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The foreign population in the German Empire, 1871 - 1932

Version
1.0.0
Resource Type
Dataset
Creator
  • Franzmann, Gabriele
Publication Date
2015-11-02
Language
German
Classification
  • ZA:
    • Historical Studies Data
Description
  • Abstract

    Topic of the Data Compilation: The history of Germany is characterized by immigration and emigration as a mass movement not only since the beginning of the Federal Republic. Migration has a long tradition in Germany. The reasons for this are substantially the same for centuries: The pursuit of a better life for themselves or for the descendants, the fear of political, ethnic or religious persecution, or the forcible expulsion. In addition there were, especially in the first half of the 20th century millions of forced migrations during and in the aftermath of two world wars. (see: Sächsisches Staatsministerium für Soziales, www.soziales.sachsen.de/open). Firstly, the immigration made under demographical points of view no appreciable impact on Germany. M. Hubert notes in his publication, that still in 1871 in the German Empire the foreign population accounted 0.5% of the total population. But forty years later there are 1259873 foreign persons in the German Empire, that is almost 2% of the German population. (M. Hubert (1998): Deutschland im Wandel. Stuttgart, S. 202) The issue of immigration to Germany can be viewed under various aspects. Firstly, the state of the foreign population as well as origin and geographical distribution of immigrants in Germany is of interest. Naturalization processes and deportations may be an indicator of the success of integration. The entry from overseas into the German Empire - not to be confused with the actual immigration - is a first indication of the attractiveness of Germany. A special chapter is the subject area of foreign workers in the German Empire, their mediation and the granting of work legitimization by the German Center for Foreign Workers (Deutsche Arbeiterzentrale). These data have to be seen in the context of the foreign workers’ treatment by German institutions, whose attempt was to complicate a permanent stay of foreign workers in the German Empire, or even to prevent it. Period and territory of the data compilation: Due to the available sources, the data compilation begins in 1871, when a uniform official statistics for the German Empire came into existence. The German Empire censuses were held in 1871 and from 1875 to 1910 every five years, in which, inter alia, the level of the population incl. the foreigner has been detected. The data series of some tables start several years after 1871 because of the data conditions of the available sources. Therefore, for example, the naturalization processes can only be reported for the period of 1873-1885 for the German Empire and from 1874 – 1887 for Prussia; sometimes data for the German Empire only accessible for 1881-1885, because the cases have been reported in the statistical yearbooks for the German Empire only for short periods. A deeper research using other statistical sources was not possible in the context of our Institution, which is mainly an Archive. Longer series can be collected from other printed sources. So for example, offer the editions of the royal Prussian statistical office magazine, issues 14 (1874) to 29 (1887) [in german: “Zeitschrift des königlich preußischen Statistischen Büreaus, Jg. 14 (1874) to Jg. 29 (1887)] information on the naturalizations in Prussia. Another interesting source are the documents of the Secret State Archives Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation [in german: “Urkunden des Geheimen Staatsarchivs Preußischer Kulturbesitz (I. HA, Rep.77, Tit. 227, Nr. 4, Beihefte 1-28 für 1892-1918)”]. Because of the limited time available the procurement of these sources or the consultation of those resources on site was not possible. The data collection ends with the year 1932, before Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor on January 30th, in 1933. The geographical territory of the data compilation is the German Empire and its single states in their respective borders. This means, that changing borders and therefore territorial changes during the reporting period must be considered. This issue is gaining importance particular in the context of foreign migrant workers and their placement or stay by regions in the German Empire. In addition, the number of foreign workers by region in the German Reich is reported not only by the political boundaries of the German states and provinces, but also by the districts’ borders of the employment office districts. Moreover, the provinces of West Prussia and Posen have suffered large losses of territory in consequence of the Greater Poland Uprising (also called Posnanian War) in the years 1918 to 1919, so that from the remaining territories of the two provinces the new Prussian province called ‘Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia’ (or Posen-Westpreußen frontier province) was founded. The Posen-West Prussia frontier province existed in the federation of the German Empire between 1922 and 1938. Subtopics of data compilation The data compilation is divided into 5 subject areas. A. Population in general The population at the time of the German Empire until 1870 experienced the first phase of demographic transition characterized by a doubling of the German population in the period 1815-1870. As M. Hubert noticed (1998, Deutschland im Wandel, S. 30), the long-term stable and parallel running fertility and mortality rates led to a population increase caused by birth surplus. Until 1870 the immigration posed a subordinate role for Germany, which has changed fundamentally for years thereafter, because there was a significant increase in the foreign population until shortly before the 1st World War. Prussia became during the two decades before the first World War the world´s second most important country of immigration after the USA. „Preußen-Deutschland entwickelte sich in den zwei Jahrzehnten vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg weltweit zum zweitwichtigsten Zuwanderungsland nach den USA.“ (Oltmer, J. (2013), Migration im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, S. 32) The result of the census in 1900 illustrates a sharp increase in the foreign population as a whole. The data in this compilation to point A relate to the Population of the German Empire since 1871 and stems from the population censuses. Furthermore, for the report of Germany’s population development the study of Michael Hubert (1998) and the Statistical Yearbook of Prussia were used as sources. B. Foreign population by nationality and by German states The development of the values of the foreign population suggests that there is an immigration stream (M. Huber, S. 202). In this context it is interesting, in which regions of Germany the foreign population settled as well as what nations and regions they came from. The information on countries of origin as well as about the German states the foreign population has settled have been taken from the various editions of the Statistical Yearbook for the German Reich and based on the results of censuses. C. Naturalization, loss or surrender of German nationality Naturalization issues had a high political priority towards the end of the Weimar Republic. At the time of the German Empire the question of naturalization were also settled at the highest political authorities and today, at the time of the Federal Republic of Germany, this question of naturalization is one of the most conflictual domestic issues. To understand today´s conflicts concerning naturalization issues and their causes in all their complexity, it is essential to consider the phenomenon as a historical one. (Trevisiol, O. (2004): Die Einbürgerungspraxis im Deutschen Reich 1871-1945. Seite 3. Dissertation. KOPS – Das institutionelle Repositorium der Universität Konstanz, Suche im Bestand ‚Geschichte und Soziologie‘, WEB: http://d-nb.info/974206237/34 ) The institution of nationality emerged with the development of the modern state in the early 19th century. (see Gosewinkel, D. (2001): Einbürgern und Ausschließen; Trevisiol, O. (2004): Die Einbürgerungspraxis im Deutschen Reich 1871-1945). The institution of nationality marks the transition from a territorial state to a state as an association of persons (= Personenverbands-Staat). The assignment of rights and obligations is now tied to the nationality and no longer to the place of residence. Apart from the general conscription, civil rights incl. the right to vote or claims for assistance in emergencies are linked with the citizenship. Naturalization must always be seen in connection with the integration of migrants. The treatment with naturalization petitions also permits a statement about the degree of openness of the majority society. (see: Trevisiol (2004), Einbürgerungspraxis im Deutschen Reich, S. 5, d-nb.info/974206237/34) The information gathered in the present data compilation is taken from the various editions of the Statistical Yearbook of the German Empire. In this source the subject of naturalization has been assigned a subordinate role, which means that the documentation of naturalization processes is reported only for a relatively short period (1873-1885 for the German Empire and 1874-1887 for Prussia; documentation incl. the reason for naturalization even just 1881-1885) in the yearbooks. Nevertheless, the information has been recorded in the data compilation at hand and this data should be seen as an incentive for further data collection on this topic. The study by Oliver Trevisiol provides valuable information about data sources, containing statistics on naturalizations for each provinces and countries of the German Empire. D. Entry from overseas into the German Empire At the time of the German Empire an immigration statistics has not been conducted. Therefore there are no values for this issue. First documentations and lists concerning entering persons into the German Empire (to be distinguished from actual immigrants) were only conducted since 1904 by shipping companies, which dealt with passenger carriage from overseas to Bremen, Hamburg and Emden. In these passenger lists the persons carried by the companies to Germany were listed, structured into cabins passengers and steerage passengers. Since 1924 age, gender and destination of travel has been conducted. In cases, were the collection of travel destination was not possible, the nationality of the traveler has been gathered. Due to difficulties of collecting the information of the passengers, it was decided to collect the statistics of entering persons since January 1930 only in the following design: - Number of entering persons, divided into gender and shipping class - Number of entering persons, divided into the following age-classes: less than 1 Year, 1Year until less than 10 Years, older than 10 Years. - Region of origin divided into the following way: from European ports, from North America, from Middle America, from South America, from Africa, from Asia, from Australia and New Zeeland. - Nationality, divided into: Germen Empire, Great Britain, rest of Europe, British-North-America, United States of America, Mexico, Middle-America and Western India together; Argentina and Brazil together, rest of South American states together, Africa, Asia and Australia together, stateless persons and cases without specification together. (see: Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, Band 393, Die Bewegung der Bevölkerung in den Jahren 1928 und 1929, S. 103, Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, Band 441, S. 76) The tables with information about entering persons from overseas into the German Empire of the data compilation at hand has been conducted from several issues of the Statistik des Deutschen Reichs (= Statistics of the German Empire). According to the collection problems of that time, these statistics cannot offer in-depth information in their level of detail. The most detailed information regarding the age groups have been collected by Hamburg, but only for a short period (1925-1929). General information on the number of those entering persons, differentiated by port of entry and the ship class, are available for the period from 1904 to 1932. Even the very general subdivision of entering people divided into people with German nationality and foreigners has only been gathered for the period of 1927-1932. E. Foreign Workers in the German Empire Since the 1880s, the demand for labor in the German Empire grew immensely. The massive industrialization process led to an increasing demand for workers, which neither could be covered by the local working force of the cities nor by the immigration of German rural population into the cities. Even before the First World War in Germany were located more than a million foreign migrant workers. In the period of prosperity since the 1890s the number of foreign workers employed in the German economy grew very strongly and reached on the eve of World War I around 1.2 million people. The main groups in Prussia has been persons from Poland employed in agriculture and persons from Italy, who found employment especially in brick factories and in civil engineering, but also in mining and industrial production. In the last decade before the First World War, the number of foreign workers in Prussia rose sharply from around 605.000 to 901.000. (see: Oltmer, J. (2013), Migration im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, S. 32) First of all, the proportion of foreigners is particularly high in the industrial regions (Kingdom of Saxony and Rhineland). In all regions, where a strong expansion of industry occurred, an increased demand for unskilled labor force developed, the immigration of foreign workers gained in importance. On the other hand there was a significant proportion of foreigners in highly agricultural regions. Considering the geographical origin of the foreign workers, four countries are particularly well represented. Foreign workers coming from Austria-Hungary represented the largest share of all foreigners lived in the German Empire. In this context it must be pointed out that persons, who came from Austria-Hungary belonged to different nationalities (Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, and Poles from former Polish territories fell to Austria in 1795 and 1815). Persons from Netherlands were another significant proportion of immigrants as well as persons who came from Russia. Immigrants came from Russia at that time were characterized by different nationalities – similar to the case of immigrants from Austria-Hungary. Many Poles came from Russia, because they lived in former Polish territories, which were under Russian administration since the Congress of Vienna in 1814/1815. Another significant group among the immigrants were the Italians, who settled mainly in southern and western Germany. However, the rigorous control by the “Deutsche Arbeiterzentrale” (German Workers’ Center) made immigration for foreign workers difficult. The “Deutsche Arbeiterzentrale” was founded with the aim to hamper permanent immigration. The data series collected on this topic are taken partly from various editions of the Statistical Yearbook for the German Empire. Secondly, data were taken from the following scientific publications: Elsner/Lehmann (1988): Ausländische Arbeiter unter dem deutschen Imperialismus, 1900 bis 1985. Berlin: Dietz Verlag. Oltmer, Jochen (2005): Migration und Politik in der Weimarer Republik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht. Data tables in HISTAT (Topic: Population (Bevölkerung), Data- description is offered in German): A. Population in general A.01 Population in general and foreign population in the German Empire, 1871-1933. A.02 Mean population, marriages, births, and deaths (number and ratio) for the German Empire and Prussia, 1817-1933 B. Foreign Population by nationality and by German states B.01 Foreign Population by nationality and by German states: Ausländische Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und nach deutschen Staaten: summarizing overview, 1871-1939 B.02 Foreign Population by nationality and by gender: differentiating overview according to the statistical yearbook, 1871-1939 B.03 Foreign Population in the German Empire by German regions,1875-1939 C. Naturalizations and surrender of German Nationality C.01 Naturalization by country of origin of the naturalized, 1873-1885 C.02 Admitted persons from abroad by reason of admission, 1881-1885 C.03 Germans released into foreign countries by destination country (surrender of German Nationality), 1873-1885 C.04 Released or expelled persons from the German Empire by reason of release or expulsion, 1881-1885 C.05 Prussia: Naturalization and loss of Prussian nationality of persons stemming from other German states and of persons from abroad, 1874-1887 D. Entry from overseas to the German Empire D.01a From overseas arriving persons by the ports of entry in Hamburg and Bremen and by shipping class, 1904-1932 D.01b From overseas arriving persons by the ports of entry in Hamburg and Bremen, by shipping class, and differentiated into German persons and foreigners, 1927-1932 D.02 Distribution of the incoming persons across the ports of entry Hamburg and Bremen, 1913, 1921-1932 D.03 From overseas arriving persons in Hamburg by age groups, 1925-1932 D.04 From overseas reentering persons with German nationality by age and gender, 1925-1929 E. Foreign workers in the German Empire: E.01 Foreign Workers in Prussia by nationality, 1906-1914 E.02 Foreign Workers in Prussia by Prussian provinces, 1906-1914 E.03 Foreign Workers in Prussia by the sectors agriculture and industry and by citizenship and country of origin, 1906-1914 E.04 Foreign Workers in Prussian provinces in agriculture and in industry, 1906-1914 E.05 Foreign Workers in the German Empire according to the information of the ‚Deutsche Arbeiterzentrale‘ (German Workers‘ Center, 1908-1932 E.06 Licensed foreign workers of the German Empire by nationality, 1910-1938 E.07 Whereabouts and employment sector of foreign workers in the German Empire by employment office districts (Arbeitsamtsbezirke), 1922-1933 E.08 Placement of foreign worker by the ‚Deutsche Arbeiterzentrale‘ (German Workers‘ Center) in the German Empire, 1919-1931 E.09a-01 Placement of foreign agricultural workers by German countries as destination of the placement and by gender of the foreign workers, 1910-1931 E.09a-02 Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers in the German Empire, 1910-1931 E.09b East-Prussia: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to East-Prussia, 1910-1931 E.09c West-Prussia: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to West-Prussia, 1910-1931 E.09d Brandenburg: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Brandenburg, 1910-1931 E.09e Pomerania: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Pomerania, 1910-1931 E.09f Posen: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Posen, 1910-1931 E.09g Silesia: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Silesia, 1910-1931 E.09h Prussian Province Saxony-Anhalt: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Saxony-Anhalt, 1910-1927 E.09i Lower Saxony: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Lower Saxony (before: Kingdom of Hannover, Duchy of Braunschweig, Great Duchy of Oldenburg, Lippe, Bremen), 1910-1931 E.09j-01 Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Hamburg and Luebeck: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Hamburg and Luebeck, 1910-1931 E.09j-02 Employment office district Nordmark: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to the district Nordmark, 1928-1931 E.09k-01 Employment office district Westphalia: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to the district Westphalia, 1910-1931 E.09k-02 Employment office district Rhineland: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to the district Rhineland, 1921-1931 E.09k-03 Employment office districtHesse: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to the district Hesse (Hesse and Hesse-Nassau), 1921-1931 E.09l Kingdom of Saxony and Thuringia: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to the Kingdom of Saxony and Thuringia, 1910-1931 E.09m Bavaria, Wuerttemberg, Baden, Hesse and Alsace-Lorraine: Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to Bavaria, Wuerttemberg, Baden, Hesse and Alsace-Lorraine, 1910-1931 E.09n Employment office district Mitteldeutschland (Central Germany): Country of origin and gender of foreign agricultural workers, who were sent to the district ‘Central Germany’ (Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia), 1910-1931
Temporal Coverage
  • 1871 / 1932
Geographic Coverage
  • German Reich (1871-1945) (DXDE)
    German Empire in its respective borders
Collection Mode
  • Sources: Scientific Publications; official Statistics: Max Broesike (1904), Rückblick auf die Entwicklung der preußischen Bevölkerung von 1875 bis 1900, Preußische Statistik 188, S. 12-14. Elsner/Lehmann (1988): Ausländische Arbeiter unter dem deutschen Imperialismus, 1900 bis 1985. Berlin: Dietz Verlag. Hubert, Michel (1998): Deutschland im Wandel. Geschichte der deutschen Bevölkerung seit 1815. Stuttgart: Steiner. Köbler, Gerhard (2007): Historisches Lexikon der deutschen Länder. Die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. München: Beck. Königlich Preußisches Statistisches Landesamt: Statistisches Jahrbuch für den Preußischen Staat, 13. Jahrgang, Berlin 1916 und 16. Jahrgang, Berlin 1920. Königlich Statistisches Bureau in Berlin: Preußische Statistik (Amtliches Quellenwerk), Heft 139. Die Sterblichkeit nach Todesursachen und Altersklassen der Gestorbenen sowie die Selbstmorde und die tödlichen Verunglückungen im preußischen Staate während des Jahres 1894. Berlin, 1896. Königlich Statistisches Bureau in Berlin: Preußische Statistik, Heft 188: Rückblick auf die Entwicklung der preußischen Bevölkerung von 1875 bis 1900. Berlin, 1904, S. 105. Oltmer, Jochen (2005): Migration und Politik in der Weimarer Republik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck&Ruprecht. Preußisches Statistisches Landesamt: Statistisches Jahrbuch für den Freistaat Preußen, Statistisches Jahrbuch für den Freistaat Preußen, 17. Band, 1921 und 29. Band, 1933. Stat. Bundesamt (Hrsg.): Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. Fachserie 1, Reihe 2. Ausländische Bevölkerung. Ausgabe 2013, S. 26, Tabelle 1. Stat. Reichsamt (Hrsg.): Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich, verschiedene Jahrgänge: Jg. 1880 bis Jg. 1941/42. Stat. Reichsamt (Hrsg.): Statistik des Deutschen Reichs: Band 360, Band 393, Band 441. Trevisiol, O.: Die Einbürgerungspraxis im Deutschen Reich 1871-1945. Diss. 2004. Tab. 1, S. 20 und Tab. 4, S. 24. KOPS – Das institutionelle Repositorium der Universität Konstanz, Suche im Bestand ‘Geschichte und Soziologie‘, WEB: http://d-nb.info/974206237/34 Further literature Bade, Klaus J. (2002): Europa in Bewegung. Migration vom späten 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. München: Beck. Gosewinkel, Dieter (2001): Einbürgern und Ausschließen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. Oltmer, Jochen (2012): Globale Migration. Geschichte und Gegenwart. München: Beck. Oltmer, Jochen (2013): Migration im 19. Und 20. Jahrhundert. München: Oldenbourg. wikipedia.org
Data and File Information
  • Number of Variables: 1060
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Alternative Identifiers
  • ZA8616 (Type: ZA-No.)
Publications
  • histat-online-Publikation

Update Metadata: 2017-12-29 | Issue Number: 2 | Registration Date: 2015-11-02

Franzmann, Gabriele (2015): Die ausländische Bevölkerung im Deutschen Reich, 1871 - 1932. Version: 1.0.0. GESIS Datenarchiv. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.12369