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ANES 1992 Time Series Study

Version
v3
Resource Type
Dataset : survey data
Creator
  • Miller, Warren E. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
  • Kinder, Donald R. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
  • Rosenstone, Steven J. (University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies)
  • University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies
Other Title
  • Version 3 (Subtitle)
Collective Title
  • American National Election Study (ANES) Series
Publication Date
1993-04-30
Funding Reference
  • National Science Foundation
Language
English
Free Keywords
Bush Administration (1989-1993); candidates; Clinton, Bill; congressional elections; domestic policy; economic conditions; foreign policy; government performance; immigration policy; national elections; Perot, Ross; Persian Gulf War; political affiliation; political attitudes; political campaigns; political efficacy; political issues; political participation; presidential elections; presidential performance; public approval; public opinion; trust in government; voter expectations; voter history; voting behavior
Description
  • Abstract

    This study is part of a time-series collection of national electoral surveys fielded continuously since 1948. The American National Election Studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The 1992 National Election Study entailed both a pre- and a post-election interview. Approximately half of the study cases are empaneled respondents who were first interviewed in the AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY, 1990: POST-ELECTION SURVEY (ICPSR 9548) and later in the AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: 1990-1991 PANEL STUDY OF THE POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WAR/1991 PILOT STUDY (ICPSR 9673). The other half of the cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. The panel component of the study design provides an opportunity to examine how the changing fortunes of the Bush presidency - from the high levels of approval at the start of the Gulf War to the decline in popularity after the onset of an economic recession - affected voting in the November 1992 presidential election. It also permits analysts to investigate the origins of the Clinton and Perot coalitions as well as changes in the public's political preferences over the two years preceding the 1992 election. The 1990 Post-election Survey used two forms of the data collection instrument, with about 75 percent of the content being the same on both forms. The survey included the standard National Election Studies battery of questions, along with items on presidential performance and the Persian Gulf conflict. Additionally, Form A contained questions relating to values and individualism, while Form B had items about foreign relations. In 1991, panel respondents were re-interviewed several months after the end of hostilities in the Persian Gulf, and in this second wave the survey repeated a subset of questions from the 1990 Post-election Survey, along with additional items especially relevant to the Gulf War. A number of contextual variables are also provided, including summary variables that compare the respondent's recall of his or her senator's and representative's vote on the use of force with that congressperson's actual vote. The content of the 1992 Election Study reflects its dual purpose, as a traditional presidential election year time-series survey and the third wave of a panel study. In addition to the standard or core content items, respondents were asked about their positions on social issues such as altruism, abortion, the death penalty, prayer in schools, the rights of homosexuals, sexual harassment, women's rights, and feminism. Other substantive themes included racial and ethnic stereotypes, opinions on school integration and affirmative action, attitudes toward immigrants (particularly Hispanics and Asians), opinions on immigration policy and bilingual education, assessments of the United States' foreign policy goals, and the United States' involvement in the Persian Gulf War. DS2: Nonresponse Bias Data File was designed to facilitate analyses of the causes and consequences of non-response. Of the 3,690 cases presented in the file, 2,485 are complete or partial interviews, 497 are refusals, 64 are no-contact, 213 are other types of non-interviews, and 431 are non-sample cases (including households without an eligible respondent).
  • Methods

    DS1: Main Data File: V923008 is a full-sample weight that compensates for unequal probabilities of selection for different size households, and for differential non-response across geographic sample design categories and between panel and cross-section respondents. It is post-stratified by age and sex. V923009 is a corresponding weight for use with the panel alone. V927000, the "time series" weight, adjusts only for panel aging and attrition, and should be used when comparing the panel cases or the total sample to previous unweighted studies. There are no weight variables in DS2: Nonresponse Bias Data File
  • Methods

    ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection: Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes..
  • Methods

    Response Rates: The sample consisted of 1,769 respondents who had previously been interviewed in the 1990 ANES (the 1992 panel respondents), together with 1,515 fresh cross-section cases, for an eligible total of 3,284. Of these, 2,485 completed pre-election interviews (1,359 panel, 1,126 fresh cross-section), and 2,255 were re-interviewed in the post-election interview (1,250 panel, 1,005 fresh cross-section).
  • Table of Contents

    Datasets:

    • DS0: Study-Level Files
    • DS1: Main Data File
    • DS2: Nonresponse Bias Data File
Temporal Coverage
  • 1990 / 1992
    Time period: 1990--1992
  • 1990-11-06 / 1991-01-26
    Collection date: 1990-11-06--1991-01-26
  • 1991-06-04 / 1991-07-31
    Collection date: 1991-06-04--1991-07-31
  • 1992-09-01 / 1992-11-02
    Collection date: 1992-09-01--1992-11-02
  • 1992-11-04 / 1993-01-13
    Collection date: 1992-11-04--1993-01-13
Geographic Coverage
  • United States
Sampled Universe
All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 6, 1990 (for those interviewed in 1990 and 1991), and on or before November 3, 1992 (for those interviewed in 1992 and 1993), residing in housing units other than military reservations in the 48 coterminous states. Smallest Geographic Unit: congressional district
Sampling
A national multistage area probability sample was employed for the 1990 Post-election Survey and the 1992 Pre- and Post-election Surveys. For the 1990-1991 Panel Study of the Political Consequences of the War, 615 respondents were not re-interviewed either due to panel mortality (e.g., they had moved or died), or were effectively non-sample for telephone re-interview because they were extremely hard of hearing, could not be reached by telephone, or needed to be interviewed in a language other than English.
Collection Mode
  • face-to-face interview, telephone interview

    For further information please see the ANES Data Center Web site.

Note
2016-06-23 The SPSS and SAS setup files as well as the SPSS system file and the SAS transport file were updated. Stata setups and a Stata system file, a tab-delimited data file, and an R data file were added to the collection. The individual codebooks and data collection instruments previously available for each dataset were updated and combined into single files to accompany both datasets.2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.1999-11-02 The data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) year prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables have also been added. The codebook and SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been revised to reflect these changes and to incorporate changes previously noted in the April 1994 errata. In addition, the data collection instruments are now available as PDF files. Users should note that the frequencies are no longer being distributed with this collection. Funding insitution(s): National Science Foundation (SES-8808361, SOC77-08885, SOC77-8341310, andSES-8808361).
Availability
Download
This study is freely available to ICPSR member institutions via web download.
Alternative Identifiers
  • 6067 (Type: ICPSR Study Number)
Relations
  • Is new version of
    DOI: 10.3886/ICPSR06067.v2
Publications
  • Boatright, Robert G.. Who are the spatial voting violators?. Electoral Studies.27, (1), 116-125.2008.
    • ID: 10.1016/j.electstud.2007.11.008 (DOI)
  • Bolce, Louis, DeMaio, Gerald. A prejudice for the thinking classes - Media exposure, political sophistication, and the anti-Christian Fundamentalist. American Politics Research.36, (2), 155-185.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X07309601 (DOI)
  • Brewer, Paul R.. Value war: public opinion and the politics of gay rights. Lanham, MD: Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2008.
  • D'Ambrosio, Lisa Anne. An exploration of people's emotional reactions to presidential candidates during the campaign. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2008.
  • Dolan, Kathleen. Is there a 'Gender Affinity Effect' in American politics? Information, affect, and candidate sex in US house elections. Political Research Quarterly.61, (1), 79-89.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1065912907307518 (DOI)
  • Dow, Jay. Religious Faith and Voter Turnout in the 1992-2004 Presidential Election Cycles. the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2008.
  • Dyck, Joshua, Hussey, Laura. Context, Race, and Attitudes About Welfare. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Fischer, Elaine. A Gendered Calculus of Voter Turnout. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Fischer, Elaine. A Gendered Calculus of Voting. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Gilbert, Craig. Keys to the Oval Office. McClatchy - Tribune Business News.2008.
  • Goren, Paul. The Two Faces of Government Spending. Political Research Quarterly.61, (1), 1472008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1065912907311881 (DOI)
  • Griffin, John D., Newman, Brian. Assessing the Rewards of Voting Across Groups. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Kam, Cindy. Reaching out or pulling back: Macroeconomic conditions and public support for social welfare spending . Political Behavior.30, (2), 223-258.2008.
    • ID: 10.1007/s11109-007-9048-3 (DOI)
  • Killian, Mitchell, Wilcox, Clyde. Do Abortion Attidudes Lead to Party Switching?. Poltical Research Quarterly.61, (4), 561-573.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1065912907312981 (DOI)
  • Leighley, Jan, Nagler, Jonathan. Measuring and Modeling Alienation, Indifference and Turnout in U.S. Presidential Elections. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • McKee, Seth C.. Redistricting, Candidate Familiarity, and Turnout in U.S. House Elections. 2008 annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2008.
  • Mckee, Seth C.. Redistricting and familiarity with U.S. House candidates. American Politics Research.36, (6), 962-979.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X08322881 (DOI)
  • Olson, Laura R., Warber, Adam L.. Belonging, Behaving, and Believing: Assessing the Role of Religion on Presidential Approval. Political Research Quarterly.61, (2), 192-204.2008.
    • ID: 10.1177/1065912907313075 (DOI)
  • Parker-Stephen, Evan. Updating Dynamics in Micro-Macro Perspective. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Prysby, Charles, Holian, David. Who Votes On the Basis of the Candidate's Personality? Vote Choice in U.S. Presidential Elections, 1992-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Shani, Danielle. Born in the USA: Doubts about the Role of Formative Events in Developing Political Interest. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Stokes-Brown, Atiya Kai, Doman, Kathleen. Black and Female Like Me: The Impact of Candidate Race and Gender in Congressional Elections. 2008 annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2008.
  • Theriault, Sean, Hickey, Patrick, Myers, Adam. First-in-the-Nation in Proficiency or by Providence? Iowa, New Hampshire and the Presidential Primary Process. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Boston, MA. 2008.
  • Ang, Adrian. Who Would Jesus Bomb? The Religious Impulse, Public Opinion, and Foreign Policy Attitudes. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Bennett, Stephen Earl. Another Look at Nonvoting's Implications for Democracy in America. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Bittner, Amanda. Survey Structure, Measurement Effects, and the Evaluation of Party Leaders. Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Chapp, Christopher. Religious Campaign Rhetoric: The Consequences of Religious Language on Presidential Candidate Evaluations. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • D'Ambrosio, Lisa Anne. An exploration of people's emotional reactions to presidential candidates during the campaign. Dissertation, University of Michigan. 2007.
  • DeWitt, Jeff. Considering Congressional Candidates and Incumbency Advantage in U.S. House Elections, 1980-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Enns, Peter. The Micro Foundations of Macro Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Goren, Paul. The Two Faces of Government Spending. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Kershaw, David. Conditional Nature of Vote Recruitment. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Killian, Mitchell. Moments of doubt and reassessment: An examination of why individuals switch political parties. Dissertation, George Washington University. 2007.
  • Lacy, Dean, Christenson, Dino. The Effects of Information on Economic Voting. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Lawrence, Christopher. Should Voters Be Encyclopedias? Measuring the Relative Performance of Sophistication Indicators. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Lipsitz, Keena. The Consequences of Battleground and 'Spectator' State Residency for Political Participation. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • McAdams, John. The Rise of the New Class: 1956-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
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  • Reed, Daniel. Parties, Interest Groups, and the Effectiveness of Voter Contacting: 1956 to 2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Ulrich, Justin, Garand, James. The Economy, Subjective Economic Evaluations, and the Presidential Vote. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2007.
  • Carmines, Edward, Ensley, Michael, Wagner, Michael. Issue Preferences and Political Participation in American Politics, 1972-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Goldman, Seth, Brewer Paul. Implicit Influence in Communication: The Case of Gay Marriage. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Gray, Mark M., Perl, Paul M., Bendyna, Mary E.. Camelot only comes but once? John F. Kerry and the Catholic vote. Presidential Studies Quarterly.36, (2), 203-222.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00299.x (DOI)
  • Lau, Richard. Changing Patterns of the Presidential Vote Choice, 1980-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Layman, Geoffrey C., Green, John C.. Wars and rumours of wars: The contexts of cultural conflict in American political behaviour. British Journal of Political Science.36, (1), 61-89.2006.
    • ID: 10.1017/S0007123406000044 (DOI)
  • Lockerbie, Brad. Economics and Politics: Egocentric or Sociotropic?. The American Review of Politics.27, 191-208.2006.
  • Oyamot, Clifton M. Jr.. Can Values Moderate the Attitudes of Right-Wing Authoritarians?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.32, (4), 486-500.2006.
    • ID: 10.1177/0146167205278308 (DOI)
  • Suthammanont, Christina Marie. A land of opportunity? How perception of financial prospects affect racial and ethnic groups' political participation. Dissertation, Texas A&M University. 2006.
  • Valentino, Nicholas, Hutchings, Vincent, Gregorowicz, Krysha, Groenendyk, Eric W., Brader, Ted. Election Night's All Right for Fighting: The Role of Anger versus Anxiety in Political Participation. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2006.
  • Van heerde, Jennifer, Johnson, Martin, Bowler, Shaun. Barriers to Participation, Voter Sophistication and Candidate Spending Choices in US Senate Elections. The British Journal of Political Science.36, (4), 745-758.2006.
  • Winter, Nicholas J. G.. Beyond Welfare: Framing and the Radicalization of White Opinion on Social Security. American Journal of Political Science.50, (2), 400-420.2006.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00191.x (DOI)
  • Adams, James, Merrill, Samuel, III. Candidates' policy platforms and election outcomes: The three faces of policy representation. European Journal of Political Research.44, (6), 8992005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1475-6765.2005.00252.x (DOI)
  • Bartels, Larry. What's the Matter with 'What's the Matter with Kansas?'. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Beck, Paul, Gunther, Richard, Smidt, Corwin. Communication and Mobilization in 2004: Intermediaries and Voters in the American Presidential Contest. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Belanger, Eric, Godbout, Jean-François. Economic Voting and Political Sophistication in the U.S.A Reassessment. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Branton, Regina P., Jones, Bradford S.. Reexamining Racial Attitudes: The Conditional Relationship Between Diversity and Socioeconomic Environment. American Journal of Political Science.49, (2), 3592005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.0092-5853.2005.00128.x (DOI)
  • Elder, Laurel, Greene, Steven. The Politics of Parenthood, 1972-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Philadelphia, PA. 2005.
  • Fitzgerald, Mary. The Triggering Effects of Alternative Voting Methods on U.S. Political Campaigns and Elections. annual meeting of the American National Election Studies.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Gold, Howard, Baumer, Donald. Party Images and Partisan Resurgence. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Gray, Mark, Perl, Paul, Bendyna, Mary E.. Camelot Only Comes but Once? John F. Kerry and the Catholic Vote. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Hainmueller, Jens, Hiscox, Michael. Learning to Love Globalization: Education and Individual Attitudes toward International Trade. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Hayes, Danny. Candidate Qualities through a Partisan Lens: A Theory of Trait Ownership. American Journal of Political Science.49, (4), 908-923.2005.
    • ID: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2005.00163.x (DOI)
  • Jacoby, William G.. Is It Really Ambivalence? Public Opinion Toward Government Spending. Ambivalence and the Structure of Political Opinion.New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. 2005.
  • Kelly, Nathan, Kelly, Jana Morgan. Religion and Latino Partisanship in the United States. Political Research Quarterly.58, (1), 872005.
  • Kilburn, H. Whitt. Does the Candidate Really Matter?. American Politics Research.33, (3), 335-356.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04269417 (DOI)
  • Knuckey, Jonathan. A New Front in the Culture War?: Moral Traditionalism and Voting Behavior in U.S. House Elections. American Politics Research.33, (5), 645-671.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04270517 (DOI)
  • Lewis, Carol W., Gilman, Stuart C.. The Ethics Challenge in Public Service: A Problem-Solving Guide. SanFrancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 2005.
  • MacKuen, Michael, Parker-Stephen, Evan. Affect, Accuray, and the Left Shift in American Politics. annual meeting of the American Political Science Assocation.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Martinez, Michael D., Craig, Stephen C., Kane, James G.. Pros and Cons: Ambivalence and Public Opinion. Ambivalence and the Structure of Political Opinion.New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. 2005.
