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Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (8th- and 10th-Grade Surveys), 2013

Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
  • Johnston, Lloyd D. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • Bachman, Jerald G. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • O'Malley, Patrick M. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
  • Schulenberg, John E. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center)
Other Title
  • Version 1 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series
Publication Date
Funding Reference
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse
Free Keywords
alcohol; attitudes; crime; demographic characteristics; drug education; drug use; educational objectives; family background; gender roles; high school students; human behavior; lifestyles; prescription drugs; religious attitudes; self esteem; social change; tobacco use; values; youths
  • Abstract

    These surveys of 8th- and 10th-grade students are part of a series that explores changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. Students in each grade are randomly assigned to complete one of four questionnaires, each with a different subset of topical questions but containing a set of "core" questions on demographics and drug use. There are more than 450 variables across the questionnaires. Drugs covered by this survey include amphetamines (stimulants), barbiturates (tranquilizers), other prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, tobacco, smokeless tobacco, alcohol, inhalants, steroids, marijuana, hashish, LSD, hallucinogens, cocaine, crack, ecstasy, methamphetamine, and injectable drugs such as heroin.
  • Methods

    The file contains a weight variable, V5. It originally varied by school but was modified to protect respondent confidentiality. Users should use the weight variable for all analyses, the results of which will differ slightly from published data tables that used original data.
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Standardized missing values.; Created online analysis version with question text.; Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The student response rates for the 2013 8th- and 10th-grade surveys were 90 percent and 88 percent, respectively.
  • Table of Contents


    • DS1: Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (8th- and 10th-Grade Surveys), 2013
Temporal Coverage
  • Time period: 2013
  • Collection date: 2013
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
Enrolled 8th- and 10th-grade students in the contiguous United States.
A multistage area probability sample design was used involving three selection stages: (1) geographic areas or primary sampling units (PSUs), (2) schools (or linked groups of schools) within PSUs, and (3) students within sampled schools. Of the 72 PSUs, 8 were selected with certainty, 10 were selected with a probability of .50, and the remainder were selected using a probability based on their 2000 Census household count. Generally speaking, in schools with more than 350 students in the grade, a sample of students or classes was drawn. In schools with fewer than 350 students in a grade, all students were asked to participate unless logistical challenges required a sample be taken. For the 8th-grade survey, schools with fewer than 20 8th graders were generally excluded from the sample. For the 10th-grade survey, schools with fewer than 25 10th graders were excluded, with very few exceptions. Each school was asked to participate for two years so that each year one-half of the sample would be replaced. Schools refusing participation were replaced with similar schools in terms of geographic location, size, and type of school (e.g., public, private/Catholic, private/non-Catholic). The participation rate among schools has been between 66 and 80 percent since the inception of the study.
Collection Mode
  • on-site questionnaire

    This study was conducted by the Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan.

    Subsequent to a significant change made in 2012, the data files from the two grades and four forms are merged to create a single file. The variables V3 and V501 designate the form number and grade, respectively. The end of each variable label lists the form(s) on which the question appeared. The missing value (-8) is used to distinguish those cases where the question corresponding to a given variable was not asked on a particular form.

    To protect the anonymity of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been collapsed or recoded in the public use files. These modifications should not affect analytic uses of the public use files.

    Variables omitted from the Western region questionnaires are noted in the codebook.

    A user guide is provided with the study documentation. It contains a cross-time question index for the MTF 8th- and 10th-grade surveys. The document is sorted by subject area.

    Frequency and percentage distributions displayed in the 2013 codebook are unweighted.

    MTF does not release detailed geography codes in its public use files because of the disclosure risk it would cause. The MTF sample is drawn to generate representative samples of the four Census Bureau regions of the country (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West), but it does not generate representative samples of smaller geographic areas such as states, counties, or cities. For additional information about data that is withheld from the public use files please contact MTF directly at

    With the approval of the MTF Principal Investigators ICPSR created a series of dichotomous recodes for 10 substances for the three standard time periods (lifetime, past 12 months, and past 30 days). The substances include tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, LSD, other psychedelics, amphetamines, sedatives/barbiturates, tranquilizers, inhalants, and other narcotics. These variables have been placed at the end of the file. Each variable has the same name and label as the original, but with the addition of the letter "D" at the end of the variable name and the words "(dichotomous recode)" included at the end of the variable label.

    Using these new dichotomous recode variables ICPSR has created interactive maps to show the weighted response for each dichotomous variable by Census region. To create a map simply select the desired year/grade and question/variable. Then click on "Go". The resulting map will rank the regions by color. The Census region with the darkest shade will show the highest frequency of use. A frequency table is also provided.

2015-03-26 8th/10th grade - ICPSR created new dichotomous variables and placed them at the end of the data file. Funding insitution(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA-01411).
This version of the study is no longer available on the web. If you need to acquire this version of the data, you have to contact ICPSR User Support (
Alternative Identifiers
  • 35166 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
  • Is previous version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR35166.v2
  • Miech, Richard A., Johnston, Lloyd, O'Malley, Patrick M., Bachman, Jerald G., Schulenberg, John, Patrick, Megan E.. Trends in use of and attitudes toward marijuana among youth before and after decriminalization: The case of California 2007-2013. International Journal of Drug Policy.2015.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.009 (DOI)
  • Johnston, L.D., O’Malley, P.M., Bachman, J.G., Schulenberg, J.E., Miech, R.A.. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975–2013: Volume 2, College Students and Adults Ages 19–55. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. 2014.
    • ID: (URL)

Update Metadata: 2015-08-05 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-07-01

Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E. (2014): Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (8th- and 10th-Grade Surveys), 2013. Version 1. Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series. Version: v1. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset.