Young Self-employed and their Support Systems in former Communist Countries 1996-1998

Resource Type
Dataset : Survey and aggregate data
  • Roberts, Kenneth (University of Liverpool, GB)
  • Fagan, Colette (University of Liverpool, GB)
  • Foti, Klara (Institute of World Economics, Budapest, Ungarn)
  • Jung, Bohdan (Warsaw School of Economics, Polen)
  • Kurzynowski, Adam (Warsaw School of Economics, Polen)
  • Szumlic, Szumlic (Warsaw School of Economics, Polen)
  • Kovatcheva, Sijka (Universität Plovdiv, Bulgarien)
  • Machacek, Ladislav (Slowakische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bratislava, Slowakische Republik)
  • Tholen, Jochen (Universität Bremen, Deutschland)
Publication Date
  • Local country teams associated with the Institute of World Economics,Budapest, Hungary (Data Collector)
  • Warsaw School of Economics, Poland (Data Collector)
  • University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria (Data Collector)
  • Institute of Sociology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava,Slovakia (Data Collector)
  • ZA:
    • Work and Industry
  • CESSDA Topic Classification:
    • Unemployment
    • Employment
  • Abstract

    The match between the circumstances of young self-employed in post-communist countries and their support systems. Topics: Family background; nationality status and religious affiliation; father´s and mother´s professional status before and after 1989; occupational status of siblings; young entrepreneurs´ own marital status; number and age of children and type of household; educational background; years spent into full-time education; highest level of education they have attended; type of school and specialty; involvement into post-compulsory education; plans for employment status while at school and sources of career advice; sequence between education and past and present career aims; working careers of the young self-employed since leaving school; length of self-employment; number and types of jobs held; economic sector of the jobs and months they were held; length of experience of unemployment; nature and type of own business; number of partners; number of employees; year of business start; annual turnover of the current business and annual profit personally received; why and how the business was started; obstacles met; sources of assistance for the self-employed; forms of family support; help from friends, banks, state services and voluntary agencies; main source of capital; advice on business methods and market information; involvement into the second economy; unofficial payments made; protection and connections used; shares of the business in the formal and in the second economy; personal experiences from self-employment; advantages and disadvantages of being self-employed; main problems encountered in developing one´s own business; changes in the country needed so that business people have a better chance to succeed; expectations about the future; optimism or pessimism about own business and financial situation in ten years; wishes for the future job status of own children; life styles of young people in business; membership in business, political, recreational and religious organizations; number of holidays spent away from home in the past year; number of restaurant visits in the past four weeks; church attendance in the past four weeks; use of motor car, satellite or cable TV, personal computer and mobile phone; number of time for oneself, for family and friends; number of hours of work in a typical week; socio-political attitudes; views about gender roles; quality of family life during the past and present regime; political preferences; advantages and disadvantages of market economy; desired model for own country´s development; foreign policy orientations; plans to vote in the next election; opinions about national and local politicians; trade unions and the church; evaluation of state and NGO programs available to young people to start and develop their own business; scope of activities and target groups; organizational structure; personnel; budget of the NGO; history of the organization and plans for development; barriers for development; partners; professional careers of the leaders; their perceptions of young people and youth problems.
Temporal Coverage
  • 1996 / 1998
Geographic Coverage
  • Plovdiv (BG-16)
  • Vas (HU-VA)
  • Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (HU-SZ)
  • Katowice (PL-KA)
  • Suwalki (PL-SU)
  • Bratislavský kraj (SK-BL)
  • Trenciansky kraj (SK-TC)
  • Trnavský kraj (SK-TA)
  • Pazardzhik (BG-13)
Sampled Universe
Young self-employed people aged 16-30 in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia.
Sampling Procedure Comment: Sample design: non-probability purposive sampling. In each country two labor markets were chosen with contrasting economic profiles - one relatively prosperous and the other one relatively depressed. In each region the businesses were officially registered and covered the full range of manufacturing and service sectors. Female proprietors comprised 30% of the sample.
Collection Mode
  • Interview with a standard, semi-structured schedule
Data and File Information
  • Unit Type: Individual
    Number of Units: 400
    Number of Variables: 103
This data set is comparable with the survey ´The evaluation of programs to assist young unemployed in post communist East-Central Europe 1996-1998´ (ZA3121). The study includes in-depth interview of the non-governmental organizations. In each region of the four countries 10 non-governmental organizations with programs offering assistance to young self-employed were selected for detailed case study. In addition, the team used document analysis of programs, official reports of state and NGO activities, national statistical data. A long list of publications of the study is available.
A - Data and documents are released for academic research and teaching.
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA3122 (Type: ZA-No.)
  • Wallace, C.; Kovatcheva, S.: Changing Times, Changing Lives. The Construction and Deconstruction of Youth in East and West Europe. Sociological Series No. 22. Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna 1998.

Update Metadata: 2021-04-07 | Issue Number: 242 | Registration Date: 2010-07-22