  • O'Regan, Valerie R., Stambough, Stephen J., Thorson, Gary R.. Understanding the Changing Dynamics of the Gender Gap in American Presidential Elections, 1952-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Assocation.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Potthoff, Richard F., Munger, Michael C.. Voter Uncertainty Can Produce Preferences with More Than One Peak, but Not Preference Cycles: A Clue to the Fate of Ross Perot?. Journal of Politics.67, (2), 429-453.2005.
  • Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. Democracy in Immigrant America. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. 2005.
  • Schildkraut, Deborah J.. Press 'ONE' for English : Language Policy, Public Opinion, and American Identity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2005.
  • Shaw, Daron R., McKenzie, Mark J., Underwood, Jeffrey. Strategic Voting in the California Recall Election. American Politics Research.33, (2), 216-245.2005.
    • ID: 10.1177/1532673X04272230 (DOI)
  • Stanley, Harold W., Niemi, Richard G.. Partisanship, Party Coalitions, and Group Support, 1952-2004. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Warber, Adam L., Olson, Laura R.. Commander and Priest: Religious Leadership in the Modern White House. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Washington, D.C.. 2005.
  • Wong, Cara, Cho, Grace E.. Two-Headed Coins or Kandinskys: White Racial Identification. Political Psychology.26, (5), 6992005.
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  • Zanna, Mark P.. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press. 2005.
  • Bafumi, Joseph. The Macro Micro Link in Vote Choice Models: A Bayesian Multilevel Approach. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Bailey, Stanley R.. Group Dominance and the Myth of Racial Democracy: Antiracism Attitudes in Brazil. American Sociological Review.69, (5), 728-747.2004.
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  • Berinsky, Adam J.. Silent Voices: Public Opinion and Political Participation in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2004.
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  • Claassen, Ryan L.. Political Opinion and Distinctiveness: The Case of Hispanic Ethnicity. Political Research Quarterly.57, (4), 609-620.2004.
  • Condit, Celeste M., Parrott, Roxanne L., Harris, Tina M., Lynch, John, Dubriwny, Tasha. The Role of 'Genetics' in Popular Understandings of Race in the United States . Public Understanding of Science.13, (3), 249-272.2004.
    • ID: 10.1177/0963662504045573 (DOI)
  • Dolan, Kathleen A.. Voting for Women: How the Public Evaluates Women Candidates. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 2004.
  • Endersby, James W., Bough, Brian, Gooch, Donald, Hall, Steven, Klimek, Monika. The Polarizing American Voter Issues, Partisanship, and Vote Choice in Presidential Elections, 1984-2000. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Engberg, Mark E.. Improving Intergroup Relations in Higher Education: A Critical Examination of the Influence of Educational Interventions on Racial Bias. Review of Educational Research.74, (4), 473-524.2004.
    • ID: 10.3102/00346543074004473 (DOI)
  • Federico, Christopher. When Do Welfare Attitudes Become Racialized? The Paradoxical Effects of Education. American Journal of Political Science.48, (2), 374-391.2004.
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  • Fox, Cybelle. The Changing Color of Welfare? How Whites' Attitudes Toward Latinos Influence Support for Welfare. American Journal of Sociology.110, (3), 580-625.2004.
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  • Garand, James C., Wrzenski, Rhonda, Procopio, Steven. Explaining Support for Congressional Term Limits. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Gerrity, Jessica, Wagner, Michael, Carmines, Edward. The New Polarization in American Politics: Interest Groups, Mass Media and Contestation of the Abortion Issue. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Goolsby, Delia. Realignment of White Southerners: The Generational Replacement Hypothesis Revisited. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association.New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Goolsby, Delia. Regional Realignments? Sub-national Trends in Partisan Identification in the Northeast. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Gwiasda, Gregory W.. Ambivalence, Abstention and Independent Candidate Support. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Ha, Sungtae. Who Accepts the News? News Coverage of Presidential Campaigns, Voters' Information Processing Ability, and Media Effects Susceptibility. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. 2004.
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  • Knuckey, Jonathan. Moral Traditionalism and Recent Partisan Change in the American Electorate. annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association .New Orleans, LA. 2004.
  • Knuckey, Jonathan. The Culture War and Voting Behavior in U.S. House Elections. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Koch, Jeffrey. The Changing Black and White Divide on Americans' Attitudes toward Gays. annual meeting of the American Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Ladd, Jonathan, Lenz, Gabriel. Emotions and Voting Behavior: A Critique. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
  • Lawless, Jennifer. Politics of Prescence? Congresswomen and Symbolic Representation. Political Research Quarterly.57, 81-89.2004.
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  • Moffett, Ken, Manning, Eric. Information Effects in Collective Preferences: A Methodological Artifact?. annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.Chicago, IL. 2004.
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    • ID: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4150623 (URL)
  • Roeder, Mark A.. Explaining presidential approval: Persona versus 'real world' explanations. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati. 2004.
  • Steenbergen, Marco R., Brewer, Paul R.. The Not-So-Ambivalent Public: Policy Attitudes in the Political Culture of Ambilvalence. Studies in Public Opinion : Attitudes, Nonattitudes, Measurement Error, and Change.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 2004.
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Update Metadata: 2016-06-23 | Issue Number: 3 | Registration Date: 2015-11-10

Miller, Warren E.; Kinder, Donald R.; Rosenstone, Steven J.; University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies (1993): ANES 1992 Time Series Study. Version 3. American National Election Study (ANES) Series. Version: v3. ICPSR - Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research. Dataset. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06067.v3