    • ID: 10.1086/231210 (DOI)
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  • Jacobson, Joyce P.. Trends in Workforce Segregation: 1980 and 1990 Census Figures. Social Science Quarterly.78, (1), 234-235.1997.
  • Walters, William H., Wilder, Esther I.. American Jewish household income, 1969 and 1989. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement.23, (3), 197-212.1997.
  • Chevan, Albert. As cheaply as one: Cohabitation in the older population. Journal of Marriage and Family.58, (3), 656-667.1996.
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  • Horton, Hayward Derrick, Thomas, Melvin E., Herring, Cedric. Rural-Urban Differences in Black Family Structure: An Analysis of the 1990 Census. Journal of Family Issues.16, (3), 298-313.1995.
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    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-06-30

United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census (1993): Census of Population and Housing, 1990 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample: 1-Percent Sample. Version 2. Census of Population and Housing, 1990 [United States] Series. Version: v2. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.